International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences <p>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) is quarterly publishing online peer reviewed scientific journal sponsored by Pharmascope Publications. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, short communications, case studies and reports in&nbsp;Pharmaceutical Sciences.</p> en-US (Editor in Chief) (Manager Editor) Mon, 06 Jan 2020 11:34:19 +0000 OJS 60 Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in rotenone induced rat models of Parkinson’s disease <p>Parkinson disease (PD) is involved in the damage of neurons of the brain that secretes dopamine. Understanding the mechanisms involved in Parkinson's disease helps to develop effective management methods. Hence, the present work aimed to unravel to observe the variations, if any, in the parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant markers between oral and ip rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats weighing between 250-300g were housed in solid bottomed polypropylene cages under strict veterinary supervision and maintained in rooms with 12hrs light / dark cycle. The randomly selected male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups, with six rats in each group. The study results provide scientific evidence for marked changes in both the oxidative and anti-oxidant parameters, followed by the ip and po rotenone administration. It is the need of the time to consider the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties while developing the newer treatment modalities for the management of PD.</p> Suchitra Kavuri, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Awareness and Perception Of Cention Being Used As A Replacement For Amalgam Restoration <p>Cention N, a newer replacement for amalgam used in posterior restoration, has been proven to provide superior aesthetics and better retention in comparison to Amalgam. The study was carried among 150 Undergraduate, Postgraduate Students and staff in Saveetha Dental College. Each student and staff were asked to independently fill the survey, which consisted of questions related to Cention N&nbsp; being used as a replacement to Amalgam in posterior restorations. This study mainly gave us an idea of the extent of how many dental students and dental practitioners know about&nbsp; Cention N and it's a progressive increase from dental practitioners to postgraduates when compared to the final years. This can be accredited to increased awareness, knowledge and training into clinical practice and in-depth knowledge into various recent advancements in restorative material. Thought most of the students and staff seemed to be aware of Cention N, very few had used it in the clinical setup for treatment.</p> Kirtana Gopalasamy, Manish Ranjan Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnosis of Kidney Renal Cell Tumor through Clinical data mining and CT scan image processing: A Survey <p>This study deals with the systematic study of the mining of data and medical image-based CAD to classify or predict Kidney Renal (KRCC) tumors. Kidney tumors are of different types having different characteristics and have different methodologies to classify or predict tumor and its stages. KRCC is the most common type of cancer of the kidney, but there are others. Several factors may increase the risk of a person developing KRCC disease like smoking, obesity, High blood pressure, and many more. In almost all cases, only a single kidney is affected, but in rare cases, both can be affected by KRCC. As cancer grows, it may invade structures near the kidney, such as surrounding fatty tissue, veins, renal gland, or the liver. It might also spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones. It becomes essential to detect the KRCC tumor and classify it at the early stage to assist the pathologist in identifying the cause and severity of the tumor and in monitoring treatment. The pathologist examines the kidney diseases by using two different modes of data (Medical images and clinical databases). In this study, we reviewed different CAD tools to classify or predict KRCC tumor and its stages. For this study, two groups of methods that are data mining and medical image processing methods are selected. These methods allow the accurate quantification and classification of KRCC tumors from the clinical tools. Computer-assisted medical image and clinical database analysis show excellent potential for tumor diagnosis and monitoring.</p> Subarna Chatterjee, Kiran Rao P Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Flavonoids content of 70% methanolic extract of Erucaria pinnata (Viv.) and its effect as anticancer and antiangiognic: in vitro, in vivo and docking study <p><em>Erucaria pinnata</em> (Viv.) is a wild annual plant growing in North-Western Coastal Region in Egypt. This study reports for the first time the cytotoxic activity of different extracts of <em>Erucaria pinnata </em>plant against HEP-G2 cell line. The 70% methanolic extract (E1) recorded the best potent cytotoxic activity (IC<sub>50</sub>=13.6 µg/ml), so we analysis the flavonoids constituent of this extract using HPLC, which show that our extract is rich with important flavonoids compounds (rutin, quercetin, leutolin, etc.). We evaluated its antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (200mg/Kg. b.wt., i.p, single dose) after two weeks, animals received carbontetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) (3ml/Kg. b.wt., SC, once a week for 6 weeks) and the experiment continued for 44 weeks in rats. After the experimental period, the administration of DEN/CCl<sub>4</sub> showed significant increase in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) and significant decrease in the levels of total proteins and albumin content in the serum with reduction in the liver antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). This was accompanied by increases in serum specific tumor markers (AFP). The 70% methanolic plant extract (E1) was orally administrated (400mg/kg/day respectively) for the whole study period, and it showed a significant improvement at the different biological liver functions, remodeled the antioxidant enzymes activity and down-regulated the serum AFP. All these findings were confirmed by histopathological studies of the liver samples obtained from all groups. In addition, we evaluated its antiangeogenic activity by docking study against VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase after it showed an ability to inhibit the VEGFR-2 expression <em>in vitro</em> and inhibit the concentration of VEGF-A <em>in vivo</em>. The hepatoprotective effect of our extract was attributed to its antioxidant and antiangeogenic activity.</p> Nadia I. Zakhary, Emad E.H. El Gemeie, Adel K. Youssef, Marwa Abdel-salam Ibrahim Metwaly Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 03 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the use of levobupivacaine with dexamethasone versus plain levobupivacaine in patients undergoing forearm surgeries under an infraclavicular block - a double-blinded randomized controlled trial <p>Regional anesthesia can provide greater patient satisfaction. An infraclavicular approach to block the brachial plexus aided with ultrasound is proven to be safe. Lesser toxic, levobupivacaine, advocates its use, with the addition of dexamethasone, to prolong the action. After approval from the ethics committee, the consenting patients, for orthopedic forearm surgeries, were recruited, randomized into two groups of 20 patients. Group-A<strong>,</strong> received 30mls of 0.5% levobupivacaine with dexamethasone 4mgs(1ml) and Group-B,30mls of 0.5% levobupivacaine and 1ml normal saline.18-70 Year olds, ASA I-III, weight greater than or equal to 50 kg, were included and non-consenting, coagulopathic, local infection, pregnant women, general anesthesia requirement, less than 50kg, allergy to local anesthetic, were excluded. Both groups received the infraclavicular block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were noted. Comparisons made at 3 and 20 minutes. Required data was acquired. Visual Analogue Scale(VAS)used to assess pain. The onset of sensory and motor blockade was assessed and graded separately on radial, median and ulnar nerves, with significant findings of about 70-80% in Group-A at 4-5 minutes,80-87% complete at 20 minutes.87.5% Patients in both groups achieved adequate surgical anesthesia. There was a significant improvement in sensory grading of the median nerve and ulnar nerve between at 3 minutes and 20 minutes and also in motor grading improvement at 20 minutes duration in the Group-A than Group-B. Postoperatively, the VAS score showed scores hovering around 1-4, over 24 hours, with no difference, in scores, duration, and use of rescue analgesia in both arms. There were no statistical differences in the onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade in both groups, with some difference in the quality of analgesia between the nerves studied in group-A. Although a larger sample size might have brought out some difference in pain scores, with the addition of dexamethasone, its clinical implication is doubtful.</p> Anandbabu Medidi, Serina Ruth Salins Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 04 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nurses’ Perception of Factors Contributing to Medication Administration Errors <p>Safety and quality care of patients are key aspects and the mean goals of effective health care systems. The reality that medical treatment can harm patients is one that has had to be addressed by the healthcare community in recent years. This study aimed to explore nurses' perception of factors contributing to medication administration errors and reasons for which medication administration errors are not reporting. Descriptive exploratory cross-sectional design carried out to achieve the study aim. The study was conducted in two regional hospitals in Egypt. They had a total bed capacity of 512 beds distributed over three units (emergency, intensive care, and surgical units). A convenient sample of 146 nurses distributed in the morning and afternoon shifts in the units mentioned above was recruited in this study. Medication Administration Errors (MAEs) Reporting Scale used to collect data regarding the nurses' perception of factors contributing to the MAEs. The participants were ranked the most important factor for MAEs occur system reasons (24.73±1.46), followed by nurses staffing as the second reason of MAEs (24.11± 2.25). Third, fourth, and fifth-ranked reasons were physician communication (13.37± 2.7), medication packaging (12.84±1.87), transcription-related (8±0.1), respectively. Finally, pharmacy processes (6.9±2.93) viewed as the least factor for the frequency of MAE. The findings of the present study concluded seven perceived reasons for MAE, namely system reason, nurses' staffing, physician communication, medication packaging, transcription, and pharmacy process. The study recommended the development of active quality assurance systems in all health care environments concerning medications and drug administration.</p> Gehan Abd Elfattah Elasrag, Hana Mohammad Abu-Snieneh Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 04 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antifungal activity of hydroalcholic extract of Cynodon dactylon against dermatophytes <p>Plant-derived antifungal agents will always remain as area of interest for researchers to overcome the issues pertaining to resistance and harmful adverse effects associated with synthetic drugs. <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> is a well known plant which grows wildly and used for the treatment of many diseases like wounds, warts, cramps, measles and also tumors. This research was done as, till date no scientific evidence was accessible concerning the antifungal potential of the hydroalcholic extract of the whole plant. In the present work, antifungal potential of hydroalcholic extract of <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> was evaluated against <em>Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum </em>and <em>Microsporum gypseum</em>. The antifungal potential was evaluated by means of the agar well diffusion method. The diameter of the clear inhibition zone around the well was measured. The hydroalcholic extract of <em>Cynodon dactylon </em>had promising antifungal potential against all the tested fungal strains. Finally, it can be concluded from the calculated findings that hydroalcholic extract of the whole plant of <em>Cynodon dactylon </em>may be considered as a promising antifungal herbal plant and can be exploited as a great herbal resistance free source for treatment of various fungal infections.</p> Puneet Sudan, Manish Goswami, Jitender Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The examination of the water concentrates of laurus nobilis leaves antibacterial activity utilizing various strategies for extraction (in vitro) <p>The utilization of antimicrobials is essential to battle bacterial ailment. Yet, because of the expanding abuse of antimicrobial medications that are utilized in the treatment of infectious diseases, resistance by bacteria developed. The objective of the investigation is to detect the <em>in vitro</em> antibacterial impact of bay leaf water concentrates utilizing distinctive extraction strategies. The impact of water concentrates of bay leaf ( <em>Laurus noblis</em>) employing maceration and decoction extraction methods against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> were tested by “agar well diffusion” technique. The consequences of the investigation demonstrated insignificant differences between techniques for extractions. The study concludes that the <em>in vitro</em> antibacterial effect might be potentiated against test strains by using different methods for extraction and solvent systems, which might be helpful to defeat antimicrobial resistance.</p> Al-Ogaili N, Bilal R, Younis H, Khadim T Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Benefits of electronic prescriptions for administering medication and treatment, as compared to traditional written prescriptions <p>Addressing the controversies to drug therapy involves talking about and discussing emotional, cognitive, behavioural, and social problems. Also, several pieces of literature and comparative studies have been established to understand the intervention practices of medical staff in patient counselling in terms of improving patient care. But with limited knowledge in counselling-related studies, these issues can be tackled by qualified and knowledgeable pharmacists. The study aims to conduct relevant quantitative data to determine if pharmacists' role in counselling is of high essentiality towards medical care to promote public health and quality care. Also, the research topic revolves in establishing how much pharmacists' obligations are practical towards the patients' counselling. A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists (n-400) working in the Hail region hospitals in Saudi Arabia was conducted during May 2019. The survey infrastructure comprised of six different sections, gender, age, degree, profession, workplace, and experience. The qualitative data gathered was first explored using frequency distribution and descriptive analysis. The total pharmacist valid response (210) was accepted, and both genders contributed towards such results. Moreover, most of the pharmacists attested to the elements of lack of medical tools and proper training as a significant medical issue towards appropriate counselling approaches. Nonetheless, it was proven that leading problems that undermine the effectiveness of pharmacists towards promoting acute counselling were a lifestyle (mean of 2.96), smoking cessation (mean of 269), time to administer each drug (mean of 3.05), and missed a dose (mean of 2.05). Pharmacists that participated in this study were unanimous, specifically, on understanding the importance of the survey but reflected on considerable variations in their experience in counselling. Moreover, it was clear that the percentage of Saudi Arabia pharmacists are contributing perfectly. However, it is undeniable they might need additional assistance, training, and medical tools to provide enormous quality counselling to patients.</p> Alshammari Mohammad A, Alenzy Muhya T Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stability studies of hydralazine hydrochloride orodispersible formulations <p>Solid dosage forms also have a impervious difficulties in patients especially for geriatric and paediatric patients.Dysphagia is common among all age groups. Orodispersible formulations (Fast&nbsp; dissolving tablets &amp; Fast dissolving oral thin films) constitute an inventive dosage form that overcome the problems swallowing and provides speedy onset of action. The objective of present study was to formulate orodispersible formulations of Hydralazine HCL by different methods (Direct compression method, Sublimation method and solvent casting method). Based on physiochemical evaluations F9 (Direct compression method),SF9 (Sublimation method) for Fast dissolving tablets and H2 formulations (Solvent casting method) for Fast dissolving oral thin films were found optimized formula.The optimized formula were kept for stability under long term, accelerated and intermediate conditions for the study period of six months as per ICH guidelines.Based on stability reports the H2 formulations (Fast dissolving oral thin films) got a better drug release than Fast dissolving tablets.