International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps <p>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) is quarterly publishing online peer reviewed scientific journal sponsored by Pharmascope Publications. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, short communications, case studies and reports in&nbsp;Pharmaceutical Sciences.</p> Pharmascope Publications, Sponsored by JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation en-US International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 0975-7538 An investigation of bioactive and free radical scavenging potential of moringa Oliefera leaf extracts https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1313 <p><em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam, commonly known as Sehjan belongs to the Moringaceae family. It is widely used for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study was an attempt to evaluate the morphological characteristics, percent yield, the bioactive and antioxidant potential of <em>M. oleifera</em> leaves that would help in elucidating a promising therapeutic and curative agent for the treatment of different ailments. The maximum percentage yield was obtained in methanolic extract (29.55%) of <em>M. oliefera</em> leaves. Qualitative analysis also revealed the maximum presence of all the metabolites in methanolic extract. Quantitative analysis revealed an appreciable presence of phenol (53.1 mg/g) flavonoids (47.7mg/g) and carotenoids (16.46 mg/g) in <em>M.</em> <em>oleifera</em> leaves. The methanolic extract had shown the maximum antioxidant potency in a dose-dependent manner during the evaluation of enzymatic (SOD and CAT) and nonenzymatic (DPPH and FRAP) antioxidants with minimum IC<sub>50 </sub>value. Thus, it could be concluded from the present study that methanolic leaf extract of <em>M. oliefera</em> could be amongst the principle extract for the antioxidant activity of <em>M. oliefera</em>, which could be used for the treatment of several ailments.</p> Uzma Sayyed Pratibha Pandey Rohit K. Tiwari Rafia Shekh Preeti Bajpai Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1575 1579 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1313 Correlation of pupil to limbus diameter ratio (PLD ratio) with blood pres-sure and pulse rate in hypertensive males https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1314 <p>Hypertension is known to be a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, vision loss which remains asymptomatic until late in its course and even severely elevated pressures can be clinically silent for years. &nbsp;Measurement of diameter of the pupil is indicative of autonomic function, and recording of the pupil to limbus diameter (PLD) ratio correlates with alterations in blood pressure. &nbsp;As hypertension is more prevalent in males and the incidence is increasing year by year, measurement of PLD ratio can be used as a simple screening tool in the general population to measure the autonomic alterations associated with changes in blood pressure. &nbsp;This study aims at finding the correlation of pupil to limbus diameter (PLD) ratio with blood pressure and pulse rate in Hypertensive Males. &nbsp;45 male patients attending O/P of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital in the age group of 30 to 65 years, fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. &nbsp;It's a case-control study with non-probability convenient sampling. &nbsp;Blood pressure, using a sphygmomanometer and pulse rate were measured by the physician according to AHA criteria, and PLD ratio was assessed by the two-box method. &nbsp;There was a significant decrease observed in PLD ratio when normal and hypertensive groups. &nbsp;Mean pulse rate of hypertensive males was significantly higher compared to the control group. &nbsp;The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly high in hypertensive male patients. &nbsp;A significant difference in PLD ratio exists between the control and hypertensive males though no positive correlation was observed. &nbsp;</p> Harini Krishnan Archana R Kannan Rajendran Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1580 1586 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1314 Efficacy of navaka guggulu in the management of obesity: A case study https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1315 <p>Obesity is a global public health problem because of its increased prevalence and health effects. It is the most common disorder encountered in clinical practice, which has serious social and psychological dimensions that affect all age groups. A 28-year old married obese male whose body weight and height were 97 kilograms and 5.9 feet respectively showed a body mass index (BMI) of 30. All the examinations and tests were normal before the study. There were 3 weight reduction regimes that included only walking in the morning during the first month, followed by walking with dieting in the second month and in addition to dieting and walking, two tablets of Navaka Guggulu was prescribed to be taken daily. The vital signs, bowel habits, micturition habits and appetite were assessed daily. After the interventions, the weight reduction was observed at 0.5, 0.8 and 4.7 kgs at the end of the first, second and fourth month, respectively. The results of routine blood parameters, autonomic function tests and respiratory function tests were normal with an increase in the haemoglobin level, high-density lipids and a decrease in the total cholesterol level, triglycerides, low-density lipids and very low-density lipids. The present study showed that Navaka Guggulu was not only beneficial but also safe and efficacious in the treatment of obesity.</p> Sherly Deborah G Archana R Suprava Das Myat Thu Thu Win Usha Kumari Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1587 1591 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1315 Effect of endurance exercise on attention and depression in Parkinson’s disease patients - A new approach https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1318 <p>Aim of the study is to determine the effects of endurance exercise on depression and attention deficiency in people with Parkinson’s disease patients. The methodology of the study is,15 participants with Parkinson's disease were selected both male and female from the neurological rehabilitation centre, Chennai. The purpose and procedure of the study were completely explained to the participants, and informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Depression scale and the digit-symbol task was evaluated before starting the exercise program and participants were randomized into two groups (Group A and Group B). This study compared the effect of endurance exercise to stretch-balance training. The exercise program was given for a duration of 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, Hospital anxiety &amp; depression scale and digit-symbol task were used to check for the progress. The result we determine from the statistical analysis, it has been revealed that depression symptoms decreased with endurance exercise and stretch-balance training but didn't show any significant improvement on attention with endurance exercise while with stretch-balance training it shows minimal improvement. Hence, we conclude that endurance exercise is a viable intervention in PD that can be used as a protective technique against depression symptoms and can also be used for improving attention in people with Parkinson’s.</p> Sujatha B Sarumathi S Tinu Priya R Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1592 1595 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1318 Molecular detection of Candida species by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR from HIV infected persons https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1317 <p>Oral Candidiasis an important opportunistic fungal infection in HIV patients. This is the first sign of HIV infection. It can spread from the mouth through the pharynx to the oesophagus. Oral Candidiasis is most regularly complicated with<em> oesophagal Candidiasis, </em>which may restrain nourishment and result in weight reduction, alarming the overall health of the HIV tainted persons. In present study, we have a tendency to&nbsp;determine in Candida species by blend of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) examination of PCR from HIV tainted people and furthermore we demonstrated that phenotypic and genotypic identification&nbsp;method&nbsp;was&nbsp;vital&nbsp;to work out&nbsp;the species. We recognized seventy two Candida confines acquired from a hundred and fifty patients contaminated with HIV by utilizing PCR-RFLP assay. All inclusive primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) area (ITS1– ITS4) of the fungal DNA qualities were utilized for this measure. We distinguished the diverse Candida spp. By utilizing the limitation enzyme MspI. Here most of the isolates were obtained from male patients 40(51%). <em>Candida albicans </em>was the recurrent species segregated (46.8%) pursued by <em>C. tropicalis </em>(30.3%),<em> C. glabrata </em>(7.59%), <em>C. parapsilosis </em>(6.3%)<em> C.dubulinesis </em>(6.3%) along with<em> C. krusei </em>(2.5%) detected successfully. PCR- RFLP is a high definite, sensitive, quick, reliable technique and also applicable method for fungal detection in clinical laboratory for identification of medically important&nbsp;<em>Candida</em>&nbsp;spp. It is used for detection of mycological examinations in HIV-positive along with other immunocompromised patients for epidemiological studies.</p> SandhyaRani T Srikumar R Prabhakar Reddy E Latha S Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1596 1601 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1317 Formulation and evaluation of bilayer tablets: Glimepiride in floating drug delivery and Metformin in sustained release https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1319 <p>In this study, we aimed to prepare bilayer tablets of Glimepiride in floating drug delivery and Metformin in sustained release formulation. Glimepiride is chosen in floating drug delivery to overcome the gastric irritation and gastric emptying time. Glimepiride was prepared by different polymers such as guar gum, xanthan gum, carbopol and sodium bicarbonate act as effervescent agent, and other excipients were mixed and compressed by direct compression as the first layer.&nbsp; Metformin was chosen in sustained release to reduce dose frequency using different polymer HPMC K100M, methylcellulose, PVP K30 in different ratio and other excipients were mixed and compressed as the second layer. The first layer and second layer are combined as a bilayer tablet. Tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, weight variation; the <em>In vitro</em> studies were done for all formulation. Among all formulation, F2 was selected as best formulation and release kinetics studies were evaluated for formulation F2.</p> Harish Choodappa Subramanian Somaskandan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1602 1607 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1319 Enantiomeric separation of Midodrine hydrochloride in bulk and pharma-ceutical dosage form by chiral HPLC https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1320 <p>A simple, sensitive chiral liquid chromatographic method was developed for the separation and quantification of enantiomers Midodrine. A chiral PAK IG-3 (150 x 4.6 mm) 3µm column was used for the separation of the enantiomers. The mobile phase consists of 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate in water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 95:5, v/v with a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The detection was done at 290 nm with column temperature maintained at 40°C. The method linear ranged between 10 – 110 μg/ml and 5 – 100 μg/ml for (+) and (-) Midodrine enantiomers.&nbsp; The recovery of the method was found to be in the range of 99.1 to 101.2 %. The detection limit for the (+) and (-) enantiomers was found to be 4 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively. A simple validated chiral HPLC method with reverse elusion is described for the separation and quantification of the enantiomers of Midodrine in bulk and formulation.