</p> Muthukumar, Sundaraganapathy R, Sankar C, Sundaramoorthy C, Yuvaraja K R Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bioanalysis and in-vivo studies of clarithromycin modified release solid dosage formulations by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy <p>The current study was undertaken to develop the new bioanalytical&nbsp;method and validation for determining&nbsp;Clarithromycin&nbsp;by LC-MS Method and as well as to conduct <em>in vivo</em> studies. Princeton&nbsp;octadecyl silane column&nbsp;(10 cm x 4.6 mm id, 5µm) used as adsorbent and cyanomethane: 0.5 % Methanoic acid was treated as the eluent for the separation of the analyte from the biological fluid in an isocratic&nbsp;mode having the ratio 60:40 % v/v and&nbsp;0.5 ml/min as flow rate, and injection volume was set as&nbsp;20 µl. APCI and the mass detected of Clarithromycin and Azithromycin (act as internal standard) was detected at 748.45 and 749.70, respectively. Developed bioanalytical methods have been used to quantify the Pharmacokinetic&nbsp;parameters like C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, AUC0-t&nbsp;&amp; AUC0<sub>-∞</sub>, K<sub>eli</sub>, and t<sub>1/2 </sub>studied and the values for reference formulation (3.382µg/ml, 7.333 h, 114.429µg.h/ml, 131.435µg.h/ml, 0.031 h<sup>-1</sup>, and 23.397h respectively) and the test formulation (3.847 µg/ml, 7.417 h, 132.318 µg.h/ml, 151.388 µg.h/ml, 0.031 h<sup>-1</sup>, and 23.187 h, respectively) were compared and found to be bioequivalent. Based on our study, the test formulation of Clarithromycin modified-release formulation containing 500 mg of Clarithromycin is Bioequivalent to that of the reference.&nbsp; Compare to our method (LC-MS) is simple, sensitive, precise as well as comparable with the reference formulation of the modified release product of clarithromycin 500 mg.</p> Nagarajan Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan, Elango Kannan Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A cross-sectional observational study on drug utilisation pattern, prevalence and risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients in a south indian tertiary care hospital <p>Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, and it is estimated that ~ 20% of type 2 diabetic patients reach ESRD during their lifetime. The objective of the present study was to assess the drug utilization pattern, risk factors, and prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a south Indian tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 613 subjects (254 with and 359 without diabetic nephropathy). Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was measured, and risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy were determined by calculating odds ratios using graph-pad prism statistical software, and drug utilization pattern was assessed. Nephropathy was significantly higher in subjects who are married (98.8%, OR, 3.903; 95% CI, 1.125-13.54, P=0.0211),&nbsp; poorly educated (61%, OR, 0.3670;95%CI, 0.2635-0.5112, P&lt;0.0001), house wives (44.4%, OR, 0.5492; 95% CI, 0.3432 - 0.8789, P=0.0120), rural residents (51.2%, OR, 0.3943; 95% CI, 0.2820-0.5513, P&lt;0.0001) and risk factors were hypertension (37.44%, OR, 4.131; 95% CI, 2.687-6.350, P&lt;0.0001), other diseases (36.51%, OR, 4.963; 95% CI, 3.202 -7.692, P&lt;0.0001), Endocrine diseases (9.53%, OR, 2.460; 95% CI, 1.433- 4.224, P=0.0009), history of CVD (7.90%, OR, 17.20; 95% CI, 7.049- 41.95, P&lt;0.0001), HbA1c (36.1%, OR, 3.380; 95% CI, 2.157- 5.295, P&lt;0.0001), low HDL (23%, OR, 0.5961; 95% CI, 0.3572 - 0.9947 , P=0.0470), high FBS levels (29.3%, OR, 6.111; 95%CI, 1.283 -29.10, P=0.0113), high triglyceride levels (39.8%, OR, 0.6077; 95%CI, 0.3878 -0.9523, P=0.0293), high serum creatinine (28.3%, OR, 154.3; 95% CI, 37.92- 627.7, P&lt;0.0001), duration of T2DM(5-10years 39.8%, OR, 2.653;95% CI, 1.778 - 3.958, &amp; &gt; 10 years 37%, OR, 3.606 ; 95% CI, 2.362-5.504, P&lt;0.0001), physical inactivity(64.9%, OR, 0.5188;95% CI, 0.3727-0.7220 , P&lt;0.0001), soft drinks occasionally (31.9%, OR, 2.253; 95% CI, 1.531-3.315, P&lt;0.0001), habit of taking tea /coffee twice without sugar(42.3%, OR, 1.845; 95% CI, 1.094 to 3.112, P=0.0208) were significant risk factors for development of nephropathy. Metformin (47.05%), a combination of Glimepiride and Metformin (30.71%), a combination of insulin isophane and insulin regular (29.41%), teneligliptin (10.45%), insulin regular (9.80%) were the anti-diabetic medications mostly given to the T2DM patients with nephropathy. The present study revealed that the risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy were multiple.</p> Madhavi Mannam, Lavanya Nalluri, Dhanalakshmi Pinnika, Mounika Pothuraju, Ravindrababu Pingili, Anjani Kumar C, Jaidev Sudagani, Naveen Babu Kilaru Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of a multicomponent exercise program on cognitive function and functional ability in community dwelling older adults <p>Normal aging results in alterations in the structure and function of the brain, causing impairment in cognitive function and dependency in performing activities of daily living. A multicomponent physical activity program has been recommended to maintain physical and cognitive function in elderly individuals. The present study aimed at measuring the effect of such an exercise program on the cognitive function and activities of daily living(ADL) function in community dwelling elderly individuals. 52 elderly adults living in the community and ambulating independently were selected purposively and underwent a 10-week multi-component exercise program which included aerobic exercise, strength training, balance exercises and functional training. The participants were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Barthel Index(BI) at baseline and every two weeks up till 10 weeks. The data obtained was analysed usind descriptive statistics and t-test for finding the effect of the intervention program on the outcome measures. The results showed a significant difference in the pre- to post-intervention scores of both the outcome measures. A multicomponent exercise program was seen to be effective in improving the cognitive function and level of ADL activity in community dwelling elderly individuals. Such an exercise program should be recommended to all elderly adults in order to maintain their cognitive and overall functioning and to improve their productivity.</p> Haripriya S, Dhanesh Kumar K U, Sanjay Eapen Samuel, Ajith S Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In-vivo studies of metformin modified release formulations <p>The current study was undertaken to conduct In vivo studies and to establish the new validated bioanalysis for the determination of Metformin present in Blood Plasma by using the Reverse Mode-LC Method. The separation of the Metformin was carried out on Reverse mode LC using Shimadzu® LC - 10AT with the following Stationary Phase: Kromasil octadecyl silane column (25 cm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5µm) Eluent: Cyanomethane: 25 mM Pentane Sulfonic acid of pH 3.5. ratio 09:91 % v/v with 1.0 ml/min flow rate has been fixed, and this has been measured at 232 nm, and the sample volume will be 10 ul using Rheodyne 7725i injector. Based on the method established for Metformin, the drug peak is well resolved at 11.11 min and validated as per US FDA guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness ruggedness, and stability. The calibration curve was found to be linear over a range of 0.025 –1 μg/mL (r2&nbsp; = 0.9999). The method has proved high sensitivity and specificity. Established method have been used to quantify the Pharmacokinetic&nbsp;parameters like C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, AUC0-t&nbsp;&amp; AUC0-∞, K<sub>eli</sub>, and t<sub>1/2 </sub>studied and the values for reference formulation (660.05±91.52 ng/ml, 4.46 ±1.10 &nbsp;h, 8280.41 ± 1356.39 ng.h/ml, 9200.31± 1569.26 ng.h/ml, 0.11±0.03 h<sup>-1</sup>, and 6.96±1.53&nbsp; h respectively) and the test formulation (&nbsp;&nbsp; 705.06±102.58&nbsp; ng/ml, 4.13±0.74 h, 8185.21±2101.56 ng.h/ml, 8946.39± 2457.66 ng.h/ml, 0.12±0.03 h<sup>-1</sup>, and 6.06±1.61 &nbsp;h, respectively)&nbsp;were compared and found to be biologically equivalent. Based on the Pharmacokinetic and statistical analysis Test formulation of Metformin Hydrochloride containing 500 mg Metformin Hydrochloride (modified release formulations) is biologically equivalent to that of the Reference.</p> Nagarajan Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan, Elango Kannan Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stability indicating UPLC method to quantify Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, and Efavirenz simultaneously in tablets: Method establishment <p>An easy, precise, specific, and accurate UPLC method for the quantification of emtricitabine (ETC), tenofovir (TFR), and efavirenz (EVR) in their tablet dosage form was developed and validated. ETC, TFR, and EVR were separated and estimated using Waters UPLC with HSS C18 (100 × 3 mm, 1.7 μ) column. The mobile phase was 0.01 N potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 4.5) and acetonitrile (40:60, vol/vol). The elution of ETC, TFR, and EVR was achieved using flow rate at 0.4 ml/min and detected at 265 nm using a photodiode array detector. The detector response was linear from 75 to 450 μg/ml for TNF, 50 to 300 μg/ml for ETC, and 150 to 900 μg/ml for EVR. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.601 µg/ml and 1.82 µg/ml, 0.330 µg/ml and 0.100 µg/ml, 0.911 µg/ml and 2.76 µg/ml for TNF, ETC and EVR respectively. Validation was carried out in compliance with ICH guidelines. It was noticed that all validation parameters were inside the permissible range.</p> Sravanthi T, Madhavi N Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fifth stage pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about generic medicines <p>The aim of the current study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of the fifth stage pharmacy students (college of pharmacy/ University of Baghdad /Iraq) regarding generic medicines. This study is a cross-sectional study carried in a college of pharmacy /University of Baghdad during the period from (November 2018- March 2019). The number of students included in the current study was 168 undergraduate stager pharmacists. A questionnaire was used to collect data of the study. Nearly 86% of the students said that they had heard of generic and brand medicines, and pharmacy was the main source of knowledge regarding generic medicines (66.7%).&nbsp; About (33.3%) of the respondents agreed that generic medicines are bioequivalent to brand medicine. However, (38.1%) perceived generic medicines might not be the therapeutic equivalent of brand medicines. In addition, (35.1%) of the respondents believed that generics are lower in quality, which is why they are cheap and produce more side effects. Moreover, (41.1%) of the sample agreed that generic medicines should be avoided in life-threating situations. About (56.5 %) of the students were found to have a poor level of perception regarding the use of generic medicines. The majority of the fifth stage pharmacy students (college of pharmacy/ University of Baghdad /Iraq) were found to have a good knowledge but a poor level of perception about the use of generic medicines.</p> Dheyaa J. Kadhim, Fajir I. Ahmed, Ronak A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Inhibition of carbohydrate degrading enzymes by the root of Borassus flabellifer – an in vitro evaluation <p>Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by hyperglycemia. Chronic elevation in blood glucose level causes micro and macrovascular complications. Therapeutic management of diabetes involves the control of hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate degrading enzymes like amylase and glucosidase. This study was aimed at investigating the inhibitory potential of the root of <em>Borassus flabellifer</em> against enzymes such as amylase and glucosidase. The hexane, chloroform, petroleum ether, ethanol, and hydroalcoholic extracts of the root of <em>Borassus flabellifer</em> were studied for their inhibitory potential against amylase and glucosidase. The inhibitory potential of the extracts were compared to the potential exhibited by the standard inhibitor, acarbose.&nbsp; The hydroalcoholic extract was found to be the most potent inhibitor of both the enzymes with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 652.37 and 607.06 µg/ml, much comparable to that of acarbose (612.55 and 550.38 µg/ml). The extract could inhibit 50 % of aldose reductase activity at a concentration of 1 mg/ml.&nbsp; The observations of this study suggest that the root of <em>Borassus flabellifer</em> may be a promising source for developing effective oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs.</p> Natarajan K, Sangeetha R Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Povidone iodine loaded film-forming topical gel and evaluation of its chemical stability <p>The main aim of this study was to develop Povidone Iodine loaded film-forming gel for excellent wound healing property with various formulations, and corresponding application stratification was prepared with Povidone Iodine, polyethylene glycol-400, polyethylene glycol-4000, aloe vera, and honey. Povidone Iodine is a broad spectrum antiseptic for topical application in the treatment and prevention of infection in wounds. Among the antiseptic and antimicrobial substances, Povidone-Iodine still occupies its position of lasting importance in everyday human and veterinary medicine. Povidone-iodine products display the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial effect with high clinical efficacy together with extremely low toxicity in clinical practice. The purpose served by dressing includes protecting wounds, promoting healing, and providing, retaining, or removing moisture. Wound repairing is a complex process involving an integrated response by many different cell types and growth factors to achieve rapid restoration of skin integrity and protective function after injury. In recent years, there have been tremendous advances in the design and composition of bandages and dressings, and there are numerous wound care materials. Some wound dressing types are biosynthetic dressings, composite dressings, gauze, hydrocolloid dressings, hydrogels, transparent films, etc. Povidone Iodine is completely soluble in cold and mild-warm water, ethyl alcohol, Iso propyl alcohol, Polyethylene glycol, and glycerol. The developed Povidone Iodine loaded film-forming gel was evaluated for their physical and chemical stability. The film-forming optimized gel formulation composed of povidone-iodine, polyethylene glycol-400, polyethylene glycol-4000, aloe vera, and honey and this composition provides suitable consistency, spreadability, and adhesiveness. The prepared trials were coded PGAH-01, PGAH-02, PGAH-03, PGAH-04, and PGAH-05, respectively. Among these all formulations, the PGAH-04 formulation parameters was found within the limit.</p> Jamal Mohamed A, Perinbam K, Vahitha V, Devanesan S, Janakiraman K K Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Sunscreen activity of Viola odorata (Banafsha) ethanolic extract and its formulated Gel by UV Spectroscopy <p>In the present study, ethanolic extract of Banafsha i.e., <em>Viola odorata</em> (Violaceae) and its gel formulations was evaluated for its sun protection activity by ultraviolet spectroscopy method. The phytoconstituents like flavonoids, phenolics present in <em>Viola odorata </em>may be responsible for scavenging action on UV-induced reactive oxygen species.&nbsp; Extraction of aerial parts of the plant was done in the Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as solvent. 1ml, 2ml, and 4ml of ethanol extract (200µg/ml) of the plant were used to formulate three gels (F1-F3) using Carabopol 940, 0.5% Methyl paraben, 0.2% Propyl paraben, Propylene glycol 400 and Triethanolamine. &nbsp;Mansur <em>et al</em>. UV spectrophotometric method was used to investigate the <em>in vitro</em> SPF of the <em>Viola odorata</em> ethanolic extracts (100&amp;200µg/ml) and its formulated gels (F1-F3). &nbsp;Physical parameters like color, appearance, spreadability, pH, homogeneity, viscosity were determined to evaluate formulated gels. Based on the calculated SPF value, F3 formulation was chosen for the stability study. Ethanolic extract of <em>Viola odorata</em> (100 µg/ml and 200µg/ml) have SPF value 4.05±0.07 and 11.66±0.04, respectively. Gel formulations (F1-F3) containing 1, 2,4ml of 200µg/ml of ethanol extract have SPF values about 2.89±0.11, 4.20±0.08, and 5.63±0.07, respectively. The SPF values determined to confirm the capacity of gels to absorb UV radiation. No significant alterations in physicochemical parameters and SPF values were observed during the stability evaluation of F3 gel. Results proves that <em>Viola odorata</em> is a safe alternative which can be used over harmful chemical sunscreens used now a days in the industry and in the future plant can be explored for active component for better protection against sun rays.</p> Reecha Madaan, Rajni Bala, Anuja Verma, Rajdeep Sarma Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacognostical standardization of balamula churna (Sida acuta Burm.f. root powder) <p>&nbsp;In this study, an effort was performed to produce the data on, physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, histochemical studies, and HPTLC data required for the standardization of Balamula Churna concerning root powder of <em>Sida acuta</em>. The physicochemical parameters such as water-soluble extractive, alcohol soluble extractive, and loss on drying at 105 °C, total ash, and insoluble acid ash were determined according to standard methods. HPTLC studies were carried, and Rf values were documented.&nbsp; Physicochemical parameter values were recorded as pH (6.73 LOD (114.2gms) water-soluble extractive value (4.48%), alcohol soluble extractive value 6.88%) total Ash (11.00%) and Acid Insoluble Ash (2.72%). Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of glycoside, alkaloid, carbohydrate, phenol, flavonoid, and saponin. HPTLC screening showed the occurrence of significant phytoconstituents with Rf values 0.07, 0.21, 0.54, and 0.86. The obtained results from this study can be effective in the evaluation of quality, detection of adulteration and substitution, and highlighting the importance of standardization</p> Jyostna Kumari T, Penchala Pratap G, Murthy P H C, Goli Penchala Prasad Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of different extracts of entire plant of Ipomoea pestigridis Linn <p><em>Ipomoea pestigridis</em> (Linn) (family Convolvulaceae) is commonly known as “Tiger Foot Morning Glory” in English and locally known as ‘Pulichuvadi’ or ‘Pulichuvadu’ in Malayalam. The current study, aerial parts of different concentrates(Pet.ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol) of <em>I.pestigridis</em>, was evaluated for its <em>in-vitro </em>antioxidant potential by nitric oxide activity, total antioxidant activity, iron chelating activity taking ascorbate &amp; Ethylenediamine tetraacetate as the standard correspondingly. An IC<sub>50</sub> value was originated that EA concentrates of <em>I.pestigridis</em> &nbsp;more efficient in nitric oxide activity, total antioxidant activity, Iron chelating capacity compared methanolic &amp; PE concentrates. The ethyl acetate concentrates of <em>I.pestigridis</em> &nbsp;&amp; ascorbic acid exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC<sub>50 </sub>226µg/ml &amp; 66µg/ml (Nitric oxide). 185µg/ml &amp; 60µg/ml (total antioxidant) , 287µg/ml &amp; 65µg/ml (iron-chelating Activity) respectively. The difference in the scavenging potential of the extracts can be due to variation in the percentage of bioactive compounds present in different solvents. &nbsp;Invitro antioxidant studies obviously show&nbsp; EA concentrates of <em>I.pestigridis</em> have better antioxidant activity. These results indicate that aerial parts of methanolic concentrate <em>I.pestigridis</em> &nbsp;could serve as a natural antioxidant, which may be useful in preventing free radical-induced diseases.</p> Bheemreddy Thrinitha, Murali R, Manichandrika P Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunomodulatory Activity Test of Syrup Dosage Form of Combination Phyllantus niruri Linn. And Sterculia quadrifida R.Br. Extract <p>Meniran (<em>Phyllantus niruri</em> Linn.) is used generally as an immunomodulator and hepatoprotector. Empirically, bark of faloak (<em>Sterculiaqudrifida</em> R.Br.) is used as a medicinal plant to cure diseases such as hepatitis, gastroentritis, and diabetes. The combination of meniran extract and bark of faloak extract has the potential as a natural immunomodulatory agents. Immunomodulators are compositions of either recombinant, synthetic, or natural, which can restore the immune system. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the optimal formula in obtaining syrup preparations which have optimal immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to find out the optimal syrup combination of meniran extract and faloak bark extract to produce optimal response values ​​in the in vitro immunomodulatory activity test with TNF-α and NF-κB parameters, and immunomodulatory activity tests in vivo with activity parameters macrophages. The extract was obtained through reflux extraction. The results of the extract were formulated and approved to determine their ability to induce TNF-α and NF-κB, and in the test of mice balb/b (<em>Mus musculus</em> L.) orally for 21 days. The lymph organs were isolated, rinsed with an RPMI-1640 solution, and analyzed using ELISA reader 450 nm. The determination of optimal formulas is done by using Rstudio v.3.5.3 software with ANOVA test parametric test and using Design Expert v.11 software using the Simplex Lattice Design (SLD) method. The results showed that the formula for the preparation of combination syrup to produce results induced TNF-α and NF-κB, and macrophage activity, namely the formula using meniran and faloak 0.96993: 0.0300704.</p> Rollando Rollando, Mauren Engracia, Eva Monica, Siswadi Siswadi Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Studying Risk Factors Association with Osteoporosis in Post Kidney Transplantation Patients <p>Osteoporosis that associate with kidney transplantation is an important cause of ‎morbidity to ‎the patients that warranted extensive study about possible causes of ‎osteoporosis in order to ‎implement several steps to reduce this risk. The current work aimed to investigate possible association between post kidney ‎transplant ‎immunosuppression therapy type and developing the ‎osteoporosis and evaluate the bone mass by using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) post-renalal transplant. A case-control, conducted in kidney transplant center – medical city complex for ‎one year period (‎from October ‎‏2018‏‎ till April 2019), Seventy - five kidney ‎transplant patients were participated in the present study ‎including (21 females &amp; ‎‎54 males). All ‎patients were examined for their bone density using DEXA scan (T – score) and ‎those with cut – point ≤- 2.5 were diagnosed as having osteoporosis (lumber and ‎hip bones were examined). The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was significantly higher in ‎transplant patients compared to control for bone lumber and hip bone (for ‎lumber bones: 33.3% vs 2.7%l for hip bones: 60% vs. 14.7%). T score was ‎significantly lower in the transplant patients compared to control for both lumber ‎‎(-1.9‎±0.8 vs. -1.1‎±0.7) and hip bones (-2.3‎±0.9 vs -1.3‎±0.8).‎ In logistic regression analysis; only gender and BMI were the predictors of ‎osteoporosis for spinal bone, while; the BMI and calcium were the predictors ‎of osteoporosis for hip bones. In ‏conclusion, Osteoporosis in post-renal transplant patients have a high rate of ‎osteoporosis compared to the general population, post-renal transplant drugs (Cyclosporine, MMF, etc.) did not increase the ‎risk of osteoporosis, and body mass index and female gender were risk factors for osteoporosis</p> Angham Ahmed Hasan, Munaf H. Zalzala, Abbas Al-Temimi Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, awareness, and practice (KAP) towards intestinal parasitic (IP) infection among university student in Selangor <p>This study was aimed to obtain baseline information on the knowledge, awareness, and practice (KAP) towards intestinal parasitic (IP) infection among university students in Selangor, Malaysia. Questionnaire surveys were circulated among 150 university students <em>via</em>&nbsp;online to assess&nbsp;social demographics, knowledge, awareness, and practice of parasitic infection. The simple questions with yes-no and listings were used in this survey. Total correspondents were 60 university students from various fields of study from Selangor. Total participation of male and female students was 28.30%, and 71.10%, bachelor students (51.67%), followed by diploma students (45%) and both master and PhD students at 1.67%. Assessment on knowledge indicated that 56.67% of students knew about IP, and 8.3% had an idea on the protozoan parasites, which can be transmitted <em>via</em> unclean environment or contaminate food. However, the students showed a higher level of awareness for IP infection but failed to know that food handlers can spread IP infection. Lastly, for the assessment for practice, generally, all responded positively, despite not knowing that poor hygiene is causative for IP infection. KAP among university students a lacuna still prevails, which can aid them to be susceptible for parasitic infection.</p> Mehru Nisha, Nurul Nadiah, Khairul Nizam Mohd. Isa, Fabian Davamani Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development and evaluation of medicated cosmetic cream to produce triple effect on skin for the treatment of uneven skin tone <p>Combinations of drugs are available in the market only to produce a single effect. To overcome this, a combination of three drugs namely α-arbutin, glutathione, and grape seed extract, are used to benefit the triple effect on the skin. The set forth study to formulate and evaluate medicated cosmetic cream in an effective curative strategy for derma to produce a triple effect. Medicated cosmetic cream containing triple bioactive agents formulated by the O/W dispersion method. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was carried out for characterization. The formulated cream assessed for physical appearance, homogeneity, pH, viscosity, particle size analysis, spreadability, percentage yield, drug content, diffusion studies, release kinetics, acute dermal toxicity studies, and short-term stability studies. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed that no chemical interaction existed between the drug and excipients used. The optimized formula A5 revealed to be off white, semisolid, pleasant odor, smooth &amp; slippery texture, non-greasy smear, easy to remove, and homogenous. The A5 cream exhibited a pH of 5.89, Viscosity of 1597.73 CPS, Spreadability of 20.86, the Particle size of 0.237%, Percentage yield of 98.8%, Drug content of 99.22 at 289 nm, 99.75 at 200 nm and 100.1 at 286 nm. The optimized cream demonstrated prolonged drug release 94.41% at 289 nm, 92.68 at 200 nm, and 92.78 at 286 nm up to 12 hrs. The optimized cream remained stable after the heating-cooling cycle at 4° C, 45° C and at room temperature. Furthermore, acute dermal toxicity studies showed the optimized formulation to be non-irritant, with no erythema, and no edema. The present study signified that the multiple combinations showed a better synergistic effect, superior efficacy, and multiple activities that resulted in the best, smooth, and stable medicated cosmetic cream.</p> Sharadha M, D V Gowda, Famna Roohi N K Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans leaves extract on Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Prothrombin Time test <p>Limitations in existing anticoagulants have prompted a search for the natural origin of anticoagulants. Since there is an increasing need to source for pharmacological and medicinal materials from a plant source, thus an exploratory effort towards identifying and characterizing new anticoagulants from plants is worthwhile. Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) commonly known as Sabah snake grass belongs to Acanthaceae family was chosen since it has therapeutic and medicinal benefits. This plant possessed anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activities. This study was carried out to identify the anticoagulant activities of C. nutans leaves in aqueous and methanol extracts at different concentrations based on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The dried leaves of C. nutans were ground into a fine powder and extracted using aqueous and methanol. Anticoagulant assays of PT and aPTT were done on three different concentrations of C. nutans aqueous and methanol extracts (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, and 30 mg/mL) and control group respectively. PT and aPTT of plasma samples were prolonged in both types of extracts (p&lt;0.05). This study highlights that the anticoagulant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of C.nutans affects the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway, possibly due to the inhibitory action of the clotting factors. These results suggested that aqueous and methanol extracts of C. nutans exhibited anticoagulant activity at certain concentrations.</p> Nur Farahhim Abd Rahman, Azlina Muhsin, Norhaida Che Azmi Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and evaluation of antifungal agent in a hydrogel containing nanoparticle of low molecular weight chitosan <p>The research aimed to formulate and prepare hydrogel of low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles with the help of antifungal agents such as clotrimazole and Nystatin for the topical application. Using the ionic gelation process, placebo and nanoparticles containing drugs were prepared. By cationic interaction is suitable for pH, and gel sodium tripolyphosphate is used as a crosslinker which cross-links the chitosan particles to form the gel, interaction between drug and polymer was observed during the formulation development. Formulated nanoparticle with chitosan and nystatin and clotrimazole showed the mean diameter 273.7nm, 983nm, and 501nm. Clotrimazole and Nystatin had encapsulation capacity was about 74.6% and 63.0%, respectively. <em>In vitro</em> drug release at pH 4.7 chitosan molecules are examined for the version of clotrimazole and has noticed that both the formulation shows sustained drug release about 12 hours. Using SEM, nanoparticles are directed for surface morphology character; it shows that nanoparticles are smooth and spherical in structure. Chitosan itself has the antimicrobial property; it was carried out for the antifungal activity against the fungus <em>Candida Albicans</em> along with the prepared formulations drugs for the comparative study. And the result showed that clotrimazole had maximum fungal growth inhibition next followed by the nystatin and chitosan is least. This inhibitory effect was due to the parameter such as zeta potential and particle size of chitosan nanoparticles. And it shows the least antifungal activity of nanoparticles, which are formulated from the TMC. Hence CTZ and Chitosan were formulated and applied as a natural antifungal agent into nanoparticle to increase the fungal activity. According to the ICH Q1A (R2) guidelines, stability studies are conducted to prove no degradation of the drug. The prepared formulation of chitosan nanoparticles based hydrogel incorporated with clotrimazole and nystatin are promising and significant properties for the efficient treatment of topical fungal infections</p> Deekshitha H M, Namratha S Saraf, Kulkarni P K, Akhila A R, Jayaprakash J S Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of calpain inhibitor on neutrophils spreading ability <p>Neutrophils spreading are a key event in the development and progression of inflammation, which is signaled by cytokines. In order to undergo inflammation process, neutrophils will migrate towards the site of infection by adhering along the endothelium and undergoing a major morphological transition from a spherical shape to a flattened shape, which is known as neutrophils spreading. Neutrophils transmigrate, whether by migration between the endothelial cells or through an endothelial cell. Calpain are involved in several key aspects of migration, including adhesion and spreading. Neutrophils were isolated from whole blood and observed under the microscope in order to study their spreading behavior. The results of neutrophils spreading were recorded and measured in terms of the cells surface area of spreading after stimulation with chemoattractant. This study showed the inhibition of calpain, which is triggered by Ca<sup>2+ </sup>influx has prevented neutrophils from changing its shapes and spread to its optimal. fMLP induced calpain inhibitor-treated neutrophils demonstrated smaller spreading areas (116.09µm<sup>2</sup>±2.58) as compared to the positive control cells (219.88µm<sup>2</sup>±3.73). Therefore, a calpain inhibitor may play an important part in preventing neutrophils from spreading, which could halt the progression of inflammatory disorders.</p> Nur Sakinah Nor Adami, Mohammad Rohani Jais, Elysha Nur Ismail, Reezal Ishak Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Zingerone Ameliorates Hepatotoxicity <p>In medical sciences, toxicity is an area wherein extensive studies have been carried to improve the diseases as well as to prevent. So, there is a high requirement for novel and improved alternative therapeutic strategies to manage diseases. The liver is the largest gland in the body, which executes several important mechanisms; it stores minerals and vitamins and releases them in periods of need. The main aim of this study was to give a closer insight into potent non- toxic compounds that is capable of modifying the responses. Animals were divided into five equal groups viz control (Group 1), administered with food and water ad libitum, (Group 2) administered with olive oil, (Group 3) administered with zingerone, (Group 4) administered with concanavalin A, (Group 5) administered with cyclosporine A followed by zingerone. Our results revealed significant changes in liver marker enzymes and liver histology of zingerone treated rats when compared to control rats.&nbsp; A corollary, zingerone has no toxic effect on hepatocytes and was found to be safe at a dose of 10mg/kg b wt and also ameliorates hepatotoxicity.</p> Julietpoornamathy J, Parameswari C.S. Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Maser The Medication Adherence, Factor Influencing Adherence and The Executives Of Intense Asthma Children’s In Tamilnadu <p>The commonness and related Weight of ailment because of asthma, it required to get an ideal control of the malady and improve the results of these patients. In any case, it has been seen that there is poor adherence to the treatment, which prompts the problematic control of the illness. To read the adherence for treatment in these patients to survey the effect of Wellbeing instruction and self-activity plan to improve adherence. A forthcoming report Was done in a sum of 986 asthma patients over a time of 3 years. When incorporated into the examination, the patients are followed up after 12 Weeks of non-adherence to the treatment. It was seen that solitary 108 patients (10.95%) had normal non-adherence, and 878 patients (89.05%) Were adherence to the treatment. Elements that Were related to poor adherence Were: LoWer instructive level, poor financial status, changes in routine, and patient's evil mentalities toward Wellbeing. Subsequent to utilizing the different systems for improving the adherence in these patients, the adherence expanded in patients (61.32%) among the prior defaulted patients, while the staying 188 patients (38.68%) Were seen as non-adherence even after different instructive procedures. Nonadherence in asthma the executives is an unavoidable truth and adherence improving system likely as a viable decent doctor and patient relationship. Individualized composed activity plans dependent on pinnacle expiratory stream are proportionate to activity plans dependent on indications.</p> Arulprakasam K C, Senthilkumar N Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Features of humoral immunity in cows infected with the leukaemia virus <p>The article presents the results of studying the dynamics of the formation of antibodies and immune complexes, reveals the prospects for improving the early diagnosis of cattle leukaemia. Studies were conducted for 6 months on an experimental group of animals consisting of 12 cows. The titers of free and bound antibodies in blood serum and milk were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of studies showing that changes in titers of anti-leukaemia antibodies in the blood serum of cows naturally infected with BLV (bovine leukaemia virus) are significantly different from experimental infection data are adduced. In cows infected with BLV, there is no definite relationship between antibody titers in milk and in blood serum.&nbsp; With sufficiently high titers of serum antibodies, antibody titers in milk can be minimal for the same cows; conversely, with low titers of serum antibodies, there can be high antibody titers in milk.&nbsp; In the titers of antibodies free and bound in the immune complexes in blood serum with the development of the disease, a certain dependence is traced. With a decrease in titers of free antibodies, in most cases, an increase in titers of “bound” antibodies is observed, i.e., the degree of formation of circulating immune complexes (CECs) increases. There is no clearly defined dependence in the dynamics of changes in titers free and bound in immune complexes of antibodies in milk samples. They can remain at the same level for a long time, both at low and rather high levels.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Talgat R. Yakupov, Mars M. Valiev, Farit F. Zinnatov, Azat M. Alimov, Albert K. Galiullin, Damir D. Hairullin, Radiy M. Papaev, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of various extracts of Dyschoriste littoralis nees on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity rats <p>The current investigation was to examine the hepatoprotective potential of <em>D.littoralis</em> Nees. (family Acanthaceae) On paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The aerial parts of <em>D.littoralis</em> Nees. The powder was concentrated with various solvents (PE, EA, and methanol) through Soxhlet concentrates and different crude concentrates utilized for hepatoprotective activity. &nbsp;Hepatotoxicity was induced by paracetamol (2g/kg b.wt.) on the 5<sup>th</sup> day of the investigational period and given orally. &nbsp;Paracetamol-induced rats to exhibit elevated activities of liver enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, total cholesterol &amp; triglyc in serum. Furthermore, Oral administration of the ethyl acetate concentrates of&nbsp; <em>D.littoralis</em> (200 mg/ kgb.wt.) given rats were significant reduction the level of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, total cholesterol &amp; triglycerides when compared to other concentrates. They also significantly elevated the concentration of complete protein and albumin when compared to other concentrates. Thus, results suggested that ethyl acetate concentrates of <em>D.littoralis </em>could afford better hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity rats.</p> Ravi Teja P D, Balakrishnan K, Kottai Muthu A Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical assessment of Sara and Blood investigations in Madhumeha (T2DM) <p><em>Pratyaksha</em> (direct perception), <em>Anumana</em> (inference), <em>Aptopadesha</em> (testimony), and Yukti (reasoning) are the tools that helps for the diagnosis of the disease.&nbsp; To fulfill this purpose <em>Atura-Pariksha </em>(examination of patients), <em>Dravya Pariksha</em> (examination of medicinal drug and preparations), and <em>Roga-Rogi Pariksha</em> (examination of the patient and disease), etc. are a very important tool. The concept of <em>Sara </em>is described under<em> Dashavidha Atura Pariksha</em> (tenfold examination), and it is an important concept in both <em>Swastha-rakshana</em> (maintenance of health) and <em>Aturasya Vikara Prashamana</em> (treatment of disease). The concept of <em>Sara</em> is explained by different <em>Acharyas</em> elaborately in their own way. In spite of tremendous success in modern medical science, the incidence of diseases are increasing enormously. A sedentary lifestyle and improper dietary habits has led to the emergence of several health problems, including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus<strong> (</strong>T2DM), and it is emerging as a major disease affecting mankind with many complications.&nbsp; Hence present study has been undertaken to understand <em>Sara </em>because all persons vary from one another in many ways, and a personalized approach to patient care should be adopted to plan appropriate therapeutics. Dietary factors, lifestyle, and psychological factors are involved in the aetiology of <em>Madhumeha</em> (T2DM)<em>. </em>The <em>Twak Sara</em>, <em>Shukra</em> <em>Sara</em>, <em>Asthi</em> <em>Sara</em>, and <em>Majja</em> <em>Sara </em>persons are more prone to develop<em> Madhumeha</em> (T2DM). The Meda<em> Sara</em> and <em>Mamsa Sara</em> are less prone to develop<em> Madhumeha</em> (T2DM). We don’t find the <em>Rakta Sara</em> individuals in our study.</p> Santosh Kumar Ranjan, Byadgi P S, Tripathi N.S Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of tetracycline antibiotics in honey using high-performance liquid chromatography <p>It is hard to overestimate the value of honey since the constituent substances in it are of great importance in the food industry and medicine. The quality of honey is established by the legislation of the Russian Federation (GOST). But the levels of these standards are regulated by outdated methods of analysis, which can not give reliable results. The detection of antibiotic residues in honey is a central issue in the quality and safety control of this product. Accumulation of drugs in honey used to treat bee colonies can cause allergies and dysbiosis in people who have eaten such honey, as well as develop antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. At present, one of the promising directions in the field of detecting medicines in honey is the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It helps selectively and accurately detect antibiotic substances in honey bee products. In Russia, the HPLC method is used with mass spectrometry to detect tetracycline residues in honey. A significant drawback with this method that limits the widespread use of it is the application of expensive, technically sophisticated equipment that needs high-quality reagents and consumables. The purpose of this work was to develop the simultaneous identification of tetracycline antibiotics in honey and carry out their quantitative analysis by a reversed-phase HPLC method. A sample preparation algorithm was developed, and the conditions for chromatographing combined indication of tetracyclines in honey at an acceptable concentration according to the MRL (0.01 mg/kg) with Agilent 1260 Infiniti liquid chromatograph equipped with a column thermostat, a gradient pump, and a UV detector were selected. According to the results of the research, the most optimal condition for the simultaneous analysis of oxytetracycline, tetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline in honey by HPLC method with ultraviolet detection was a wavelength of 254 nm, a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min and a column temperature of 25° C. Under these conditions, the antibiotic retention time was determined: 4.069 minutes for oxytetracycline, 4.331 minutes for tetracycline hydrochloride, 4.642 minutes for chlortetracycline. The developed HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of tetracycline antibiotics in honey was tested on honey bee products from the regions of the Republics of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan.</p> Gulnara G. Galyautdinova, Vladislav I. Egorov, Alexander M. Saifutdinov, Elvira R. Rakhmetova, Andrey V. Malanev, Damir V. Aleyev, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev, Eduard I. Semenov Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antidiabetic potential of Triphala Guggul - an ayurvedic formulation in alloxan-induced diabetes animal model <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential antidiabetic drug Triphala guggul (TG), an indigenous polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation in an alloxan-induced diabetes rat model. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats. The rats were divided into nine groups, including the groups of normal control which received the vehicle, the standard group (Glibenclamide) and rats with induced diabetes were treated with the tablet of Triphala guggul and Triphala guggul churna in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. They were administered orally for 28 days on a single dose. Blood was collected from the vein in the tail on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Biochemical estimates were made using blood serum. Acute toxicity studies did not reveal toxicity in rats. For 28 days, Administration of Triphala guggul tablet and Triphala guggul churna formulations improved oral glucose tolerance in diabetes-induced rats and after 28 days, resulted in a significant reduction in serum glucose level compared to normal control rats. These formulations do not affect the kidney, adipose tissue, and liver. The Triphala guggul formulation has a promising antidiabetic property and is effective in the treatment of diabetes.</p> Krishna Murthy, Snehal D. Jagadale, Solunke R. S., Shete R. V., Priyanka Nangare Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory activities of the flower extracts of Argemone mexicana L. <p>To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the powder sample&nbsp;derived from the ethyl acetate fraction of the floral Argemone mexicana L. For antioxidant efficiency, the floral extract was evaluated using 1, 1–diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the FRC (Ferric Reduction Capacity) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and&nbsp;the production method of nitric oxide (NO). The powder sample extracted from ethyl acetate fraction of the floral of Argemone Mexicana L showed good antioxidant activity with the comparative standard sample in scavenging DPPH radicals and in FRC assay. In the cell viability (PBMC influenced by LPS) method and the Nitric oxide (NO) assay, this sample showed even able anti-inflammative activities. Such results indicate a significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in the powder sample&nbsp;obtained from ethyl acetate fraction&nbsp;in the&nbsp;flower of&nbsp;Argemone mexicana L. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Prabhakaran D, Rajeshkanna A, Senthamilselvi M M Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the roots of Borassus flabellifer <p>Inflammation is a defense mechanism triggered by several agents and is observed as a co-morbid condition in various diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Chronic inflammation may lead to organ damage and mortality, and hence synthetic inflammatory agents are administered to cure inflammation. These synthetic drugs induce undesirable side effects, and hence natural agents are preferred. Plants have significant anti-inflammatory potential, and this study intended to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of the root of <em>Borassus flabellifer </em>(REBF). The evaluation was done using in-vitro models like inhibition of hemolysis and denaturation of proteins.&nbsp; The activity of the extract was compared with that of diclofenac, the standard drug of choice. The study results revealed that 800 μg of REBF inhibits hemolysis by 50%. The IC 50 of REBF in manifesting hypotonicity induced hemolysis and heat-induced hemolyses was 2.26 mg and 820 μg. The IC50 of REBF required to inhibit protein denaturation was 2.1 mg. All the assay models reveal that the effect of REBF is comparable to that of diclofenac, and thus REBF is a potent anti-inflammatory agent.</p> Natarajan K, Sangeetha R Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on lipid peroxidation and In vivo antioxidant activity of various extract of Dyschoriste littoralis nees on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity rats <p>The current investigation was to examine the antioxidant potential of <em>D.littoralis</em> Nees. (family Acanthaceae) On paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The aerial parts of <em>D.littoralis</em> Nees. The powder was concentratesed with various solvents (PE, EA, and methanol) through Soxhlet concentrates and various crude concentrates utilized for hepatoprotective activity. &nbsp;Hepatotoxicity was induced by paracetamol (2g/kg b.wt.) on the 5<sup>th</sup> day of the investigational period and given orally. &nbsp;Paracetamol-induced rats to exhibit elevated activities of TBARS&nbsp; and reduction the enzymes levels such as Superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAD), Glutathione peroxidise (GPx), Glutathione S transferase(GST) and Glutathione (GSH) in liver and kidney. &nbsp;Furthermore, Oral administration of the&nbsp; ethyl acetate&nbsp; concentrates of&nbsp; <em>D.littoralis</em> (200 mg/ kgb.wt.) given &nbsp;rats were major reduction the level of TBARS and &nbsp;also significantly elevated the levels of the enzyme such as Superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAD), Glutathione peroxidise(GPx), Glutathione S transferase(GST) and Glutathione (GSH) &nbsp;in liver and kidney as compared to other concentrates. Thus, results suggested that ethyl acetate concentrates of <em>D.littoralis </em>could be afford better antioxidant effect against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity rats.</p> Ravi Teja P D, Balakrishnan M, Kottai Muthu A Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A comparative study between effects of aerobic exercises and conventional treatment on selected outcomes of heart failure clients <p>Heart failure (HF) is now a major public health issue with a current prevalence of over 23 million worldwide.&nbsp; Physical exercise is now mandatory for HF management to improve a sense of wellbeing. The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of aerobic exercises with the conventional treatment methods with selected patient outcomes among heart failure patients. A quantitative experimental research approach with a post-test-only control group design was adopted. A total of 40 HF patients were taken as study sample, and they were randomly divided into two groups. &nbsp;&nbsp;One group was given conservative treatment, whereas the other was trained with aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise training was given to the training group for 30 days, and physical, physiological, and psychological changes were assessed by standardized rating scales.&nbsp; A difference of post-test scores of the exercise training group and conservative treatment group were examined using t<strong>-</strong>tests and Chi-square tests. Out of 40 patients (45% above 60yrs of age, 62.5% male), two groups exhibited an extremely significant difference in terms of HF&nbsp; symptoms,&nbsp; pain, and anxiety (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.00001).&nbsp; HF symptoms, chest pain, anxiety exhibited a significant association with age, edema showed significant association with occupation and oxygen uptake showed a significant association with age and occupation. This study concluded that aerobic exercises are highly effective to improve the activity tolerance of the body and can significantly reduce pain, edema, and anxiety levels in heart failure patients receiving conservative treatment.</p> Sujyotsna Jena, Sasmita Das, Rashmimala Pradhan Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cognitive dysfunction in diabetes is associated with glycemic control in an urban Indian population: A prevalence study <p>We evaluated the correlation between HbA1C and Cognitive derangement of type 2 Diabetics in the current prevalence study.HbA1C as a Biomarker to predict Cognitive Derangement in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects based on the correlation findings in a prevalence study in urban Indian population. We further investigated the role of poor Diabetes control versus hypoglycemia episodes as independent predictors of cognitive derangement&nbsp; in 240 type 2 Diabetics.In pilot phase ,comparison between Diabetics(n=30)and non-Diabetic subjects(n=30)for Cognitive derangement&nbsp; using cognitive batteries: GPCOG, AI tool &nbsp;and MIS was done. PET CT brain findings of&nbsp; one of Diabetic subjects were also observed. Further study was conducted on 240 diabetic subjects using batteries validated in the pilot phase. Pilot study provided statistically significant results of correlation between HbA1C levels versus GPCOG Score, Pearson's Correlation r1= -0.448*, for AI Score Pearson’s Correlation r2= -0.196*and for MIS score Pearson’s Correlation r3= -0.472*. The prevalence ratio for both groups was calculated as 5.8125, which implies Diabetics had &gt; 5 fold risk of deranged cognition as compared to the non-Diabetic group. Using independent T-test, mean GPCOG score in the Hypoglycemia group(n=162) and without hypoglycemia group(n=78) were found to be 3.02&nbsp; and 4.63&nbsp; respectively. Similarly, based on the independent T-test, the mean AI score in the Hypoglycemia group(n=162) and without hypoglycemia group(n=78) were found to be&nbsp; 2.068 and 2.564, respectively. PET CT brain findings were suggestive of reduced FDG uptake indicating Alzheimer’s type of cognitive derangement.HbA1C can be linked to poor cognitive derangement in case of poor diabetes control. Hence HbA1C can be a useful biomarker to predict cognitive derangement in type 2 Diabetics.