</p> Jenifer Ashwini S Narenderan ST Meyyanathan SN Babu B Gowramma B Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1608 1611 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1320 Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Anti-stress and Cerebro-protective activity of ethyl acetate extract of bark of Entada rheedi https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1321 <p><em>Entada rheedi </em>is claimed to have antistress activity by folklore which is available abundantly in several places of India<em>. </em>The present study was planned to evaluate the phytochemical, anti-oxidant, anti-stress and cerebroprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract of bark of <em>Entada rheedi </em>(EAER)<em>. </em>The bark of <em>Entada rheedi</em> was collected and extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to phytochemical screening (chemical and HPTLC), antioxidant (<em>in-vitro</em>), anti-stress (mice model) and cerebroprotective activities (cerebral ischemia model). EAER showed the presence of flavonoids as primary phytoconstituents. EAER significantly reduced the immobility time in swimming endurance and tail suspension test. EAER significantly reduced the TBARS levels and augmented tissue antioxidants in restraint stress model and cerebral ischemia model. The levels of MOA-A were reduced in the EAER treated animals and cortisol levels also reduced in EAER treated animals. Histopathology also supported the biochemical parameters. The EAER effect was compared with reference standard diazepam and Ashwagandha. EAER showed significant antioxidant, anti-stress and cerebroprotective activities and the protective effect could be due to the presence of flavonoids as phytoconstituents.</p> Marasani Anil Swarna Latha D Eswar Kumar K Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1612 1620 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1321 Development of Graphical User Interface to Classify Cardiac Abnormalities using ECG Signal https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1326 <p>Analysis of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal can lead to better detection of cardiac arrhythmia. The important steps involved in the ECG signal analysis include acquisition of data, pre-processing of signal to remove artefacts, feature extraction of attributes and finally identifying abnormalities. This work proposes an efficient implementation of the R-R interval-based ECG classification technique for detecting abnormalities in heart functioning. ECG signals from an online database (PhysioNet.org) was analysed after noise removal for R-R interval, as R peak has the maximum prominent amplitude in ECG wave. Deviation in the R-R interval values obtained from unhealthy was observed and compared with healthy subjects. This observation of cardiac activity can be visualised in our developed Graphical User Interface (GUI). The GUI platform requires only the input of the ECG signal that is to be analysed for abnormalities, which can provide the clinician with the result of cardiac abnormality classification and can help in diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Sharanya S Sridhar PA Suresh MP Poorana Mary Monisha W Tharadevi R Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1621 1625 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1326 Convolution Neural Network Based Ecg Classifier https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1327 <p>Classification of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals plays a significant role in the identification of the functioning of the heart. This work pertains with the ECG signals, where the classifier is developed for identification of normal or abnormal conditions of the heart. The raw ECG signals are collected from an online database (<a href="http://www.physioNet.org">www.physioNet.org</a>) for classification. The raw ECG signal is pre-processed for noise removal, and the frequency spectrum is analysed to compare raw and denoised ECG signal. Attributes (P, Q, R, S, T time intervals) from denoised ECG signal is analysed and classified using Convolution Neural Network (CNN). The paper reports a classification technique to differentiate ECG signals from the MIT-BIH database (arrhythmia database, arrhythmia p-wave annotations, atrial fibrillation). The CNN analyses the deviation between nominal ranges of attributes (amplitude and time interval) and classifies between the abnormality and normal ECG wave. This work provides a simple method for interpreting ECG related condition for the clinician and helps medical practitioners to make diagnostic decisions.</p> Sharanya S Sridhar PA Poornakala J Muppala Vasishta Tharani U Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1626 1630 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1327 Simultaneous estimation of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir in bulk and its dosage forms by stability indicating RP-HPLC method https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1328 <p>The fixed-dose ledipasvir-sofosbuvir combination offers an effective and well-tolerated pill for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Only a few analytical works were carried out to estimate the Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir drug combination in the various dosage forms. This work aimed to simplify the estimation process using RP-HPLC methodology. The method was developed on a reversed phase Agilent C<sub>18</sub> (4.6 x 150 mm, 5 µm) column. The isocratic elution process was performed using a mobile phase ratio of Methanol (70% v/v): Water (30 % v/v) with 0.6 ml/min flow rate. Elute was scanned using the PDA detector at the wavelength of 235 nm. The results of the elution process showed that the Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir elute the peak at a concentration of 9 μg/ml and 40 μg/ml with retention times of 7.745 min and 2.345 min respectively. The percentage purity of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir was found to be 99.40 % w/v and 98.20 % w/v. The proposed method was found to be a high degree of precision and reproducibility. The percentage recovery was found to be 99.92 % for Ledipasvir and 99.82 % for Sofosbuvir. The LOD and LOQ were measured, and the results were within limits. The developed validation method can be applied for degradation evaluation of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir for the various dosage forms.</p> Ismail Y Vijaya Vara Prasad M Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1631 1639 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1328 Sequencing and structure analysis of UBC gene for breast and ‎lung cancer https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1329 <p>In the present study, sequencing approach has been adopted for exploring the ‎genetic alteration of sequences for the ubiquitin gene (UBC) in patients of breast and ‎lung cancer and comparing the results with a normal sequence that obtained from NCBI. ‎The aim of this study was to detect for genetic alterations of UBC gene in the breast and ‎lung cancer patients then compare with healthy control subjects, to investigate the ‎association between the mutations at the intron region of the UBC gene and cancer disease, ‎‎40 blood samples were examined from patients with breast and lung cancer aged ranged from (17-65) years, were collected at Al-Amal Hospital of cancer in Baghdad ‎province/Iraq, the period of collecting samples were from October/2018 to January/2019. ‎While twenty-two blood samples from healthy control subjects were collected at ages ‎ranged from(19-59). After DNA extraction, the PCR primer was designed to amplify the ‎region in the UBC gene (part of exon 1 and the whole intron). Here we report the polymorphism of the intron sequence of the UBC gene in Iraqi population as the results of sequencing the PCR amplified products showed three different transition mutation G→A, ‎C→T, T→C in patients with breast cancer were also appeared in healthy control subjects. While nine transition mutations appeared in lung cancer patients, at different locations ‎of the sequence were detected by BLAST tool. ‎</p> Saleen Salam Abdulhadi Abbas Abdullah Mohammed‎ Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1640 1645 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1329 Assessment and prevalence of depression among cardiovascular disease patients in Nilgiris District observational cross-sectional study https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1330 <p>Depression deter mental catabolic effect over the time, symptomatically affects quality of life which leads to worse health outcomes that linked to higher mortality and morbidity rates with huge impact on public health. Chronic conditions like Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs) deteriorates patient health with cognitive impairment that progresses to somatic dysfunction, which can exacerbate to the occurrence and development of depression with the increased risk of inducing Chronic Diseases. Depression are often neglected, overlooked and remains unrecognized and undertreated in the patient, especially in CVDs patient are considered as normal that instances to poor prognosis.&nbsp; The association of depression and CVDs are not incidental, but the lack of diagnosis for the coexistence of these co-morbid condition and poor treatment hindrance the disease outcome. Depression emerges an alarming cardio vascular risk factor which is associated with higher cost of care for the patient as well as burden to the healthcare system. Prior detection and identification with rational intervention of depression at CVDs will help to change the scenario by improving the standard of health and overall quality of life of patient. Here, in this study we assess the prevalence of depression at cardio vascular disease patient in Nilgiris population.</p> Anand Vijayakumar PR Asem Veeves Singh Asish Kumar Saha Kavuri Srikar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1646 1649 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1330 Optimization of extraction process for extract yields, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of Curcuma aeruginosa RoxB. rhizome https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1331 <p>The rhizome of <em>Curcuma aeruginosa</em> RoxB. (RCA) is used traditionally for several diseases. The flavonoid compounds contained in the RCA that responsible for biological activities. In this study, ethanol, water, and acetone had been used as solvent extraction of RCA and applied the simplex-centroid design to optimize the extraction process. The radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content were investigated using in vitro assays, while cytotoxicity was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality test. ANOVA suggested a linear model for all responses. The ethanol: acetone extract had the highest extract yield with a value of 25.15%, and this result showed no significant with acetone extract at <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05 (22.86%). The ethanol extracts confirmed the higher degree of total flavonoid content and cytotoxicity with a value of 17.97 mg QE/g and 140 μg/ml, respectively. The ethanol: water extract, ethanol extract, and water extract (IC<sub>50</sub>, 100-500 μg/ml) showed moderate radical scavenging activity compared with ascorbic acid (IC<sub>50</sub>, 7.19 μg/ml). Regarding the correlation analysis, the negative correlation was weakly observed between flavonoid content and IC<sub>50</sub> of free radical scavenging activity, which indicates that the flavonoid in RCA contributes not significantly to the antioxidant activity. Introductory studies on the extraction process of the advanced flavonoid extracts exhibited a scavenging and cytotoxic effect of the ethanol extract on <em>C. aeruginosa </em>rhizome.</p> Eka Nurul Qomaliyah I Made Artika Waras Nurcholis Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1650 1659 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1331 Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin A and E on diclofenac induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1334 <p>This study was done to show the changes in the liver following diclofenac treatment and to study the hepatoprotective effects of Vitamin E and A in diclofenac treated rats. Rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group-1: Control rats (n= 6), Group-2: Rats (n= 6) treated with diclofenac at dose of 50 mg/kg IM for 7 days, Group-3: Rats (n= 6) treated with Vitamin A at dose of 400 IU/kg orally followed by diclofenac at 50 mg/kg IM 2 h later for 7 days, and Group 4: Rats (n= 6) treated with Vitamin E at dose of 200 IU/kg orally followed by diclofenac at 50 mg/kg IM 2 h later for 7 days. Later it was analysed with standard biomarkers, and it was histologically interpreted. The results showed that there was an rapid increase in the levels of liver function test in diclofenac treated group, which was significantly decreased after pre-treatment with vitamin E than vitamin A. The liver acinus showed centriacinar necrosis of hepatocytes after 7 days of diclofenac treatment, which was prevented by administration of Vitamin E and A. Drug-induced liver injury possesses a major clinical problem and has become a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. Overstressed liver compromises its detoxification role which may expose it to a variety of diseases and disorders. Diclofenac sodium is a phenylacetic acid derivative, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, dental pain and spondyloarthritis. Although the exact mechanism by which diclofenac injuries in liver is not understood, some studies explain the toxicity by affecting cytochrome P 450 leading to the production of active metabolites. Hepatoprotective effects of Vitamin E were better compared to Vitamin A following treatment with NSAIDS. Hence, it may be necessary to administer Vitamin E in patients treated with diclofenac.