*Significance level &lt;0.01, Negative correlations are indicative of lower the values of battery scores higher would be cognitive derangement.</p> Aman Gupta, Abhishek Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Characteristic Study on the Effect of Ginger and Nutmeg Extracts on Pseudomonas and E.coli biofilms <p>A number of phytochemicals or secondary metabolites were produced by herbs and spices. These were used as food preservatives and also as traditional medicines from long back. These were having various pharmacological benefits which included antioxidant, analgesic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties. In the present study two different plant species (<em>Zingiber officinale, Myristica fragrans</em>) were used for studying their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. The phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was done by using standard methodology. FTIR analysis of the ginger and nutmeg extracts were carried out to study the functional groups present in the respective plant extracts. The extracts were also subjected to NMR spectroscopy. Two different bacteria were used for the studies which are good biofilm producers, <em>Pseudomonas </em>and <em>E.coli</em>. The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic and choloroform extracts of ginger and nutmeg were studied using air liquid interphase coverslip assay and biofilm assay. The results suggest that the ginger and nutmeg extracts have biofilm inhibition activity. The reduction in biofilm was observed in all the 3 concentrations of the nutmeg chloroform extract with maximum biofilm reduction in 100% and was compared with the control. Both <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em>, biofilm inhibition was observed in all 3 concentrations of ginger and nutmeg.</p> Challaraj Emmanuel E S, Vinni Biji, Gayathri N. Krishna Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Investigation of free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of Olax scandens (family Olacaceae) <p><em>Olax scandens </em>Roxb. (family <em>Olacaceae) </em>Available in throughout tropical India. The current study, aerial parts of different extracts of <em>Olax scandens</em> by different <em>in-vitro </em>methods<em>. </em>The antioxidant activity was evaluated by Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity(OH radical), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity(NO radical), and total antioxidant activity (Phosphomolybdic acid method) with reference standard Ascorbic acid. An IC<sub>50</sub> value was originated that methanolic extracts of <em>Olax scandens</em>is more efficient in Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Nitric oxide radical scavenging, total antioxidant activity than that of EA and petroleum ether extract. The methanolic &nbsp;extracts &nbsp;of <em>Olax scandens </em>&amp; ascorbate exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC<sub>50 </sub>253µg/ml &amp; 135µg/ml (NO radical ), 205µg/ml &amp; 57µg/ml (Phosphomolybdic acid method), 265µg/ml &amp; 65µg/ml (OH radical) respectively. But when compared to all the three extracts with ascorbate (standard), the methanolic extract of the <em>Olax scandens </em>showed a better result. Moreover, the results were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. Invitro antioxidant studies obviously showed that methanolic extracts of <em>Olax scandens</em> have better antioxidant activity. These results indicate that aerial parts of methanolic concentrates <em>Olax scandals </em>could serve as a natural antioxidant, which may be useful to prevent free radical-induced diseases.</p> Pranaya P, AkilaDevi D Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development, characterization and solubility enhancement of BCS class II drug phenytoin by solid phospholipid dispersion technique <p>The poor aqueous solubility acts as a core challenge in oral dosage form development for BCS class II drugs. Phenytoin is taking as a model drug; the present study adopted an innovative solid phospholipid nanoparticle (SPLN) line of attack, and it is parallelly equated with the industrialized methods (freeze-drying) which are used for the boosting of solubility and dissolution of Phenytoin. Phenytoin was articulated along with phospholipid and mannitol at a diverse ratio of phenytoin, PL, mannitol, in which 1:12:18 was the correct ratio for ideal preparation. Freeze-drying helps to prepare SPLNs in orbicular shape, which is amorphous in nature with ≤ 1µm diameter on average. While the amorphous matrix-like structure of solid phospholipid dispersion with larger particle size is obtained by freeze-drying technique. Formulating the formulation from this method improved the dissolution rate in a remarkable way. Tris buffer with pH 7.4acts as an apparent solubility dissolved concentration of phenytoin. The poor aqueous solubility acts as a core challenge in oral dosage form development for BCS class II drugs. The decrease in the particle size or cumulating the drug surface area is the widely used practices to proliferate the solubility. The target of the present work was improvisation in solubility, dissolution of a poorly water-soluble drug, and its release by using solid phospholipid nanoparticles. Phenytoin is taking as a model drug. The solid phospholipid nanoparticles were primed by freeze-drying technique along with phospholipid and mannitol in diverse drug to excipients ratios (1:1, 1:2w: w). These preparations were assessed for compatibility study using FTIR, solubility enhancement study by XRD, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology by SEM, and in-vitro release study. As per the results, there is no influence of the excipients on the drug used. The solubility was increased by folds compared to in house prepared formulation.&nbsp;</p> Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Sathish Ananthan, Lavanya Mude Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of Schiff bases of acyclovir <p>There is a crucial medical need for the progress of new antibacterial agents with new and more efficient mechanisms. Schiff bases are stated to have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, which are largely due to the distinguishing C=N group. Furthermore, heterocyclic compounds containing acyclic hydroxylated side chains, for example, acyclovir (ACV), are an essential class of antiviral acyclonucleosides. Therefore, this work was to synthesize and evaluate a new series of acyclovir analogues bearing a Schiff base moiety. Some of Schiff's bases synthesis in an ethanolic solution of drug, aldehydes, and glacial acetic acid as a catalyst followed in the synthesis of substituted acyclovir drug compounds. In this work, two new series of acyclovir analogues bearing a Schiff base moiety were Synthesised, characterized, and confirmed by various spectral techniques like FTIR, CHN, and 1HNMR spectra, in addition to melting point and retardation factor (Rf.). The biological activity of synthesized Schiff base compounds measured against a panel of various bacteria. The results revealed that these compounds showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as <em>bacillus</em> and Gram-negative bacteria such as <em>proteus</em>, <em>E-coli</em>, <em>pseudomonas</em>, and <em>klebsiella</em>. It concluded that synthesized Schiff base compounds showed higher antibacterial activity than acyclovir that they derived from it.</p> Abood S Huda, Abdullah S. Asia, Wrewish S Zainab Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on Antidiabetic Activity of Atylosia Albicans in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats <p>The present study was aimed to investigate the Antidiabetic effect of <em>Atylosia Albicans</em> extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Rats have fasted overnight, and the plant extracts at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg were administered for 14 days.&nbsp; Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes mellitus. The standard hypoglycaemic agent selected for this work was Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg). The different test solutions at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts respectively were given a respective group of rats. &nbsp;The anti-diabetic potential was assessed by determining oral glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose,&nbsp; Blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA<sub>1</sub>c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high‑density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) were evaluated parameters. The methanolic extract with 200 mg/kg was more significant in anti-diabetic activity (P&lt;0.001) on the 14<sup>th</sup> day and also significantly decreased TG, TC, VLDL‑C, LDL‑C and &nbsp;HbA1c (P&lt;0.001) when compared to diabetic control rats<strong>. </strong>&nbsp;From the obtained results, it can be revealed that the methanolic extract of <em>Atylosia Albicans </em>has great potent antidiabetic activity. The results suggest that <em>Triumfetta rotundifolia </em>has anti-diabetic activity, thereby justifying its traditional use.</p> Sharvana bhava B S, Umasankar K, Kottai Muthu A Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Approach to Derive Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Therapeutic Significance <p>“Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs)” are distinct type of cells naturally present in the body that has the ability to separate into any cell type like bone, cartilage, muscle, nerve, tooth etc. There are numerous studies available to efficiently isolate culture, characterize and expand the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Similar such method was utilized to isolate the MScs from femoral and tibial bone of female wistar rats and the standardized method was used to culture and expand MSCs. The cultured cells were determined to be MSCs with their hallmark properties of spindle shape morphometry, cellular plasticity &amp; cell adherence property. The cells after expansion were subjected to flow cytometry analysis for characterization. The BMSCs showed positive expression for CD90 &amp; negative expression for CD34. In the present investigation, we obtained the BMSCs that would have potential clinical significance as it was performed in a GMP environment with all necessary requirements that could enable its therapeutic value.</p> Balaji K, Perumal Saraswathi, Prabhu K, Shila Samuel, Siva T Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The impact some of nutrients on swarming phenomenon and detection the responsible gene RsbA in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis <p>The effect of ten different chemical compounds (comprised of carbohydrates, nutrients and nanoparticles) were tested against the swarming phenomenon of clinical isolates that belong to&nbsp;<em>Proteus spp</em>. The responsible gene of swarming <em>RsbA</em>&nbsp;was detected by PCR at 310 pb in size. The results were appeared Starch, Peptone, indomie (commercial local noodles) additives, yeast extract, and glucose had shown stimulatory effect on swarming diameter of&nbsp;<em>P. mirabilis</em>. The carbohydrates used in the experiment were starch, sucrose, lactose and glucose. The largest swarming diameter of the test culture occurred in the presence of glucose due to its stimulatory effect. However, sucrose and lactose showed an inhibitory effect on swarming of the test culture. On the other hand, starch had different effects according to its concentration; it showed an inhibitory effect at 1% and 2%, while it stimulated the swarming at 5 % concentration. Comparatively, when test culture grown on MacConkey agar, swarming did not occur due to the inhibitory role of bile salt and crystal violate. The yeast extract and indomie additives were stimulators for swarming with increased concentration, while Peptone showed moderate effects and red pepper powder had an inhibitory effect on swarming. This study was aimed to isolate and investigate the effect of some<span dir="RTL">&nbsp;</span>chemical and nutrient compounds on swarming phenomenon of&nbsp;<em>P. mirabilis</em>&nbsp;that allows<span dir="RTL">&nbsp;</span>the microorganism to invade human urinary tract and cause infection. We can concluded that Red pepper as natural alternative of antibiotics could be employed in the treatment of patients diagnosed with UTI caused by&nbsp;<em>P. mirabilis&nbsp;</em>due to its inhibitory role on the swarming action<em>.</em>&nbsp;However, consuming indomie noodles with its additives may have a stimulatory effect on swarming which may allow&nbsp;<em>P. mirabilis</em>&nbsp;to reach and colonize other sites of urinary tract and cause infection.</p> TahreerHadi Saleh, SabaTalib Hashim, Salma Nassrullah Malik, Bahaa Abdullah Laftaah AL-Rubaii Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biological Effective of organic solvent extracts of Datura innoxia Leaves in the Cumulative and Non-cumulative for mortality of Immature insect Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera : Culicidae) <p>The present research included the evaluation of the efficiency of organic solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol) separately using ppm (100, 250, 5001500, 1000, 2000) concentrations of<em> Datura innoxia</em> leaves. In the non- cumulative and cumulative mortality of the immature stage of <em>Culex quinquefaciatus </em>Say mosquitoes where LC50 and LC90 by probit analysis were estimated. The hexane extract of the leaves <em>D.innoxia</em> plant was the most affected hexane extract was the most effective of ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol in the non-cumulative mortality of the immature instar where LC50 for egg mortality was (1495.8, 1727.2, 2199.9) ppm for hexane extract, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol respectively &nbsp;For the four larva linstar, the first larval instar were the most sensitive of the larval instar of all extracts The hexan extract was LC50(245.8, 301.1, 418.4, 1128.6) PPM The ethyl acetate extract was LC50 (246.9, 375.3, 622.6, 1188.2) ppm for the four larvae instar respectively. The LC50 for ethyl alcohol extract (332.4, 568.5 1004.7, 1446.6) ppm. In instar pupa, the value of LC50 (1146.5, 1179.6, 1249.6) ppm for hexane extract, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol, respectively. As for the cumulative depreciation, the cumulative mortality rate of the immature stage reached 100% at the concentration of 2000ppm and for all organic solvents compared to the control, which was limited to (8-17) %.</p> Wassen Ali Adday, Mohammed Ridha Annon Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 10 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainability Reporting Pattern in Pharmaceutical Sector : A Study of Top 10 Economies across the Globe <p>Sustainability reporting is now a mainstream activity of global corporations and is an important issue of the decade. Transparency and accountability for stakeholders are the most demanding issues in pharmaceutical sectors. Companies or Industries can’t survive without sustainable growth. Since most of the stakeholders are aware of recent problems such as community health, climate change, education and development, business sustainability, etc., the demand for disclosures in these areas have also been remarkably increased. Global companies have started business sustainability for economic and non-economic activities of the venture, along with the accountability of external and internal stakeholders towards the goal of sustainable development. This paper examines the sustainability reporting practices of the top 10 economy's pharmaceutical companies across the globe. For this purpose, sustainability reports based on GRI and Non- GRI guidelines for 5 years (2012 to 2016) of the top 10 economy's pharmaceutical companies were collected from the GRI-Database. The number of pharmaceutical companies along with a country name that published sustainability reports has been classified into four categories such as companies with GRI reports are published for 5 years, less than 5 years, Non-GRI reports and mixed reports (GRI &amp;Non-GRI) and a total number of reports published in the given time periods. The results revealed that the sustainability disclosures in Pharmaceutical sectors are dominated by both the 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> largest economies across the globe USA, China, and Brazil, and the worst sustainability disclosures are Canada, Italy, Germany, and India. It means pharmaceutical companies in the USA, China, and Brazil are more conscious about sustainability reporting as compare to the rest of the countries of the top 10 economies in the world.