</p> Siva T Girija Sivakumar Sankaran PK Yuvaraj Maria Francis Gayathri T Lakshmi Thangavelu Karunakarn Balaji Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1660 1666 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1334 Antioxidant effects of vitamin E on diclofenac induced hepatotoxicity in male rats https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1337 <p>Drug induced liver injury possesses a major clinical problem and has become leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. Overstressed liver compromises its detoxification role which may expose it to a variety of diseases and disorders. The present study was to determine whether pre- administration of various doses of vitamin E would have protective effect against diclofenac induced hepatotoxicity in wistar male rats. Twenty-four albino male rats weighing 180-200g were divided equally into four groups. In control group rats were administrated with physiological saline 2ml/kg b.wt /intramuscularly. Another group with 50mg/kg b.wt/ intramuscularly/seven days diclofenac was used for inducing toxicity. In experimental groups rats were administrated with different doses of vitamin E along with diclofenac sodium [200 and 400 IU orally and 50mg/kg b.wt/ intramuscularly/seven days]. Showed that there was a rapid increase in the levels of liver function test in diclofenac treated group, which was significantly decreased after pre-treatment with high dose than low dose of vitamin E. The liver acinus showed Centro acinar necrosis of hepatocytes after 7 days of diclofenac treatment, which was prevented by administration of Vitamin E. Drug-induced liver injury possesses a major clinical problem and has become a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. Overstressed liver compromises its detoxification role which may expose it to a variety of diseases and disorders. Diclofenac sodium is a phenylacetic acid derivative, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, dental pain, spondyloarthritis, acute migraine, gout attacks and pain management in gall and renal stones. Although the exact mechanism by with diclofenac injuries liver is not understood, some studies explain the toxicity by affecting cytochrome P 450 leading to the production of active metabolites. Administration of different dose of diclofenac sodium induces severe adverse effects in liver and kidney.</p> T. Siva Girija Sivakumar Sankaran PK Yuvaraj Maria Francis Gayathri T Kumaresan M Karunakarn Balaji Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1667 1674 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1337 Impact of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocaline level on early outcome of a patient with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1341 <p>In patients with the atherosclerotic arteries, Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocaline (NGAL) may play a part in vascular remodeling and the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. Patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease have significantly higher levels of serum NGAL compared with persons with normal coronary arteries.This study aims to determine the short term prognostic value of NGAL serum levels in a patient with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. This is study enrolled twenty patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and twenty healthy subjects as control. Serum NGAL level was compared between the patients and control and then correlated with early outcome of the patients.There was a significant elevation of serum NGAL in STEMI patients COMARED&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; with control, and significant relationship was observed between admission serum NGAL early complications and mortality.High NGAL level associated with poor outcome in STEMI patients and can be use as initial indicator for close monitoring of high-risk patients.</p> Sadiq J. Al-Muhana Zahraa Abdulaali Al-Mudhafar Rawaa Bahlool Safaa Imran Musa Najah R Hadi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1688 1691 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1341 Development and validation of chemometric assisted analytical methods for simultaneous estimation of Atorvastatin calcium and Aspirin in capsule dosage form https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1342 <p>To develop two Chemometric-assisted analytical methods like UV spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC methods for the quantification of Atorvastatin calcium (ASC) and Aspirin (APN) in the capsule dosage form. Chemometric models used in UV spectrophotometry were Principal component regression model (PCRM) and Partial least-square regression (PLSR). Both the models were applied for the drugs in the calibration ranges of 4-20 and 30-150 μg/mL for ASC and APN respectively. Total of nineteen laboratory prepared mixtures were used for calibration and prediction set of the models. In addition, RP-HPLC method by using chemometric approach for was developed using C18 column at room temperature with a mobile phase of acetonitrile: methanol: triethylamine (53.1:11.9:35 v/v/v), pH- 3.0, with detection at 275 nm. PCRM and PLSR models were evaluated by statistical parameters and RP-HPLC method was optimized by using Response surface methodology. The developed methods like UV and RP-HPLC by using chemometrics showed almost similar results and both the methods can be used for their analysis.</p> Keerthisikha Palur BharathiKoganti Sreenivasa Charan Archakam Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1692 1697 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1342 Optimization of linseed cultivation, a promising way to enhance its secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan content https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1359 <p>There is strong evidence on the anticancer properties of secolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the predominant flaxseed lignan, especially for mammary and prostatic carcinomas. Although the effect of cultivar and location on flaxseed SDG level has been reported, much less is traced regarding the influence of agronomical treatments. The purpose of this study is to determine if agricultural management practices could enhance SDG accumulation in flaxseed. We studied the effect of irrigation frequencies (I), added nutrients (N, zinc and humic acid) and fertilization treatments (F) and their interactions on SDG level and seed yield of the Egyptian flax cultivar Giza 9. Samples were extracted and analyzed for SDG, after alkaline hydrolysis, using HPLC-UV method. The concentration of SDG and its yield varied between 415.55-845.95 mg/100 g whole seeds and 1.77-4.05 Kg/feddan on a dry weight basis, respectively according to different agricultural treatments. I, N and F factors and their interactions had a significant effect on SDG. I × N × F interaction contributed to the majority of SDG variation (31.81 %), followed by I factor (27.96 %), whereas seed yield was more affected by F factor (72.7 %). The I × F interaction was the only significant interaction on the seed yield contributing only for 0.43% of the variance. Moderate irrigation frequency with the humic acid foliar application and mineral nitrogen fertilizer was the best combination for achieving the highest SDG levels. Using optimum agronomic practice would benefit the nutraceutical industry by optimizing flaxseed lignan content and hence enhancing its anticancer, health-promoting effect.</p> Amira S. El Senousy Sabah H. El Gayed Saber H.A. Mostafa Saeed Z.A. Zidan Mohamad Louai M. Hariri Nebal D. El Tanbouly Essam Abdel-Sattar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1698 1710 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1359 Development of nano structured lipid carrier based hydrogel for the treatment of psoriasis https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1360 <p>The present work aimed to develop Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Based Hydrogel for the treatment of psoriasis, delivered as a topical application on to the skin. Nanostructured Lipid carrier based Hydrogel loaded with methotrexate is a new technique for topical administration for psoriasis. Methotrexate loaded NLC's were prepared by a hot homogenization method using high-pressure homogenizer. Stearic acid and oleic acid were selected as the solid lipid and liquid lipid, respectively. Tween 80 used as a surfactant. The developed lipid formulations were incorporated in 1% Carbopol 934 gel medium to maintain the topical application consistency. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was employed to identify their functional groups. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was employed to determine its melting point. The particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index for the MTX-NLC were found to be 239.12±3.65nm, -24.61mV and 0.245 to 0.517. Scanning electronic microscopy studies will reveal the surface morphology of the nanoparticles. The pH of the drug-loaded formulation was in the range of 4.93 to 5.83. Spreadability was in the range of 3.01±0.59cm to 8.13±0.34cm. Viscosity at 25±2oC was 67325 cps.&nbsp; In vitro studies suggest that initial release rate was observed within first 4 hrs and amount of drug release was 35 to 47± 3.61%, fast and sustained release rate reached by 24th hr and release rate of the drug was 72%.&nbsp; The stability studies reported that the formulation was stable for 30 days after the incorporation of the drug, and there was no drug degradation or decomposition and no change in physical appearance. Hence, results indicate the sustain release activity of MTX-NLC Hydrogels, which could help in preventing the cell division and proliferation of cell acting as a major barrier in the topical application of psoriasis.</p> Vishal Gupta N Kowshik K Nikita Sehgal Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1711 1719 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1360 Nephroprotective potential of Neermulli/Nerunjil Kudineer on Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1362 <p>Nerunjil kudineer/Neermulli Kudinner is an official Siddha polyherbal formulation used for the various ailments related to the kidney. Cisplatin is an alkylating agent used in chemotherapy for the treatment of various cancers. Its use is limited due to their nephrotoxicity. In this study nephroprotective effect of Nerunjil kudineer (NK) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino Rats was studied. Male Wistar albino rats were used for this study. Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=6) as control, Cisplatin control (Single dose 7 mg/Kg i.p on the 7<sup>th</sup> day), Cisplatin with Cystone (p.o), NK200 and NK400 mg/Kg (p.o) for 10 days. At the end of the study, animals were weighed and sacrificed to estimate the relative kidney weight, serum creatinine and Urea. Kidney tissue was estimated for oxidant-antioxidant parameters (MDA, GSH &amp; SOD) and histology study was carried out. Cisplatin reduced body weight and increased kidney weight significantly (P&lt;0.0001). It deprived the renal function by elevating serum creatinine &amp; urea, MDA and reduction in endogenous antioxidants GSH and SOD significantly (P&lt;0.0001). Cisplatin group exhibited focal tubular necrosis and congested blood vessels in histology study. The standard drug Cystone and NK400 significantly increased the body weight, reduced the kidney weight, normalized the kidney function parameters (Serum Cr and Urea), bolstered antioxidant status and showed a trend towards the recovery of histological alterations. NK showed a dose-dependent activity and higher dose, NK400mg /Kg possessed strong nephroprotective activity, which may be due to the efficient antioxidant potential, which reduces lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by cisplatin. The results strongly suggest that Nerunjil kudineer is an effective nephroprotective drug against Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.</p> Noorul Alam Gopal V Vasanthi C Prabal Kumar Manna Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1720 1729 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1362 Uranium concentration variation dependency on gender correlated with age of bladder cancer patient https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1363 <p>Human health was and still the most important problem and objective of all most researches. Finding out what causes in the decadence of healthiness of Iraqi population is our tendency in the present work, Uranium causing cancer that is affected by a correlation between age and gender of bladder cancer patients is studied in the present work. Mean of Uranium concentration (Uc) decreased with increasing age for all age group without dependency on gender. While, there is a wide dispersion in Mean Uc excretion between males and females, due to the effect of correlated gender with age, where female Mean Uc is maximum at age 50-69 year (2.355 µg/L), and it's higher than male Mean Uc (2.022 µg/L) in this age stage because of menopause, also average period of illness and the percentage of patients are affected by correlated gender with age. So that factor of gender correlation with age affects in the calculation of background levels and radiation exposure and causing bladder cancer incidence.</p> Aseel S. Mahmood Omar Sh. Shafeq Mohamed S. Shafiq Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1730 1734 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1363 Vacuum-assisted closure dressing in split-thickness skin grafting https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1364 <p>Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been applied to a variety of acute and chronic wounds that are difficult to manage, and is associated with improved wound healing outcomes. It involves the application of sub-atmospheric pressure in a controlled way to secure a split-thickness skin graft on the wound that has been sealed with an occlusive dressing.A study was conducted on the patients with a variety of indications for skin grafting, admitted to Azadi Teaching Hospital between March 2010 and August 2017. After the application of split-thickness skin graft, a closed, controlled suction was applied on the wound. The graft was then continuously observed, and the dressing was changed as needed.A total of 39 split-thickness skin grafting procedures were performed on 37 patients (20 male, 17 female), the age of the patients ranging between 7 and 68 years. The average grafted area was 12±70 cm<sup>2</sup>, and the percent graft take ranged from 90 - 100%.Vacuum-assisted closure opposes the graft firmly on the wound bed, sucks out the seroma and/or hematoma, prevents shearing of the graft and aids in immobilization of the grafted part; thus improving the quantity and quality of the graft take. This study also established that VAC was particularly useful when the wound site is difficult to access, the wound is highly contoured and the conditions are less-than-ideal for complete graft take.</p> Ali A Ali Yasir N Qassim Ali N Areef Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1735 1740 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1364 Absent vagina a description of cases with varied ages, presentations and reconstructions https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1365 <p>The aim is to describe cases of vaginal agenesis of varied ages presentations and managements and report the outcome of interventions regarding restoration of continuity of reproductive tract and normal sexual activity. A prospective descriptive case series study. &nbsp;Five female patients with vaginal agenesis were recruited from November 2005 to November 2016. Three were adolescents and had a functioning uterus. Three patients underwent vaginoplasty using McIndoe method, one had vagino-vaginal anastomosis, and the other had hysterectomy to remove source of menstruation. Age ranged from 12 to 24 years. The outcome of vaginoplasties to the 2 young females and to one of the adolescent girls was adequate vagina, whereas the other 2 adolescent girls had failed redo vaginoplasty and ended with a patent narrowed vagina in one and a closed vagina in the other which required a hysterectomy. On Follow up (range 5 - 42 months) 2 of the adolescent’s girls had regular menstruation with no pain and pelvic collection, while the third one had amenorrhoea following a hysterectomy. The 3 patients who had successful vaginoplasty got married and enjoyed satisfactory intercourse. Patients with absent vagina presents at variable ages depending on whether a functioning uterus is present or not. The success of vaginoplasty is less when it has to be done in adolescence than when it is done in adulthood when patient is grown-up. Best outcomes require accumulative experience, ideally with the aid of doctors of other specialties.</p> Ali Adwal Ali Khalida M. Amin Emil N. AZZO Ayla K. Kahya Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1741 1745 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1365 Serological markers of autoimmunity ‎in women with polycystic ovary ‎syndrome https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1366 <p>In the present study, we evaluate the serum level of common autoimmunologic markers in ‎women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and study their relationship with ‎hormonal ‎parameters. The study was ‎an observational case-control study, done in a Tertiary referral hospital, the study ‎included ‎50 women with polycystic ovary syndrome and 50 matched control.‎ Serum levels of Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) were significantly higher in polycystic ovary ‎syndrome women compared to control. Also, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and LH/FSH ratio were ‎significantly higher in polycystic ovary syndrome women compared to control. ‎dsDNA had excellent ability to differentiate PCOS from control (AUC=0.901) while ANA had good discrimination ability ‎‎(AUC=0.809). There was a significant direct relationship between ANA, dsDNA, and TSH ‎with FSH in PCOS women, ‏also a ‎significant direct relationship between ANA and TSH with LH, while ‎DsDNA did not correlate with LH. In conclusion, there is a clear relationship between immunological markers (ANA, dsDNA) with ‎‎polycystic ovary syndrome in various components of the disease, dsDNA offer better ability than ANA as a predictor of PCOS, indicating that dsDNA can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for PCOS.</p> Wasan Wajdi Ibrahim Ekhlas Jabbar Kadhim Nada Saeed Abbas Saba Ryadh ‎Younis Hayder Adnan Fawzi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1746 1750 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1366 Study of the correlation between CA15-3 and each of prolactin hormone and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in women with breast cancer in THI – QAR governorate – Iraq https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1367 <p>The most malicious tumor in women is breast cancer. Its treatment at the early stage of its recognition in a woman provides her multiple options for diagnosis. Physical inspection and mammography are helpful screening processes for the primary recognition of breast cancer, they are also labor dependent and need health specialists who are exceptionally prepared and skilled. This experiment was designed to estimate and compare the CA15-3 level, hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in Breast Cancer patients and in apparently healthier individuals. Blood CA15-3, hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme levels were determined in 65 Women with Breast Cancer and 55 apparently healthy subjects. The levels of serum CA15-3, hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme were showing a significant increase in women with Breast Cancer in comparison to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). The study also investigates the correlation between the concentrations of the CA15-3 and each of hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, However, we compared all measurement parameters according to the type of disease. In Breast cancer patients, we increase CA15-3, hormone, and Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme can clearly occur, and we positive correlation relationship between CA15-3 and each of PRL and LDH through coefficient correlation (r).</p> Hadeel Rashid Faraj Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1751 1755 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1367 The significance of uteroplacental ratio in the prediction of perinatal outcome in pregnancy-induced hypertension https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1368 <p>Doppler investigations of placental and maternal flow have picked up a wide prominence as it could give significant data with respect to fetal prosperity and could be utilized to distinguish embryos in danger of bleakness and mortality, in this manner giving a chance to improve fetal results. In such manner, the accessible typical reference estimations of proportion () for example uterine corridor Doppler waveform parameters to those of umbilical course and impact of hypertension on Doppler waveform of the obstetric populace of various countries, were not unequivocally illustrated. The examination incorporates 60 pregnant ladies (in two periods 33-36 weeks and 37-40 weeks of incubation, 40 of them with pregnancy instigated hypertension and 20 as a control. The uterine courses and umbilical corridor files were determined just as proportions () for the RI and S/D, subsequent to gating the normal estimations of both uterine conduits files, the proportion between the uterine supply route and umbilical vein records was taken(normal uterine supply route/umbilical vein proportion, ). The mean ± SD of parameters expressed in the following manner:For PIH group At 33-36 weeks: RI =0.89 ± 0.26, PI = 0.94 ± 0.41and S/D =0.86 ± 0.31. The 95% confidence interval of the mean for four weeks were 0.77-1.0, 0.78-1.11, 0.74-0.99, respectively. At 37-40 weeks: RI= 1.00 ± 0.26, PI =1.05 ± 0.43 and S/D =1.03 ± 0.36. The 95% confidence interval of the mean for four weeks were 0..61, 0..31 and 0.81-1.25 respectively. For control group:At 33-36 weeks : RI =0.69 ± 0.08,PI= 0.73 ±0.13, and S/D=0.67 ± 0.09. The 95% confidence interval of the mean for four weeks were 0..80, 0..90 and0..78 respectively. At 37-40 weeks : RI= 0.99 ± 0.31, PI=0.95 ± 0.33, and S/D=0.92 ± 0.25. The 95% confidence interval of the mean for four weeks were 0..80, 0.76-1.13 and0.78-1.06respectively. A starter foundation of proportion ( of RI, PI and S/D) of Iraqi obstetric populace in and PIH at third trimester is most likely settled. The present investigation gave reference ranges in regards to uterine and umbilical supply routes , and S/ at 33-36 and 37-40 weeks of incubation in both.</p> Iman Allami M Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1756 1762 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1368 Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological activity of new 2- imino –thiazolidine-4-one derivatives https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1369 <p>A new 2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones compound and its derivatives were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, CHN, and <sup data-id="superscript-1">1</sup>HNMR techniques. The target compounds were assessed for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, and the study was performed using Swiss albino mice (25-30 g) for investigation. A hind edema model caused by , while the analgesic activity was assessed using an acetic acid-induced writhing and a hot plate test evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity.</p> Raghdah M. Alwiswasy Raheem Jameel M Basim Jasim Hameed Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1763 1769 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1369 Anticancer potential of the extract of Melothoria maderaspatana on DMH induced colon cancer in albino rats https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1370 <p>Cancers of the large and small intestine are major contributors to worldwide cancer morbidity and mortality. Out of all the cancers, colon cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world. Every year 1.2 million patients are diagnosed for colon cancer. The rate of colon cancer incidence was low in India but is presently increasing; out of 3.5 million cancer cases, 35,000 have colon cancer. As a part of chemotherapy, lots of anticancer drugs are in the market, but the main problem associated with these drugs is their side effects. Because of chemotherapy treatment side effects, the patient needs secondary palliative care treatment. Plant medicines are well known for their non-toxic side effects, so the objective of the study is to develop a drug from medicinal plant against colon cancer with non-toxic side effects. It plays an important role in the discovery of lead compound for the development of conventional drugs. About 60% of currently used anticancer agents are derived from a natural source. In the present study, <em>Melothoria maderaspatana</em> was used to study the anticancer potential of the extract and to synthesize new anticancer moiety. With the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the plant <em>Melothoria maderaspatana</em> and possess anti-colorectal cancer activity. Before the clinical usage of extract, thorough toxicological profile has to be determined on the crude extracts as well as on isolated compounds to confirm the safety of the drug.