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mahesh Kumar, Birajit Mohanty, Madhusudan Narayan, Vadera M L Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 10 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Marketing Strategy Formulation in Biomedical Healthcare Industry <p>Marketing strategies stimulate the firm to unearth areas that are being disturbed by several factors. This is adopted to determine the target market in order to achieve prosperity in the organization. An effective marketing strategy would perhaps help in captivating new customers as well as sustaining for the longer-term. Consequently, this can result in the following benefits such as products and services can be offered with exclusive components, effective department coordination, concentration on scarce resources, thereby building a better marketing plan, selection of target market for easy entry and accumulation of four marketing p's. As a result, the increase in sales can be achieved. The strategy should be effectively formulated to witness the performance outcome. This study focuses on the determinants of marketing strategy on performance outcomes. &nbsp;The data captured from 119 marketing professionals in the field of the biomedical healthcare industry by using a questionnaire. The questionnaire includes variables to measure the demographic profile of the professionals and three constructs of marketing strategy creativity, marketing strategy improvisation, and performance outcome. Collected data were analyzed through analysis of frequency, mean, variance, and regression. Results show that marketing professionals have similar viewpoints on marketing strategies. The findings of the regression analysis argue that the improvisation determines performance outcomes in the marketing strategy</p> Praveen Kumar P, Subhasini J Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 10 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Coronary blockage of artery for Heart diagnosis with DT Artificial Intelligence Algorithm <p>Coronary blockage of an artery (CBA) is a fundamental problem cause of heart attacks. There are different techniques used to diagnosis this CBA as like other category of heart diseases. In this research, open heart surgery operation and quick diagnosis have been analyzed. This CBA diagnosis &amp; operation requires clear images of heart i.e., CTA pictures. Fast and reliable detections are possible with professional image processing techniques (IMT) with the help of Artificial intelligence algorithms (AIA). &nbsp;By the help of Decision Tree (DT) based IMT and “AIA” is used to find the region of heart image CBA diagnosis with a concentration of determination. Total work contains two stages; 1<sup>st</sup> is pre-processing means image processing training 2nd is decision step, in this extraction, and statistical calculations are performed using the DT-AIA model. Implementation has been achieved and progressed by using 4.766% OV, OF by using 6.5%, OT by means of 2.5%, AI with the aid of 0.21% these are very good results.</p> Saikumar K, Rajesh V Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 10 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 β-glucan: Immune boosting potential and antioxidant candidate <p>In literature, β-glucan is abundantly found in oats and currently used as well as tested against various varieties of food products. The objective of our study is to evaluate its immune-boosting potential of β-glucan extracted from oats and tested against specific protein antigen i.e., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and also measure its antioxidant activity. For these studies, β-glucan using variable concentration and tested in human whole blood samples (exposed with an optimized concentration of bovine serum albumin, BSA) and examined its immune-boosting potential. In contrast, estimation of Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were also measured from cell culture supernatant and also measured its antioxidant potential through DPPH assay. The results showed that β-glucan enhanced immune-boosting activity in a concentration-dependent manner against BSA. In contrast, there is enhancement in Th2 (IL-4) cytokines in a dose-dependent manner, but there is no significant effect in Th1 (IFN-gamma) as compared to control. In addition, β-glucan showed drastic enhanced antioxidant potential, which is confirmed through DPPH assay. The data demonstrate that β-glucan showing immune-boosting properties and antioxidant potential.</p> Abhishek Kamboj, Aanchal Jain, Tanya Singh, Ajam Shaikh, Amit Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A novel approach of MRI-CT Image fusion using CWT for finding Disease location <p>Medical&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Image processing has tremendous applications in medical diagnosis. This broadsheet offerings the idea of a fusion of MRI(Magnetic Resource Imaging)-CT (Computed tomography) using Coverlet wavelet transform(CWT), which is used to find the disease location in an image. In the Medical field, CT provides maximum information on denser tissue with less amount of distortion and higher resolution images. Whereas, on the other hand, MRI provides information on softer tissue with much distortion. However, both are similar; the main difference lies where CT uses X-rays to produce images while MRI uses radio-Waves to produce images. This paper presents a fusion by concatenating of images using a coverlet wavelet transform technique.&nbsp; The presentation is estimated on the source of locating the disease in the resultant image. In this research, various image type like MRI, CT, PET, ECT, SPECT models has been collected and apply the fusion process such that calculate the performance analysis parameters like SSIM, PSNR, entropy, CWT, etc. this research consist of processing and classification in the step -1 process the image with fusion model has been implemented, for classification estimate the samples with probabilistic functions. Finally calculated the parameters for disease finding and location estimation such that this research is helpful for disease location estimation and finding. At final achieves the better outcomes compared to existed methods.</p> Syed Inthiyaz, Hasane Ahammad Sk, Praveen SR Konduri, Apoorva Inani, Nagineni Risthitha, Dhiraj V, Siva Kumar M, Saikumar K Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Combined Treatment with Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Insulin in Longer Run May Lead to Cognitive Derangement Secondary to Hypoglycemia <p>To determine the risk associated with combined therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin in the development of cognitive decline secondary to hypoglycemia. The study comprised of two arms, in arm 1 (n=30) diabetic patients on OHA and insulin combined therapy were observed for cognitive derangement based on Mini Cog score (Pearson’s correlation r was calculated between the two)and the patients were also ruled out for hypoglycemia episodes. Similarly, in arm 2(n=30), only OHA therapy patients were evaluated on the same parameters using Pearson’s correlation. Mean Mini Cog scores were found to be 1.79&nbsp; in patients on combinational therapy of OHA and insulin. In the case of patients only on OHA for diabetes control mean Mini Cog, the score was 2.0. Pearson’s coefficient r 1 between OHA plus insulin duration of therapy in years with Mini Cog score was <strong>&nbsp;</strong>-0.5831 at a statistically significant p value of 0.0007. While on the other hand, patients only on OHA therapy (in years)were not significantly correlated with Mini Cog scores.(r 2= - 0.0149 ; p value =0.93771).In the arm 1 (OHA + Insulin(n=30)), the average number of hypoglycemia episodes were found to be 2.633 as compared to the OHA only group in which mean hypoglycemia episodes were 0.866. There was a significant difference in the hypoglycemia episodes, as confirmed by the student t-test (4.06368) at a p value = 0.000147. Based on the study findings, combined Treatment with Oral Hypoglycemic agents and insulin in longer run may lead to cognitive derangement secondary to hypoglycemia.*Significance level &lt;0.01, Negative correlations are indicative of lower the values of battery scores higher would be cognitive derangement.</p> Aman Gupta, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Ramesh Deka C Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Box-Behnken design for development and characterization of nanostructured chitosan-based nanoparticles containing sulfasalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis <p>The present research was designed to improve the permeability of sulfasalazine by loading it into chitosan nanoparticles using the ionic gelation method. The process parameters were screened and optimized through Box-Behnken design. 13 formulations containing sulfasalazine chitosan-based nanoparticles (SCSNPs) were optimized using particle size, zeta potential, and % encapsulation efficiency as responses. Results were optimized based on the desirability function shown in 2D contour plots and 3D response surface plots. The effect of every factor on responses was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and p-Value, and the correlation coefficient of all the responses was found to be &gt;0.99 and &gt;0.96 for optimized CSNPs and optimized SCSNPs respectively with p&lt;0.05. From the predicted and observed values of responses, the optimized formulation (SCSNPs) has a particle size of 261±3.06 nm, with an encapsulation efficiency of 81.3±5.3%. Morphology of the particles using scanning electron microscopy reveals nearly spherical shaped particles with a zeta potential of +41.4±0.5 mV. In-vitro studies acknowledge that sulfasalazine was released in a sustained manner for about 24 hrs in simulated colonic fluid pH 7 and phosphate buffer pH 7.4, &nbsp;when compared to a simulated colonic fluid at fed (pH 6) and fasted state (pH 7.8). Optimized SCSNPs followed Korsmeyer Peppas kinetics with a drug release mechanism as non-fickian diffusion (anomalous transport).</p> Ganesh Narayan Sharma, Praveen Kumar Ch, Birendra Shrivastava, Kumar B, Arindam Chatterjee Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Association Between Iron Over Load and Tanner Stage Retardation in the Females with B-Thalassemia Major <p>Despite optimal therapy of patients with B- major thalassemia included repeated transfusion of blood program and iron chelation agents helped by increasing survival of these patients&nbsp; but remained a major problem in adolescents of these patients such as growth failure and hypogonadism. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between iron overload and tanner stage retardation among female &nbsp;patients with B- major thalassemia in Thalassemia Hospital in Diwaniyah Governorate. The current study occurred on all female patients diagnosed β-thalassemia major depends on the blood tests, with their age range from 13years to 16 years who registered in Thalassemia unit in Al- Diwaniyah&nbsp; Governorate, Republic of Iraq. In the physical examination, the patients were assessed for weight, height, Tanner stages, and body mass index(BMI), which recorded. S. Ferritin value was used to assess the iron load, and pelvic ultrasound was checked to assess the size of the uterus and both ovaries. &nbsp;The results of the currents study revealed that the total numbers of B- thalassemia major female patients are 31 patients, aged 13-16 years. Age of patients at which diagnosed of B- major thalassemia range from 0.17 to 5 year. The frequency of Blood transfusion (time/Year) ranges from 6 to 33 times/Year. The level of serum ferritin of the patients was ranged from 913-12000 ng/ml with. Tanner stage I was predominant, accounting for 87%, whereas stage II and III accounted for 10% and 3%, respectively. There was a significant negative relation between times transfusion of blood and Tanner. There was a significant correlation between Uterus size, ovarian size, and Tanner stage. Because of inflammation falsely increase serum ferritin or due to the relation between body iron in the body and level of serum ferritin is not always within the linear range, especially in the condition of inflammation or tissue damage. So that level of serum ferritin is not an adequate measure of iron stores in patients with major thalassemia. Therefore, we needed another indicator to measure iron stores in patients with thalassemia major such as liver iron concentration.</p> Suzan Sabbar Mutlag Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Herbal Medicine in Oral and Dental Health; Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants in Iraq/Baghdad <p>Dental/Oral diseases are one of the major public health problems globally. The application of Herbal medicines for the manager of oral diseases are considered as an effective alternative to synthetic compound due to their lower side effect. The object of This study is a study of the traditional medicine role in dental health, based on active constituents in herbal medicines, which have been practiced by people. in this study, we sought to gather information from Bedouins in Baghdad region of Iraq about used herbs medicine in dental health. depth interviews (unstructured interviews) are used to collect the data by asking face-to-face to the respondent. The research has been done in two stages, first one directed to traditional healers, folk practitioners, to know the most common used Herbal in dental health, and the second stage was directed to people. Our results shown that Syzygium aromaticum, Camellia sinensis, and Mentha shown the highest used value (UV) up to 0.90, and mostly used for treatment of Toothache, Canker sore and Oral ulcer, also they used <a href="">them</a> as a homemade mouth wash. Our studies also shown an increasing in demand of herbal medicine in Iraq day by day as an alternative method of oral/ dental diseases treatment due to economic reasons and its lower side effects in comparison with a synthetic compound.&nbsp;</p> Humam M. Al-Somaiday, Manar E. Al-Samaray, Ali Al-Samydai Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Design of MEMS-based Microfludic Channel to Detect Cancer Cells in Blood <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;"><span style="font-weight: normal;">Cancer refers to any of countless infections characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and can invade and destroy normal body tissue. Malignant growth frequently can spread all through your body. Cancer is the second driving reason for death on the planet. In this paper, we propose to found a H-cell to screen carcinogenic cells in a given sample of blood based on the principle of diffusion. This model incorporates the planning of a MEMS-based microfluidic channel to screen and recognize different cells depending on the size and various characteristics of the cells. Some of the methods which are implemented not efficient models for cancer cells detection in blood. The mass, displacement technique has been implemented in this investigation for cancer cell detection, with the help of this achieves the accuracy and better throughput. One cancer cell contains = 1.70371e-24 mass, such that with a weight of this formula, find out the total no of cells in the blood. This is the best method compared to existed methods. Using this count, the weight has been calculate early-stage cancer and treatment with a simple manner, CTCs in the blood is the un potential matter for health, H-cells have been measured with proposed weight and force technique such that in this investigation also calculate the healthy and cancer cells also. Finally, using this methodology achieves 93.58% accuracy, 0.00124 MSE. These are very good results compared to conventional methods. </span></p> Syed Shameem, RamaKrishna T V, Sahithi M, Rohitha B, Keerthana J, Hasane Ahammad Sk, Srinivas Babu P S, Saikumar K Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation, characterization and evaluation of nanoparticles based dry powder insufflation containing terbutaline sulphate and itraconazole for the treatment of asthma <p>Many factors affect the pulmonary drug delivery and stability of the nanoparticles an acupuncture consisting of bronchial asthma. Present research envisages on the development of dry powder nanoparticles as insufflation a acupuncture consisting of bronchial asthma (allergy due to <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>) using physical mixing and spray drying. Different founding are prepared and characterized with suitable excipients like lactose and trehalose. The particle size distribution of nano milled and spray-dried particles of Terbutaline Sulphate and Itraconazole showed unimodal size distribution. The formulations prepared with trehalose as the carrier showed less D<sub>v90</sub>, D<sub>v50</sub> and D<sub>v10</sub> values due to the fineness in the particles of trehalose when compared to lactose. The <em>D</em><sub>v50</sub>&nbsp; and D<sub>v10 </sub>values were in the range of mountains of 0.43-0.89 µm and 0.21–0.49 µm for all formulations, which shows the primary particle size in the nanometer scale. Smooth and nearly spherical particles were produced for spray-dried formulations when compared to milled formulations. Zeta potential comes across until be between +17±0.13 to +32±0.12, which explains the particles as moderately stable. MMAD values ranges from 3.19 µm to 4.78 µm for milled nanoparticles and 3.45 µm to 4.21 µm for spray-dried particles. Formulated nanoparticles exhibited good spreading properties, which will allow all the particles to deposition palmy profusion territories consisting of the lung. <em>In-vitro</em> drug release studies explains that spray-dried formulations of Terbutaline sulpahte and Itraconazole using lactose as excipients released the drug upto 98.9% and 99.1% in 180mts.</p> Venugopalaiah Penabaka, Kumar B, Prasad N.B.L Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To evaluate the impact of patient education on self-reported adherence, and management behavior of children with asthma <p>The failure to stick to a recommended remedial program for the treatment of an incessant illness might be mindful to some extent for proceeding with the infection movement. Adherence the key territories of enthusiasm for Asthma. The focal point of examination were to recognize issues detailed by families to influence their Adherence to asthma care. To evaluate the effect of patient education to Self-reported Adherence, Management, and Barriers. Children introducing during an intense assault of asthma were enrolled in this investigation. The restorative record of the experience were preoccupied and contrasted and data that were acquired at first visit and after 3 months. There are 986 youngsters 4 to 15 years old living in city evaluation tracts in the examination. The parental report of drugs endorsed, and the data on the disconnected report concurred 95.15% of the ideal opportunity β-Agonists, 86.24% are steroids, and 7.71% are cromolyn. Meds were overlooked a portion of time by 45.2% of the kids, and 52.8% attempted to escape to taking medication. Arrangements of follow-up consideration were kept by 69% of those given an arrangement, by an expected 60.0% of the individuals who were advised explicitly to require an arrangement. Just a single third of guardians report that they had the option to fend off the youngster from realized asthma triggers about constantly. After the subsequent, the huge changes are seen. Adherence to asthma-the executives program includes various territories: prescription, arrangement keeping, avoidance, and applying a crisis strategy. A barrier to Adherence may exist in one or every one of the four of these areas, prompting ineffectual control of asthma. The patient education improving the patient-doctor organization and furthermore improve Adherence.</p> Arulprakasam K C, Senthilkumar N Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Potencies of N-Substituted Iminothiazodin-4-One Derivatives <p>The biggest and most multifaceted class of organic compounds includes heterocyclic compounds. Currently, several heterocyclic compounds are identified, and persistently gratefulness to tremendous synthetic work and synthetic usefulness, the number is increasing exponentially.&nbsp; In most fields of science, including medicinal, pharmaceutical, and agro-chemistry, heterocyclic compounds have a function, and biochemistry is also another area. In this research article, the green approach is administered for achieving the nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur centered five-membered heterocyclic derivatives. By t<em>aking the whole thing into account of hetero-chemistry,</em> the moderately effective analog for gram-positive and gram-negative strains was shown for the five-membered heterocyclic compound series of N-substituted iminothiazodine-4-one and N-(benzylideneamino)thiazol-4(5H). The compound 6b showed very much active potency in accordance with the type standard drug the 6c compound against gram-positive <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> bacteria compared to the standard drugs and 6b indicated very active potency against the gram-negative <em>Escherichia</em><em> coli </em>bacterial strain<em>.</em>&nbsp; The 5a and 6a compounds showed very strong activity against the fungal strain of <em>Candida albicans</em> and 6b or 6c were more active and highly potent than the standard drugs against <em>Aspergillus niger </em>species. In the view of this research, drive states that all the synthesized compounds might be used for the development for further heterocyclic entities.</p> Sharad K. Awate, Suresh V. Patil, Ravindra S. Dhivare, Renukacharya G. Khanapure Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ameliorative effect of Cubeba Officinalis dried fruits against Tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats <p><em>Cubeba Officinalis</em> is traditionally effective in the treatment of various kidney ailments, and the main adverse effect of tacrolimus is nephrotoxicity. There is no documented evidence about the ameliorative potential of <em>Cubeba Officinalis </em>in tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity. The main endeavor of the study was to determine the nephroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of <em>Cubeba Officinalis </em>dried fruits against tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. The <em>Cubeba Officinalis </em>dried fruits were collected from the local market, and Male albino rats weighing 200-250 g were used for the study. The dose of is lower 200mg/kg, higher dose 400 mg/kg of test drug (EECO) was used, and silymarin is used as the standard at the dose of 20 mg/kg. The animals were divided into five groups, six animals each, which is started prior to oral administration of tacrolimus and continued with the fourteen days tacrolimus treatment. After the whole period of study, the rats were sacrificed, and histopathological studies and biochemical estimations were carried out. The BUN values&nbsp; were decreased from 33.60±3.84 in nephrotoxic rats to 28.27±2.48 (200mg/kg) and 20.70±0.81 (400mg/kg),creatinine levels from 1.645±0.21 to 0.926±0.19 (200mg/kg) and 0.638±0.07(400 mg/kg),uric acid levels from 1.822±0.249 to 1.092±0.306 (200 mg/kg) and 0.806±0.181 (400 mg/kg) sodium, potassium and chloride levels from 1.607± 0.091, 2.548± 0.293 and 259.8±6.42 to 1.302± 0.169 , 1.023±0.174 and 134.7±9.138 (200mg/kg of EECO) and 0.586±0.092 , 0.831±0.174 and 130.2±2.29 (400mg/kg of EECO). The Ethanolic extract of <em>cubeba officinalis</em> was found to be effective in treating the nephrotoxicity in tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity.</p> Suman S, Hayagreeva Dinakar Y, Suhas reddy P V, Sai Sudha Yadav B, Venkateshwar Reddy V Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of reflexology related interventions on physiological and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome among women <p>The purpose of the study was First to evaluate the effectiveness of reflexology related interventions on biochemical and physiological parameters of metabolic syndrome among women; &nbsp;Second to find out the association between physiological and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome among women with socio-demographic variables. The study used a true experimental design with one experimental group and one control group. Data were collected from 40 self-help group women who were the members of Kudumbashree from a selected area in South India. Samples were collected by using multistage sampling. Reflexology related intervention was given to the experimental group for 12 weeks. The control group did not receive an intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA and t-test were used for data analysis. The study found there is a significant change in the physiological and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome among the experimental group as compared to the control group (p&lt;0.001). Even if there is no statistically significant difference between the different groups, the observed difference is clinically significant. The study concludes that reflexology related intervention was effective in improving the parameters of metabolic syndrome. It can be implemented in the clinical setting for patients with metabolic syndrome and related lifestyle disorders</p> Elizabeth A J, Aruna S, Mercy P J Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization and antibacterial activity of cocos Nucifera L. Meat extract and powder as a drug and cosmetic agent <p>Cocos nucifera L. or Kopyor coconut is the natural material plant that has nutrients content, including&nbsp;carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fatty acids. The potential of Kopyor coconut is mainly produced from water and soft flesh or meat.&nbsp;Some benefits of the meat have not been widely studied as an active drug agent.&nbsp;This study was aimed to identify and characterize kopyor meat extract and to test activity as an antibacterial agent. The maceration method was used to extract kopyor meat. The optimized extraction resulted in a yield of 23% efficiency. Kopyor meat extract was identified in terms of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, extract content and saponification value. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of both dried meat kopyor and extract were conducted. The standardized extract had a loss on drying of 35%, total ash of 8.95%, acid-insoluble ash of 31%, and extract content soluble in water and ethanol of 56.9% and 0.6% respectively. The saponification value showed a value of 56. It was shown that both powder and Cocos nucifera extract had as same high activity as an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis therefore this recommended for further formulation and evaluation as drug and cosmetic.</p> Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Sisunandar, Suciati, Isnaeni, Noorma Rosita Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Vitamin D status and its determinants in Pre Diabetic pregnant mothers attending tertiary care centre in Tamilnadu, India <p>Vitamin D is a vital nutrient factor in the healthiness of the mother and infant. Vitamin D is mainly amalgamated in the skin following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation. Insufficiency of vitamin D in Pregnancy had been related to various sicknesses, such as respiratory infection, type 1 diabetes mellitus, high risk of childhood wheezing. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of pregestational diabetes in pregnant women referred to antenatal clinics in SRM Medical College hospital, Tamilnadu, India. 200 pregnant women were recruited, and oral glucose challenge test (OGCT), serum calcium and 25(OH) D were determined. Participants were in the age group of 18 to 35 years, with a mean age of 26.29. Among the participants, 59% were multiparous. The present study showed that a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (61.5%) and insufficiency (34%) in pregnant women before supplementation with a mean of 16.84. Vitamin D supplementation during the early weeks of pregnancy might help in the improvement of maternal and child health.</p> Kavitha Durairaj, Muthulakshmi M, Venkataraman P, Murali R, Rukumani J, Sunitha Samal Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 18 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Spirulina, The Boon of Nature <p>Dr.Darwin, who was an algae scientist from Germany, Discovered the spiral-shaped algae presence and designated it Spirulina. Spirulina, a seaweed which is a blue-green algae biomass, belongs to the class of cyanobacteria discovered by non-referenced Mexicans in the 16<sup>th</sup> century and has been used as a daily food source. The first large-scale spirulina plant was created in 1970 and is now being grown in many areas of the globe. Many species of spirulina have been identified in recent decades, but among them are spirulina platensis and spirulina maxima. It is enriched with lots of vitamins, nutrients, antioxidants, proteins, pigments, minerals, …etc…, and is considered a wonder of nature. It is a powerful dietary supplement wealthy in nutrients and vitamins used by National Aeronautics and Space Administration and European Space Agency as a food supplement during space missions and capable of fighting against multiple microbial illnesses by enhancing immunity. Spirulina exhibits anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and many other activities and also found useful in the production of feedstocks.</p> Vidya Banakar, Qumre Alam, Rajendra SV, Aman Pandit, Acquline Cladious, Gnanaprakash K Copyright (c) 2020 Sat, 04 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular activities in Moringa oleifera Linn - Review <p>The terrific increase by the word "modernization" in various fields in the world without boundaries affects the total environmental system, which leads to the emergence of various new diseases in various forms. In that case, cancer is considered as one of such a dreadful disease which is also measured as a leading cause for the death of the people. Even with the advanced treatment of modern medicine in treating cancer and reduce the rate of cancer recurrence using advanced technologies such as immunotherapy, targeted therapy, robotic radiosurgery are still very subjective to the individual, and it causes tremendous side effects to the patient. Alternative medicine plays a vital role in the treatment and management of diseases event before centuries. Many pharmaceutical companies involved in the research development of anticancer properties as a holistic approach in the treatment and management of cancer. <em>Moringa oleifera</em>, traditionally used as food sources, has attracted many researches to evaluate the biochemical properties of medicinal and antioxidant as an antiulcer, antimicrobial, antitumour and anticancer. Each part of the tree is nutritive and personalized selective on phytochemicals as an anticancer drug are essential in treating the cancer cells. Limited knowledge on the cytotoxic activity and therapeutic index of <em>M.</em> <em>oleifera</em> in treating specific types of cancers are still under study by many researchers. However, the molecular analysis of anticancer properties in&nbsp;<em>Moringa oleifera</em> as sustainable preventive and management of cancer therapy still lacking in Malaysia</p> Sridevi Subramonie, Nagaraja Suryadevara, Balavinayagamani Ganapathy, Gokila Devi T Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Drug-induced renal disorder-A Mini Review <p>Drug-induced kidney disorder/disease (DKID) is an origin of kidney disease followed by acute renal failure. Drug-induced renal toxicity is more common in infants and young children in certain clinical circumstances where underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. Sometimes, administered drugs may cause acute renal injury, intra-renal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders in patients. Certain drugs may cause alterations in intra-glomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), interstitial tubule disease, and renal scarring. Common risk factors include; pre-existing renal dysfunction, volume-depleted state, old age, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. Therefore, the prevention from the disease includes the knowledge about the nephrotoxicity, assessing considering the patient-related, kidney-related, and drug-related factors while prescribing medicines, using of alternative drugs, which are non-nephrotoxic, assessing the baseline of renal function before starting the treatment, monitor the renal function during the treatment and avoid the nephrotoxic drug combinations and withdrawing the offending drugs due to toxicity. The ADRs of the prescribed/ administered are identified at the earliest to prevent the development of the last-stage renal disorder. This review discusses the risk factors associated with drug-induced renal disease, estimation of renal function, mechanism of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, and certain drugs that cause nephrotoxicity.</p> Divya M, Nivetha S. R., Lekshmi Mohan, Arul B*, Kothai R Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Recent developments in nano micelles as drug delivery system <p>Targeting of the drug directly to the cells, tissues, or organs with no impact on healthy cells is a challenge. In the current era, it's been made possible by therapeutic interventions. The novel drug delivery systems such as nano particulates, liposomes, aquasomes, phytosomes, dendrimers, nano sponges, nano micelles are developed. Nano micelles are developed for efficient targeting and are currently in trend as therapeutic carriers of water-insoluble drugs. Micelles are self-assembling Nano-sized colloidal particles with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic shell. Among the micelle-forming compounds, amphiphilic copolymers, i.e., polymers consisting of hydrophobic block and hydrophilic block, are gaining increasing attention. Polymeric micelles possess high stability both <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> with good biocompatibility. Nano micelles are used widely because of the smaller size range of 10 to 100nm, with greater drug loading capacity. Advantages over other dosage forms include solubilization of poorly soluble drugs, sustained release, protection of drugs from degradation and metabolism. The property discussed includes CMC, size, and aggregation number, and stability. CMC is the minimum polymer concentration required for micelle formation. Aggregation number (Nₐ) is the number of polymeric chains required to form micelles, and it ranges between tens to hundreds. Thermodynamic stability is based on size, the optical clarity of solution, viscosity, and surface tension. Kinetic stability accounts for micellar integrity. This review will discuss some recent trends in using micelles as pharmaceutical carriers such as to deliver drugs in conditions such as TB, cancer, ocular complications, etc.</p> Pooja Mallya, Gowda D V, Mahendran B, Bhavya M V, Vikas Jain Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological activities of Syringodium isoetifolium <p>Seagrass are marine plants, grown in saline environments and fully submerged in the sea. They are widely distributed along the tropical and subtropical regions. A seagrass called, <em>Syringodium isoetifolium</em> comes under the family Cymodoceaceae, this grass is otherwise called as noodle grass. Phytochemical compounds such as flavonoids, terpenoids coumarins, xanthoproteins, sugars, carboxylic acids can be extracted by the solvents such as methanol, hexane, and acetone. <em>Syringodium isoetifolium </em>has pharmacological activit<em>i</em>es such as antioxidant, antihemolytic, antibacterial cytotoxicity, and antifungal activity. During photosynthesis, lacunal gas is discharged from lacunae, and it is composed of oxygen and nitrogen. Pheophytin a compound was isolated from the crude extract of <em>Syringodium isoetifolium </em>by treating it with human pathogens. Binding sites of the pathogen can be found by the Molecular docking study. In this article, we discuss about the phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and morphological characteristics of <em>Syringodium isoetifolium.