</p> Ramachandran K Venketnarayanan R Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1770 1777 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1370 Effect of passive, active and combined warm up on the lower limb of healthy individuals https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1311 <p>Aim of the study is to determine the effect of passive, active and combined warmup on lower limb of healthy individuals. The methodology of the study is 30 individuals based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed procedure will be explained in patient words, and informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Effect of active, passive and combined warm-up will be evaluated in the subjects. The post-test value will be taken after four weeks. The results we determined from the static analysis has been revealed that there is a significant improvement in physical fitness of combined warm-up group than the active and passive warm-up separately. In the vertical jump test for passive warm-up group, the pre-test mean is 37.71, with the standard deviation being 6.53 and the post-test mean being 38.24 with a standard deviation of 6.60. And for the active warm-up group, the pre-test mean is 38.69, with the standard deviation being 6.606 and the post-test mean being 39.4 with a standard deviation 6.65. And for the combined warm-up group, the pre-test mean is 38.94, with the standard deviation being 7.12 and the post-test mean being 40.57 with a standard deviation of 6.88. Hence, we conclude that it has been proved statistically that although improvements have been observed in three groups, the improvement is much more significant in the combined warm-up group.</p> Priyanga Seemathan SujathaBaskaran Sangeetha Sadhasivam Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1785 1788 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1311 A comparative study on the effectiveness of PNF stretching versus static stretching on Pain and Hamstring flexibility in osteoarthritis knee patients https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1312 <p>Osteoarthritis (OA) knee is a long-term chronic disease characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and underlying bone. Pain, limitation of motion and functional impairment are common clinical features. Poor hamstring flexibility is a major problem for patients with OA knee. The stretching of the hamstring is a necessary intervention in the management of the OA knee. This study is therefore intended to compare the effectiveness of static stretching vs PNF stretching for pain, hamstring flexibility and functional mobility in OA Knee patients. 30 patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (N=15) received PNF stretching, wax therapy and isometric quadriceps exercises, and group B (N=15) received static stretching, wax therapy and isometric quadriceps exercises. The intensity of the pain was measured using the NPRS (Numerical Pain Rating Scale), hamstring flexibility by AKET (Active Knee Extension Test) and functional mobility by TUG (Timed up and Go) test. The results showed that significant differences in NPRS (Z=4.64, P=0.001), AKET (t=9.61, P=0.001) and TUG (t=8.19, P=0.001) were observed in group A patients when compared to group B. In conclusion, the PNF stretching treatment program is effective in reducing pain, improving hamstring flexibility and functional mobility in patients with OA knee compared to static stretching.</p> Arul Pragassame S Mohandas Kurup VK Soundarya N Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1789 1794 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1312 A study about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) regarding worm infestation among the caregivers of children aged between 5 – 12 years in a tertiary care hospital https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1377 <p>Worm infection is a public health problem, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries as it has a negative impact on the child’s development. Proper sanitation and personnel hygiene have to be emphasized and monitored to overcome the nutritional deprivement in children. The study is done to evaluate the knowledge and attitude about worm infestation and to assess the deworming practices employed among the caregivers of children aged between 5 – 12 years attending a tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 206 caregivers of pediatric age group after obtaining proper informed consent. The KAP parameters were assessed using a pretested structured questionnaire, and the results were analyzed. Out of 206 caregivers, 61% were mothers, 37% were fathers. Their mean age was 30 years. 41% belong to class III socioeconomic status. 23% were reported to play in the mud, 17% nail-biting and 6% keeping objects in mouth.12% Had open-air defecation practice, which is quite alarming in a developing country.67% were found to have the knowledge and 33% lacked the knowledge about worm infestation. Knowledge was directly proportional to the socioeconomic class. 88% were aware that worm infestation would cause clinical manifestations. 85% preferred allopathy medicines, while 15% preferred homemade remedy. 68% didn’t practice any prophylactic measures, where in 21% of the caregivers dewormed their kid once in 6 months and 11% once a year. The study provides information that most of the caregivers had a good knowledge regarding deworming but failed in practicing necessary measures to control and prevent it. Health education, frequent monitoring, and conducting interventional programs among parents and caregivers would be vital so that the prevalence of the disease can be minimized.</p> Jagadeesan M Mariraj I Prasanna Karthik S Kannan R Nivaas M Lohitya J Raghul U Farah Kamaludeen Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1818 1820 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1377 Identification of Diabetics Mellitus using Iridology https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1325 <p>Diabetes is a general illness regularly contaminated in people. Numerous approaches to recognize diabetes, one of them is checking circulatory strain, however, along these lines isn't compelling, in light of the fact that it takes blood first and takes a ton of time. Iridology is a one-way investigation wellbeing dependent on the iris. In this manner, we need an apparatus used to recognize pancreatic harm as a sign of diabetes through iridology. TheBurden picture is the initial step to distinguish pancreatic organs dependent on the iris. The eye picture that we utilized as the info framework originates from the eye facility database. The subsequent stage is a versatile middle sifting utilized in the process preprocessing to lessen the commotion on the picture. After that, the subsequent stage is a division process utilizing Hough circle change technique. The consequences of division will be standardized and take the Region of intrigue. Return for money invested will be done element extraction by utilizing GLCM (Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix). To know the state of a pancreas organ utilizing back propagation strategy.</p> Asuntha A Sree Charan Y Siddartha M Udhaykumar K Andy Srinivasan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1821 1823 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1325 Optimization extracellular secretion of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor (hEGF) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pD881-OmpA-hEGF by using Response Surface Method (RSM) https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1378 <p>Human Epidermal Growth Factor is techno-economically protein that has the function for stimulates a process of proliferation and cell differentiation. Because of that function, it can be a candidate for wound healing in ulcer diabetic. In the previous study, hEGF can extracellular secreted by OmpA signal peptide using recombinant DNA. The production method of recombinant hEGF will be extracellular secreted by <em>Escherichia coli</em>. However, the optimum secretion of OmpA has not been studied. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the optimum conditions using the RSM method. This research begins with a rejuvenation of culture, extracellular secretion, and optimization with the RSM method, followed by protein production at optimum condition. Secreted recombinant protein measured by Sandwich ELISA method and LOWRY. The result showed that the optimum condition was found in the medium concentration of 1.5x and induction time at 2 hours 10 minutes and the total protein yield of expression was 21.247 mg/mL with optimization percentage 2.96% and efficiency 50.56 % and recombinant protein hEGF concentration in fermentation media 416 μg/mL</p> Annisa Indriyani Nenden Indriyani Anggraeni Sriwidodo Iman Permana Maksum Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1824 1831 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1378 A study on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards contraceptive use among married women attending a tertiary care centre https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1379 <p>In the Indian society, various factors other than mere knowledge have shown to have a more significant impact over contraceptive usage and choice such as educational levels of women, marital duration, cultural and social factors, and exposure to mass media. This study focuses on assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of contraceptive use among married women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among married women aged between 18 to 49 years attending a tertiary care hospital in the city of Chennai from June to September 2018. A total of 146 women were interviewed, and the KAP parameters were assessed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Though 97.9% (n=143) of the women in this study had knowledge about some form of contraception, only 24.7% (n=36) practiced them. Among the users (n=36), the decision to adopt contraception was made by the husband in 69.4% (n=25).Among the non-users (n=110), the major reasons for not practicing contraception were lack of interest in 37.2%(n=41) and fear of side effects in 35.5% (n=39).This study demonstrates a significant gap between the knowledge and practice of contraceptives in our population. Improving doctor-patient relationship and encouraging a positive attitude of the husband towards contraception are the key factors in promoting adoption of the contraceptive practices.</p> Nithyananthan P Jagadeesan M Prasanna Karthik S Kannan R Bavithra K Pavithra P S Kaviya T Shilpa R Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1832 1835 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1379 A hybrid feature extraction approach for the detection of melanoma using neural network https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1380 <p>In spite of the gargantuan number of patients affected by melanoma every year, its detection at an early stage is still a challenging task. This paper illustrates a method which involves the combination of the existing ABCD (Involving symmetry, border, color, and diameter detection) rule and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) along with Local Binary Pattern (LBP) for identification of malignant melanoma skin lesion with greater accuracy. Several steps, such as image acquisition technique, pre-processing (RGB to HSV) techniques and segmentation processes are undertaken for the skin feature selection criteria to successfully determine the skin lesion's characteristic properties for classification. Texture features such as contrast, entropy, energy and homogeneity of the affected region is obtained using LBP and GLCM for discriminatory purposes of the two cases (melanoma and non-melanoma). Finally, the back propagation neural network (BPN) is used as the classifier to determine whether the dermoscopic image is benign or malignant.</p> Asuntha A Faizy Rahul S Akshay Menon Pranjal Andy Srinivasan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1836 1840 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1380 Stability indicating RP-HPLC method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of pibrentasvir and glecaprevir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1381 <p>A plain sailing, unambiguous, speedy and error-free methodology was progressed for the quantifiable concurrent estimation of Pibrentasvir and Glecaprevir in conglomerated pharmaceutical dosage form. The contrivance was based on Chromatographic separation&nbsp; of both the drugs in reverse phase mode using C<sub>18</sub> (250 X 4.6 mm), 5μ by utilizing phosphate buffer (pH 4.0) and Methyl alcohol in the ratio of 30:70 v/v was allowed to flow through column at a rate of 1.0 ml/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 251 nm. The time of retention was found to be 2.205 min for Glecaprevir and 4.996 min for Pibrentasvir. The dimensionality of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir was in linear range with a parametric statistic of 0.999 and 0.999. The acceptance criteria of precision was RSD should be not more than 2.0%, and the method showed precision 0.6 and 0.5 for Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir, which shows that the method was precise. % Assay was found as 100.83 and 100.23, which show that the method was useful for routine analysis. The total recovery was founded to be100.40% and 100.25% for Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. LOD and LOQ for Glecaprevirwas found as 2.98 and 10.00 and LOD and LOQ for Pibrentasvir was found as 3.00 and 9.98. The methodology was assessed by various validation parameters in accordance with ICH Guidelines which indicates the method can be employed for routine quality control analysis.</p> Narayanaswamy Harikrishnan Vijaya vara Prasad M Gejalakshmi Subramanian Babu S Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1841 1846 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1381 synthesis and characterization of new imidazole azo ligand with some of transition metal ions, and their biological effect on two pathogenic bacteria of burn patients. https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1382 <p>New imidazole&nbsp; azo ligand (DPIDA) was prepared by coupling reaction between 4,5-di phenyl imidazole and N1,N1-dimethylbenzene1,4-diamine di hydrochloride&nbsp; and studied the complexation of this ligand with Mn(II) , Co(II) , Ni(II) , Cu(II) , Zn(II) , Cd(II) , and Hg(II)&nbsp; ions , The free ligand and it’s complexes&nbsp; characterized by Mass, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, IR, UV-Vis. ,&nbsp; and molar conductivity that indicated the octahedral geometry of them with a bidentate ligand which coordinated from (N3) atom of imidazole ring and one nitrogen atom of azo group.Biological activity of ligand (DPIDA) and it's complexes tested against two multi-drug resistant aerobic pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with a burn. Three concentrations were selected (50, 100, 150) mg/ml for each crud synthesized derivative compounds. The derivative compound (4,5-diphenyl imidazole) with concentration 150mg/ml had an excellent antibacterial effect against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> with inhibition zone 21.83 ± 0.1764 mm and 24.30 ± 0.4163 mm respectively.</p> Israa N. Witwit Husham M. Mubark Hutham Mahmood Yousif Al-Labban Ahmed abduljabbar jaloob aljanaby Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1847 1856 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1382 Lung cancer detection using Adaptive Bilateral Filter (ABF) techniques https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1383 <p>Lung cancer plays a major role among the people who are affected with cancer.&nbsp; The major reason is the presence of nodule in a lung region. Early diagnosis of this nodule may decrease the severity also increase the life span of a patient. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to detect the lung nodule and nodule region using texture features. Various image processing techniques are used in this paper. CT images are taken as input over MRI because of its advantages over less exposure of radiation[4]. The given input image is denoised by using adaptive bilateral filter and image contrast is improved by the histogram equalization technique. Superpixel segmentation is used for the segmentation process. A Simulation process has been done using MATLAB software.</p> Asuntha A Andy Srinivasan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1857 1860 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1383 Oxidative injure occur of Citalopram and Floxtein in Rat with embryos in Different Organs https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1384 <p>The reason of this study was investigate effects Citalopram and Floxtein for histological embryos in different organs with anatomical effects in male reproductive organs of adults rats for 90 days. The 45 rats were divided into three equal groups (control and two treated groups), and animals were treated as follow: 1- Control group (n=15) 2-Treatment group (n=15) treated each day with citalopram tablets 20mg in distal water for 80 days.3-Treatment Group (n=15) treated daily Fluoxetine capsules 20mg in distal water for 80 days. At 84 days animals sacrificed then male reproductive organs, with embryos weighted and take organs for histopathological study. The present study shows that treatment with Citalopram and Floxtein cause a significant reduce in body weight of embryos and effects on organs.</p> Rasha Noori Abid AL.Shammary Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1861 1867 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1384 Evaluation of novel and superior formulation CaroTexTM developed by Biofusion Technology https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1385 <p>Per WHO, vitamin A deficiency is a systemic disease affecting cells, organs throughout the body. The gradual depletion of vitamin A stores results in xerophthalmia, night blindness, xerosis etc., reversed by vitamin A therapy. Beta-Carotene, a carotenoid, is the precursor of vitamin A, which cannot be synthesized by the human body. Hence beta carotene formulation has gathered considerable attention in the healthcare industry.&nbsp; Hydrophobicity of Beta carotene being a major challenge in the formulation, Zeushygia Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd (Telangana India) developed a novel beta carotene formulation, CaroTex, with enhanced bioavailability.&nbsp; The present study assesses the bioavailability of CaroTex in a rodent model. The animals were divided into 5 groups, Normal Control, Vehicle Control, Standard beta Carotene, Comparator and CaroTex. As rats efficiently convert beta carotene into vitamin A, high dose of beta-carotene (50mg/kg) was given orally for 7 consecutive days. Beta carotene, its metabolic product retinal were measured in rat liver. It was observed that beta carotene concentration in rats fed with CaroTex was about 1.70, 2.55 times higher than Comparator and control respectively whereas the concentration of retinal was the same in all groups. It is evident from this study that novel formulation technology (BioFusion Technology) of CaroTex reflects in relatively higher concentration levels of beta carotene.</p> Sneha Bagle Suraj Muke Sagar Saha Shankarnarayanan Jayakodi Arunkanth Krishnakumar Sadhana Sathaye Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1868 1873 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1385 Development of novel bioadhesive niosomal formulation for the transcorneal delivery of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in the treatment of corneal ulcer https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1387 <p>A corneal ulcer is an open sore or epithelial defect with an inflammation of the cornea of the eye. Most of the corneal ulcers are caused by bacterial infections and are common in people who wear contact lenses. Moxifloxacin eye drops are frequently used for the treatment of infectious ulcers. However such formulations have a major drawback, that is the short duration of action and usually, require 4-6 times installation daily. A bioadhesive polymer coated niosomal formulation of moxifloxacin was purposed to show a longer retention time on eyes and subsequent reduction in dosing frequency. Niosomes were prepared by solvent injection method using cholesterol and span 60. The coating of the niosomes was done using Carbopol 934or HPMC as a bioadhesive polymer. The mean particle size of bioadhesive niosomes found to be below 200nm. Optimization of the coating was based on <em>in vitro</em> diffusion studies, <em>ex vivo</em> transcorneal permeation studies and bioadhesion studies. The retention time of the formulation was determined by <em>in vitro</em> and <em>ex vivo</em> bioadhesion testing. The antimicrobial assay confirmed the potency of the formulation against the gram-negative organism. The current study revealed that bioadhesive niosomal formulations have longer corneal retention time and have sustained drug release for a period of 24 hours.</p> Manoj K Suhail K Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1874 1882 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1387 Interleukin 15 and granulocytes colony stimulating factor levels in relation to ICSI outcome in subfertile PCOS women https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1389 <p>Polycystic Ovary Syndrome constitutes a complex heterogeneous disorder, considered one of the leading cause of delayed conception in women. Serum and follicular fluid cytokines are subject of extensive studies to identify their role in subfertility with controversial results. This study was aimed to evaluate the relation of Granulocytes Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and Interleukin 15 (IL 15) levels to ovarian response and ICSI outcome in PCOS women undergoing ICSI. This cross-sectional study conducted at High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technique and Baghdad IVF Private Centre. Which include 80 women divided into two groups: 40 PCOS women without other causes of subfertility and 40 non PCOS women with other causes of subfertility. Ovarian hormonal stimulation conducted according to GnRH antagonist protocol, then serum &amp; follicular fluid obtained at the day of oocyte retrieval for measurement of G-CSF &amp; IL 15 concentration measured by ELISA method, then statistical analysis is used to correlate the concentration of the cytokine with follicle number, retrieved oocyte number, oocyte maturity, number of 2PN oocytes, number of grade1 embryones, biochemical pregnancies and clinical pregnancy rates. The results of currents study revealed that Serum estradiol (E2) on hCG day was (2238.70 ±468.95 vs. 1997.40 ±291.95 pg/ml), endometrial thickness (10.80 ±1.49 vs. 10.24 ±0.98 mm), total follicle number (15.53 ±3.86 versus 12.43 ±2.25), oocyte number (13.03 ±3.10 vs. 9.83 ±1.52), mature oocyte (MII) number (9.48 ±2.45 vs. 7.75 ±1.48) mean number of fertilized oocytes (2PN) was (6.25 ±1.41 vs. 5.35 ±1.08), being higher in PCOS women compared to the control group. On day of oocytes retrieval, both median level of serum G-CSF (54.30) (35.35) and follicular G-CSF (59.00) (38.72) levels were significantly higher in PCOS than control groups, while there was no significant difference in median level of serum IL15 (59.10) (17.75) and median level of follicular IL-15(61.40) (16.00) between PCOS and control groups.&nbsp; The study concluded that in spite of higher levels of G-CSF and IL15 in serum and follicular fluid of PCOS women, a relation between G-CSF and IL15 with ovarian response could not be established in comparison to control group, however, both (G-CSF and IL15) may be a predictor of pregnancy among the same group of women both PCOS and controls.