</em></p> Kalaivani P, Kavitha D, Vanitha V Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Green coffee bean seed and their role in antioxidant–A review <p>All around the world, Coffee place an important position in the beverages. It contains phenolic acid as well as polyphenols. It has the property of antioxidant; mood enhances mood, and also increases alertness, reduces weight, efficiency against hypertension, and antitumor property because of its polyphenols and phenolic constituents. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are the main components found in the fraction of phenols from green coffee beans. CGA has several therapeutic properties, which include antioxidant activities and also has hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, and antiviral properties. &nbsp;Several essential compounds found in CGA in green coffee beans are caffeoylquinic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyl quinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids, and quinic acid. Therefore, this review highlighted the health benefits and anticancer activities of Green coffee bean.</p> Bothiraj K V, Murugan, Vanitha V Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The insights on Oro-dispersible tablet <p>Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) were the conventional product that disintegrates or dissolves into the buccal mucosa in less than 1mins in the absence of water and without chewing. They were first acquainted with the market during the 1980s, and end up one of the quickest developing subdivisions of the oral medication conveyance industry and their items are creating at an extraordinary rate. New orodispersible tablet innovations address numerous pharmaceutical and need of patients, extending from upgraded life-cycle the executives for reasonable medicating for pediatric, aged, and mental patients with trouble in swallowing. These supposedly affect about 35% of the all-inclusive community and related to various ailments like Parkinsonism, mental incapacity, motion sickness, obviousness, water inaccessibility, and so on. Other individuals possibly will face difficulties by utilizing control release solid oral product comprise the psychologically ill, partially developed patients, and rare patients those are unco-operative, on taking place diminished fluid consumption and are nauseated. To defeat such troubles, orodispersible tablets have been formulated. In this dosage form, the property of ODTs can be reached by the expansion of various additives such are super- the disintegrating agent is the main excipient. This has been motivated by both industry and academia to develop advanced orally dispersible products and advanced methodologies in the market. The ODTs are the most extensively implemented marketable products than others. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide the complete information of ODTs formulation</p> Akshay Kumar S, Gowda D V, Sharadha M, Akhila A R Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Exploration of Ayurveda blueprint on clinical physiology of Meda (adipose tissue) and Majja Dhatu (bone marrow) in context to obesity <p>The state of health depends on the functional state of <em>Dosha</em>, <em>Dhatu</em>, <em>Mala</em>, <em>Srotas</em>, and <em>Agni</em>. The concept of functional and nutritional interdependence of <em>Dhatu</em> as well as a physiological and pathological aspect of all the seven <em>Dhatu</em> has been described by Ayurveda scholars. The metabolic effect of <em>Meda</em> and <em>Majja Dhatu</em> on other tissues like a muscle (<em>Mamsa Dhatu</em>), bone (<em>Asthi Dhatu</em>), and reproductive tissue (<em>Shukra Dhatu</em>) show their functional interdependence. The Ayurveda compendia, as well as recent research data, shows that obesity is the disorder of nutrition, which depends on lifestyle and diet. The obesity has been discussed in relation to <em>Medovaha Srotodushti </em>and <em>Meda Dhatu Vriddhi</em>. Although the physiology of <em>Vasa</em>, <em>Meda</em>, and <em>Majja</em> tissue has not been elaborated much, their clinical physiology has been described. This article aims to comprehend the pathophysiology of obesity as well as manifestations on the disturbed functional state of <em>Meda</em> and <em>Majja Dhatu, </em>as depicted by Ayurveda scholars in light of contemporary science. This article will be helpful in developing a vision regarding the clinical physiology of <em>Meda</em> and <em>Majja</em>, which will be further helpful in the exploration of pathophysiology and the management of obesity and associated disorders manifested by them. On exhaustive study, it was observed that the clinical physiology of <em>Meda</em> and <em>Majja Dhatu </em>shares quite a resemblance with the outcomes of contemporary researches on adipocytes, but still, some of these are still under the research.</p> Vandana Verma, Sonam Agrawal, Sangeeta Gehlot Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An overview on topical drug delivery system – Updated review <p>The paper reviews an overview of a conventional and novel approach in the topical drug delivery system. Drug delivery via the skin is becoming progressively popular due to its convenience and affordability. The skin is the most important mechanical barrier to the penetration of many drug substances and acts as an ideal site to deliver the drug both locally and systemically. The topical route has been a favored route of drug administration over the last decades. Despite conventional topical drug delivery systems limits in poor retention and low bioavailability. This drawback overcomes by extensive research to develop a novel topical drug delivery systems targeting to improve the safety, efficacy and to minimize side effects. The conventional review focuses on dusting powders, poultices, plasters, lotion, liniments, solution, emulsion, suspension, colloidions, tinctures, creams, gels, ointments, pastes, suppositories, transdermal delivery systems, tapes, and gauzes and rubbing alcohol while the novel review focuses on novel gels, aerosol foams, microsponges, muco-adhesive bio-adhesives, novel vesicular carriers, nano-emulsion &amp; nano-emulgel, protein and peptide delivery, polymers, emulsifier-free formulations and fullerenes etc. The key purpose of a topical delivery system is to enhance the skin permeability and to retain in the dermis. This review addresses a basis for further advancement and up-gradation of current techniques and technologies.</p> Sharadha M, Gowda D V, Vishal Gupta N, Akhila A R Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Glucosamine effects on lipids and blood pressure <p>Glucosamine has in the past, been recommended for various functions, including the synthesis of synovial fluid, inhibiting degradation, and enhancing the healing of articular cartilage. However, there is no outstanding research that has been done to support these uses. The aim of the study is to examine the effects of glucosamine on lipids and blood pressure. Articles were obtained from reputable databases and used to discuss the glucosamine efficacy in osteoarthritis and glucosamine safety profile on lipids and blood pressure. The proposed study hypothesizes that glucosamine causes an increase in cholesterol and blood pressure levels. The authors analyzed past research studies on glucosamine, its efficacy in osteoarthritis, and the safety profile of the compound on lipids and blood pressure. The findings were inconclusive, even though they tended to suggest that glucosamine sulfate does not increase cholesterol levels; neither does it increase blood pressure in humans. Experimental research tended to show that glucosamine sulfate increases the levels of insulin, which might result in an increase in blood pressure. Even so, more recent studies have shown that glucosamine does not increase cholesterol levels; neither does the compound affect the blood pressure levels in human beings. Further studies are needed to ascertain the actual impact of glucosamine on lipids and blood pressure.</p> Elham Alshammari, Ahlam Alshammari Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ayurveda Explorations on Consequences of Excessive physical activity (Ativayayama) and Dose of Physical activity <p>Despite the well-established evidence of health benefits of moderate dose physical activity, there are evolving evidences which suggest that a high dose of long duration excessive physical activity may be associated with adverse health effects like dehydration, hyponatremia, exertional heat illness, musculoskeletal trauma, immune and hormonal deregulation, metabolic derangements, CV stress disorders, etc. &nbsp;However, ancient scholars of Ayurveda have well documented the harmful biological effects of excessive exercise (Ativyayama) and considered it under the category of etiological factors of several disorders. Various clinical conditions have been mentioned in which exercise is contraindicated or should be avoided. The harmful effect of excessive physical activity (Ativyayama) described by Ayurveda scholars are thirst (Trishna), altered taste perception, nausea (Aruchi), vomiting (Charddi), dizziness, exercise-related syncope (Bhrma), exertion (Shrma), cough (Kasa), dysponea (Svasha), injury in the chest (Ksata), weight loss (Kshaya), bleeding disorders (Raktapitta), cachexia (Sosha), exercise-induced heat injury, fever (Jvara), exertional dysponea in asthamatics (Pratamak svasha). Ayurveda scholars have described Physical activity (Vyayama ) in Daily routine (Dincharya), and advocated to performed daily in moderate-intensity only, to get the beneficial effects while the severe grade of exercise is contraindicated. It should be performed after considering the age, diet, season, psychosomatic constitution, psychological state, physiological state of females, disease state, treatment procedures, etc. There are very few recent scientific studies on type and dose of exercise in view of the above-mentioned factors by Ayurveda scholars as per the health state or particular type of disorders and its stage. So it is highly needed to appreciate the perspective of Ayurveda scholars in research, which will be helpful in exploration of a dose of physical activity in the form of mild, moderate and severe grade and its overall effect on health to ascertain that how much activity is needed to get the optimal health benefits.</p> Vandana Verma Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 10 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Review of Topiramate Effect on Weight Loss <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of topiramate in promoting weight loss among obese patients. The study was inspired by the fact that men and women, in addition to the stereotyped teenager, are affected by eating disorders. The general scope of this paper will comprise of the evaluation of the effectiveness of topiramate in weight loss amongst obese patients. The research achieves this through a review of past literature. In sum, the reviewed study found that the use of topiramate was associated with an increase in positive outcomes. Most of the positive outcomes were linked with weight reduction among overweight and obese patients. The review also revealed that the administration of the drug reduced the adverse effects of psychotic drugs minimized food cravings, alcohol, and smoking. Moreover, the combination of the drug with other antiepilepsy medications had more positive outcomes than when used as a monotherapy.</p> Elham Alshammari, Ahlam Alshammari Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Overview of Gastric Cancer Treatment and Recent Developments – An Updated Review <p>Gastric Cancer (GC) is one among the serious diseases prevailing globally. GC has immense global life-threatening health issues by taking 4<sup>th</sup> place among all the widespread cancers and 2<sup>nd</sup> foremost reason for fatality around the globe. Numerous patients have an inoperable disease at diagnosis or have recurrent disease after resection with curative intent. Surgery remains the principle therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation can improve the outcome of GC therapy. Targeted therapies such as Trastuzumab, an antibody against HER2 and the VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab highly preferred in GC. Since the last few years, immunotherapy became a significant approach for the cure of various cancers like GC. &nbsp;In the present review, we have put forward the various stages of GC and all the possible advanced treatments for GC. Surgery is still the first choice analysed in GC followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. New frontiers in treatment suggest the growing consideration for intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutics and a combination of traditional drugs with the newer generation. A note is added to relevant studies dealing with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment concepts and gives an overview of latest trends and developments in GC treatment</p> Arun Kumar Vadikari, Akkihebbal R Akhila, Vishakante Gowda D, Mahendran Bhaskaran, Parthasarathi K Kulkarni, Vikas Jain Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Burn-out and stress percipience benefits of a stress management program by autogenic relaxation training for teachers: A pilot study <p>Stress in the present world is an indivisible piece of life, regardless of social position and status. It is definitely experienced by all in different magnitude in daily life. Burnout is characterized as a negative mental encounter that is responses to work-related pressure. It relates to emotions experienced that require repeated exposure to emotionally charged social situations. In this manner, it is a work-related risk to which all individuals are uncovered, including teachers. The teaching profession is under large occupational pressure and prone to job burnout. The study aims to (i) assess the level of occupational burnout and stress among teachers of private and fully aided schools in the post-test for the experimental and control groups. (ii) to determine the effectiveness of autogenic relaxation on occupational burnout and stress among teachers of private and fully aided schools. A quantitative research approach with a True experimental design with experimental and control group, pre-test - post-test control group design was adopted for this study. The study focused on the selected schools in Vellore district. Totally, 28 participants selected by consecutive sampling techniques with the age of 25-60 years. Based on the inclusion criteria and availability of teachers, they were allocated into the control group (n=14) and experimental group (n=14).Demographic variables, occupational burnout, stress were assessed by using (Maslach burnout inventory and teacher stress inventory) it was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Stress management program by autogenic training once a week for 6 weeks was given. This program was prepared based on existing research and studies. We found that the median value in the pre-test is significantly different from the median value in the post-test for Maslach Burnout Inventory; the median value is significantly different for the emotional exhaustion sub-scale (t=216 and P=0.02). No significant difference was observed for depersonalization and personal accomplishment sub-scale. In the Teacher stress inventory the median value is significantly different for cardiovascular manifestations (t=201 and p=0.945); Fatigue manifestations (t=229 and p=0.229). No significant difference was observed for time management, work-related stressors, professional distress, discipline and motivation, professional investment, fatigue manifestations, emotional manifestations, gastronomical manifestations, and behavioral manifestations. This research suggests that autogenic relaxation training interventions with teachers are effective in reducing burn-out and stress.</p> Thephilah Cathrine R, Aruna S, Vijayaragahavan Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 17 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phenytoin induced Steven Johnson syndrome <p>Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant and Hydantoin, it is mainly used in the management o Seizures, and it stabilizes the neuronal membranes and decreases seizure activity by increasing efflux or reducing the influx of sodium ions across cell membranes in the motor cortex during the generation of nerve impulses. It is available in the market in the form of oral and intravenous forms, a loading dose of Phenytoin for the management of seizures is 10-20 mg, divided into 2-3 doses. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare and serious adverse effect of the skin along with the membranes of the mucous. It is caused by specific Drugs or Viral Infections. We have performed causality assessment by using the WHO and NARANJO'S ADR rating scale. It will seem, it is a Probable ADR, and severity assessed it confers a Type-A ADR, and it should be in Probably Preventable. So being a Reliable Clinical Pharmacist, we recommend to all health care professionals be aware of adverse drug reactions, and Desirable vigilance is necessitated toward safe and effective management for specific patients, strictly observe the patients in sequence anticipate Dangerous Adverse events.</p> Naga Subrahmanyam S, Nagaraju G V, Tagoore Vijaya Lakshmi D Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 07 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000