</p> Zainab Obaid Jaddoa Ahmed Abdul- Hassan Abbas Najah Shakir Al Khalil Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1883 1890 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1389 Impact of pharmacist directed counseling on knowledge, attitude, practices and medication adherence among hypothyroidism patients: a quasi-experimental design https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1388 <p>The pharmacist plays an important role in providing counseling services to patients suffering with various chronic disorders and to improve health outcomes. The study aims to evaluate the effect of pharmacist mediated counseling on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) and medication adherence (MA) among hypothyroidism patients attending outpatient department of a secondary care referral hospital. This is a Quasi-Experimental design without control. A total of 403 patients were enrolled and subjected for KAP assessment by pre-validated questionnaire, and medication adherence levels by pill count and visual analogue scale methods. All patients were counselled by the pharmacist regarding hypothyroidism and its management. After three months, post-KAP and medication adherence levels were measured. Chi-square test was used to compare the adequacy of KAP levels. The paired t-test was used to compare mean medication adherence and mean KAP percentage levels. The mean KAP percentage levels were significantly improved after counselling (80.5±16.4; 86.2±15.7; 67.5±13.8) compared to before (34.1±21.7; 33.8±22.9; 24.5±20.9) with a <em>P</em> value less than &lt;0.0001. There was a significant improvement in mean medication adherence levels measured by visual analogue scale method and pill count method after counselling (92.4±4.8, 97.4±3.2) compared to before counselling (76.8±6.8, 80.3±6.4). The study illustrates how pharmacist plays an integral part in improving medication adherence and KAP towards hypothyroidism management. Improving KAP and medication adherence levels will promote positive clinical outcomes and prevents complications associated with hypothyroidism.</p> Narayana Goruntla Vijayajyothi Mallela Devanna Nayakanti Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1891 1899 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1388 Evaluation of rituximab infusion therapy in patients with recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1390 <p>The usual approach is to treat pemphigus vulgaris by corticosteroids and in some cases, immune suppressive agents may be indicated. The response is often satisfactory to the patient and acceptable clinically; however, the use of such agents is not free of side effects. Adverse effects associating the use of corticosteroids and immune-suppressing agents are numerous, but the principal side effects are those of fatal infections and neoplastic disorders. Therefore, the search for other forms of treatment modalities has been proven necessary, especially in resistant and recalcitrant types of the disorder. A number of studies have shown role Rituximab in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris; however, results were conflicting. Therefore we planned and conducted the current study to assess the efficacy of this drug in the treatment of recalcitrant cases of pemphigus vulgaris in a sample of Iraqi patients in the Mid-Euphrates region.</p> <p>to assess the efficacy of Rituximab in the treatment of recalcitrant cases of pemphigus vulgaris in a sample of Iraqi patients in the Mid-Euphrates region. The current cohort study included 10 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. Those patients were selected from the pool of patients visiting the dermatology consultation unit at Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital, Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq during the period from January 2017 through June 2019. Age, gender, duration of disease, previous treatment, and maintenance treatment were the main variables included in the study; the outcome was a response to treatment classified as satisfactory, partially satisfactory and unsatisfactory. All patients were given an intravenous infusion of Rituximab in a dose of a 375 mg/m<sup>2</sup> in a weekly basis. The patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. All patients were treated by intravenous rituximab and followed for a period of 6 up to 18 months, mean of 11.30 ±3.83 months. Four (40.0 %) patients developed a satisfactory response, 5 (50.0 %) had partial satisfaction, and a single patient had an unsatisfactory response. Response to treatment was no significantly correlated to patients' age, gender or duration of disease; however, there was a significant positive correlation between duration of treatment and response to it. Good rate of satisfaction can be obtained following the use of weekly based intravenous retuximab in patients with recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris.</p> Akeel Hamed Jabur Farah Saleh Abdul-reda Suhad Jassim abdlkadhim Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1900 1903 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1390 Maternal risk factors for low birth weight of neonates in al- diwaniyah province, iraq https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1391 <p>The LBW infants as weighting less than 2.5kg at birth. Infants with low birth weight are probable to suffer medical <a href="https://www.bing.com/search?q=define+trouble">trouble</a>s and delay development from the time of delivery to adult life. This study was planned to discover the prevalence of LBW infants in Ad-Diwaniyah city (Iraq) and the maternal risk factors, which contribute to the occurrence of low birth weight, and it is rated and what the suitable recommendations can be made to prevent this problem.&nbsp; Unfortunately, in Iraq, several studies reveal an increase in the delivery of LBW infants in the last years. The present study was aimed to identify the prevalence of LBW and possible maternal factors in children, teaching hospital in Al-Diwaniyah city during the period of the beginning of February 2017 to February 2018. This is a cross-sectional survey held out in Pediatric, teaching hospital through 1012 pregnant mothers giving a live LBW. Whole children weight on a weighing machine. Data was collected through the interview of mothers. Maternal age and education level, socioeconomic condition, number of prenatal visits, interpregnancy interval and maternal diseases, and infant gender were registered in questionnaire format. The result of the current study detects that the rate of LBW was 20.2%. The highest percentage of them (LBW) was preterm 67.4% and full, term (IUGR) 32.5%. 61.5% of the children in the LBW group were male, and 38.4% were female.&nbsp; Besides the outcome indicates that there are many important risk factors contributed to the incidence of LBW, these are; multiple pregnancies were found to be 66.8% of LBW infants,&nbsp; maternal age 21 – 35 years (39.7%),&nbsp; lack of Prenatal Care (60.3%),&nbsp; delivery by cesarean section (70.6%),&nbsp; mothers who illiterate (64.8%),&nbsp; a large number of mothers from the rural area (68.6%),&nbsp; the presence of maternal diseases (63.5%),&nbsp; all these are considered a risk factor. The current study demonstrates the essential elements give rise to low birth weight in neonates are gestational age (preterm delivery), maternal education and age, multiple births, regular prenatal care, cesarean section, and bad obstetric history.</p> Adel J. Hussein Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1904 1909 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1391 Effect of vitex agnus castus fruits methanol extract against murine mammary adenocarcinoma cell line (amn3) and rat embryonic fibroblast normal cell line (ref) https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1393 <p><em>Vitex agnus castus</em> showed antiproliferative activity in several previous studies. Angiogenesis is one of the targets in the remediation of cancer. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of methanol fruits extract of <em>vitex agnus castus</em> on mouse mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line and rat embryonic fibroblast cell line. &nbsp;The cell lines used in this study were obtained from tissue culture unit/ Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Researches, Al-Mustansiriyah University was maintained in RPMI- 1640 tissue media after preparing from 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics solution and other materials to make complete growth medium. Serial solutions of <em>vitex agnus castus</em>, methanol crude extract have been tested on 10*4 of AMN3 and REF in each well of 96 well plates. The results of the current study showed that the concentration that inhibits fifty percent of cell line after 72 hours of the experiment (IC50) was 129 ug/ml for AMN3 and 1324ug/ml for REF cell line. The antioxidant activity of <em>Vitex agnus castus</em> may indicate the proliferation inhibition activity of <em>Vitex agnus castus</em> methanol extract. The study concluded that this extract might be of benefit if used in combination with other anti-cancer drugs as adjuvant therapy.</p> Zeinat. W. Ribat Hayder B Sahib Ahmed M. Al-Shammari Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1910 1913 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1393 Mets and oscillating energy manual therapy in chronic lateral epicondylosis: a comparative study. https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1394 <p>Lateral Epicondylitis (LT) term was used previously thinking that it as an inflammatory condition, but it is tendinosis of Common extensor tendons of the forearm due to overuse. The incidence of the condition is about 4000 - 7000 per year in the general population in the United States. Conventional treatments practiced on the concept of inflammation have shown forty to eighty percent of unsuccessful results. Individuals with lateral epicondylosis may have symptoms like pain during activity, weakness, swelling and functional disability. The primary objective of the study is to find out the effectiveness of oscillating energy manual therapy (OEMT) compared with muscle energy technique (MET) on functional outcome in subjects with lateral epicondylosis. Total of 30 subjects with unilateral lateral epicondylosis was selected and was divided into two groups of 15 each in a group. Group A (received oscillating energy manual therapy) and Group B (received muscle energy technique). NRS (Numerical Rating Scale), Grip Strength and PRTEE (Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation) scale were measured pre and post-treatment for both the groups and also at follow up of the sixth week. Muscle energy technique group showed improvement in pain levels, muscle strength and functional activities. The statistical analysis demonstrated that results were more significant in group B at 4<sup>th</sup> week and also at follow up with a mean difference of (2.3) for NRS, (57.4) for PRTEE and (5.9) for grip strength than group A.</p> Rayees Unnisa N. Sivajyothi G.Yatheendra kumar M.A Wajid Ur Rahman Imaduddin Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1914 1919 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1394 Factors affecting the decision to purchase innovative pharmaceutical products by the thai pharmaceutical industry https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1395 <p>The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between factors affecting the decision to purchase and the need for innovative pharmaceutical products by the Thai pharmaceutical industry. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) is an example of an incremental pharmaceutical innovative product which is still a new concept in Thailand. The results show that financial factors, as well as government policy and drug regulations, have a positive effect on the purchasing decision of pharmaceutical excipients for ODT from the Thai pharmaceutical industry.</p> Sorranut chetsurakul Achara chandrachai Narueporn sutanthavibul Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1920 1931 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1395 Elevated anticardiolipin titer as a stroke factor in young patients in kirkuk city https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1396 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is the third leading cause of medical death in developed countries. Stroke can be classified into ischemic disease (80%) and hemorrhagic disease (20).</p> <p><strong>Subject and methods: </strong>A case-control study done in the period extending from November 2013 to April 2014 in neuro medicine department in Azadi teaching hospital in Kirkuk city in Iraq. This study involving 2 study groups, each one of them, including 50 patients. The first group (cases) included 50 patients diagnosed as having an ischemic stroke by neurologist their ages were less than 45 years .in&nbsp; another group (control), 50 patients involved admitted to the same hospital with no history of prior ischemic stroke<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifty patients with stroke of ischemic orgin and 50 controls included in the study. Table 1 summarize demographic and clinical characteristics of patients and control groups, control was older than ischemic stroke patient with no significant correlation (P-value=0.33). Gender distribution showing a significant correlation in regarding female sex in both groups (P-value=0.001). Ischemic stroke according to our findings is more prevalent in those patients with Hypertension with 66% of patients in comparison to 42% of control patients with P-value of 0.0001, diabetic patients with double percentage (72%) to those in control group (36%) with P-value of 0.0001,coronary arterial disease ,valvular heart disease and rhythm disease such as atrial fibrillation seen to be more popular&nbsp; in those patients with ischemic stroke with no significant value in regarding to patients having coronary and valvular heart disease (P-value=0.11,0.21) and strongly associated with those patient presented with atrial fibrillation (P-value=0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Elevated anticardiolipin antibodies are seen to be as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke.</p> Raad Hassan Najim Bilal Jamal kamal Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1932 1935 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1396 Synthesis and characterization of new diacid monomers and poly (ester-imide) s: a study of thermal property relationship and solubility https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1397 <p>Two dicarboxylic acids [2,2'-(((4-hydroxyphenyl) methylene) bis (3-Bromo-4,1- phenylene)) bis (1,3 dioxoisoindoline 5 carboxylic acid)) and 2,2 '(((2,4dichlorophenyl) methylene) bis (4,1-phenylene)) bis (1,3-dioxoisoindoline-5-carboxylic acid)] were made by the reaction of pyromellitic anhydride (PMDA) with diamine in a solvent of g pyridine/glacial acetic acid at refluxing temperature. The organization of the diacid monomers is defined by FTIR and <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectroscopy. The sequence of new poly (ester-imide) s are arranged of two di acids and aromatic diols: [Bis (4hydroxyphenyl) 2 furelmethaneand 4,4'((1,4phenylene (methanylyidene)) bis (azanylylidene)) diphenol] by employing the polycondensation in the company of the dibutyltine dilaurate as a catalyst. The PEIs were defined by FTIR, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, and TGA. Poly (ester-imide) s showed excellent solubility in polar aprotic solutions because of the existence of flexible groups in the polymer backbone. Furthermore, they displayed better thermal constancy, and the heat at that 10% loss of weight happened about700 to 800°C.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ruaa Jameel Kamel Mohammed Ali Mutar Farah Safi Khlewee Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1936 1941 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1397 Self nano emulsifying solid of clopidogrel - developement, characterization, evaluation and effect on bioavailability https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1398 <p>The aim of the present study is the development and characterization of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDSs) to improve the rate of dissolution of poorly water-soluble anti-platelet agent clopidogrel bisulfate. The solubility was estimated in various vehicles to select proper components and compositions. Cinnamon oil (as oil), Tween 80 (as a surfactant), polyethylene glycol 400 (as co-surfactant) and Water is used to construct pseudo-ternary phase diagrams.&nbsp; Stability, dispersibility and robustness to dilution were performed to optimize formulations by using the phase diagram. Formulations were prepared with different composed of cinnamon oil, Tween 80 and PEG 400 (S<sub>mix</sub>) ratios. The globule size of the optimized system was less than 200 nm, which could be an accepted nanoemulsion size range. The selected formulation F 7 SNEEDS of z-average size was 140.8 nm, and zeta potential was -28.6. <em>In vitro</em>, drug release studies showed a significantly enhanced rate of dissolution of F 7 SNEDDS when compared to the marketed formulation.</p> Satheesh Manoharan Subramanian Somaskandan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1942 1947 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1398 Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism (-174 G/C) association with seropositive Toxoplasma gondii infection patients in Al-Diwaniyah hospital https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1399 <p>The present study aims to detection Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism (-174 G/C) from seropositive <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> pregnant women patients and healthy control from individuals reviewers to AL-Diwaniyah hospital. 80 samples were collected for the period from October 2018- April 2019, including two groups of 30 samples healthy control and 50 samples from pregnant women infected with <em>Toxoplasma gondii. </em>The results of the present study indicated the presence of IL-6 (-174 G/C) polymorphism in pregnant women infected with <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> and healthy control. Where was observed that CG genotype more frequent in patients indicating the association of this genotype with the disease compared to the control group where CG genotype appears less. Also, the results of the current study indicate the appearance of allele C more frequently in pregnant women patients compared to healthy control. We can conclude from the present study there association of appearance allele C with <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> infection.</p> Fatima Ibrahim Mohammad Mustafa Ali Abdul Ameer Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1948 1952 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1399 Conventional and molecular detection of vibrio cholerae isolated from environmental water with the prevalence of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1400 <p>Environmental water is an important source for <em>Vibrio cholerae</em>, which is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, monitoring this bacterium in water is important for control of cholera. <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> represents an enormous public health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. One hundred samples were collected and selected. The samples were filtered and transferred to slants containing 2ml of alkaline peptone water, then subcultured on selective medium Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose agar. All presumptive isolates were confirmed by using a series of biochemical tests including Oxidase test, Simmon Citrate test, DNase test, Indole test, Klingler Iron Agar (KIA) test, MacConkey agar test and motility. Confirmed <em>Vibrio cholera </em>strains were then screening for slide agglutination test by using commercially antisera polyvalent and monovalent O1 and O139 for determining strain serotype. The DNA extracted from pure culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used for molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae, a specific primer which designed according to <em>ctx</em>A gene sequences. This primer was detection and amplifying 241 base pairs of the <em>ctx</em>A gene. The resistance to antibiotics by Vibrio cholerae was determining by using thirteen standardized disc diffusion including Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Gentamycin, Tetracycline, Streptomycin, Tobramycin, Cephotaxime, Nalidixic Acid, Norfloxacin, Cephalothin, Rifampicin, Cefixime. From one hundred water samples were detected, fifty-six samples were motile and positive for biochemical tests. Fifteen isolates confirmed as <em>Vibrio cholera</em> by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay with primers de­signed for<em> ctx</em>A and 241bp band was observed. These fifteen isolates showed agglutination with polyvalent and monovalent O1 antisera, and two strains represented Ogawa from other strains that showed Inaba. The fifteen isolates exhibited an identical response to each antibiotic examined. They showed sensitive to all antibiotics except Amikacin, Streptomycin, Cefixime, Norfloxacin, Cephalothin. the aim of this study was determined the accurate method for detection of <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> in environmental water. In the current study, we found that the molecular method using Polymerase Chain Reaction performance using the <em>ctx</em>A gene-specific primers for detection of <em>Vibrio</em> <em>cholerae</em> was faster and accurate and specific.</p> Suad A Al-Hilu Ali M Al-Mohana Zainab Jaber Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1953 1960 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1400 Protein supplements between consumer's opinion and quality control: an applied study in jordan https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1402 <p>The consumption of dietary supplements has nowadays become popular, especially in Jordanian sports clubs and gyms. In fact, there is a widespread idea, among consumers, that these proteins contain hormones in order to increase their efficiency. The objective of this study is to develop a better understanding of customer opinion in an era that increased growth in Jordan and improves a chromatographic method to detect the testosterone in protein supplements. The method of this study, six popular types of proteins in the Jordan market have been chosen after conducting a primary study of the proteins' users by questionnaires to identify their opinions about these proteins. These proteins have been analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography by developing an easy and fast method to detect testosterone signal between 8-9 minutes of the chromatogram. The results of the study showed that 61% of the users believe that sport proteins contain hormones and other substances that are not mentioned in the list of ingredients. While 39% believe otherwise. On the other side, HPLC results of six proteins showed no signs for testosterone hormone. The main reason that drives them to take sport proteins is for building muscles in spite of they believe it could be harmful due to containing hormones and other substances. So in future investigations, it might be possible to use different brands and investigate them by using the same method.</p> Talal Aburjai Rudaina Othman Yousif Mahmood Jasim AlSamydai Ali Al-Samydai Farah Al-Mamoori Hanan Azzam Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1961 1969 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1402 Molecular analysis of multi –drug resistant acintobacter baumannii isolated in baghdad hospital https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1406 <p>Qurum sense is regulatory systems that enable bacteria to expretion for a specific set of genes by making collective decisions and regulation of virulence factors of pathogenic <em>Acintobacter baumannii</em>, the prevalence of carbapenem resistance among (8) different antibiotic groups pattern. In the MDR index, all isolates showed high MDR, ranged from (6-21) antibiotics. MDR index is between (0.29-1.0).Quantitative biofilm production assay showed that 118/124(95.1%)of isolates were biofilm-formers. Detection of QS genes showed that (97.6%)121/124<em>,</em>(98.3%)122\124 and (4.8%)of isolates carried <em>luxR, rhlI</em> and <em>rhIR</em> genes, respectivelly. All isolates possess <em>rhIR</em> gene are isolated from child meningococcal patients and characterized by the strong biofilm formation. Identification of <em>abaI</em> gene in&nbsp;<em>A.baumannii</em> producing the QS signal molecules detected in124\124(100%). The current study revealed a strong relationship between Q.S genes <em>luxR,rhII,rhIR</em> and oxacillinases presence <em>OXA23, OXA69.</em> While a strong negative correlation between <em>OXA48 and OXA69 with the rhIR </em>gene. All isolates carried Integron I(n=124)(100%) with a significant presence of (<em>luxR, rhII</em>) genes, while INT2,3 had a highly significant level with <em>rhIR</em>. Noteworthy, (n=105) 84.7% of OXA51 positive isolates have carried ISAbal-blaOXA-51, whereas all isolates which have OXA23 carried ISAbal-blaOXA-23(n=65)52.4% most of them revealed IMP&amp;MEM resistance phenotype. Insertion sequence(ISAbal-blaOXA-51) showed significant correlation with <em>luxR</em>, <em>rhII</em> genes, while there was no correlation among ISAbal25, ISAbal, ISAbal25-blaADC and <em>luxR, rhII</em>. Positive correlation recorded with all IS with <em>rhIR</em>, except ISAbal-blaADC.<em>ads-a </em>gene was observed in 77/124(62.1%) of isolates, which associated with aminoglycoside resistance, and included within the 93 XDR isolates. Studied isolates showed the same prevelance rate for <em>ompA</em>, <em>smpA</em> which was122\124(98.4%) of isolates.</p> Dunya Jawad Ridha Munim Radwan Ali kifah Ahmed jassim Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1970 1987 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1406 Recognistion of glaucoma using otsu segmentation method https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1407 <p>Glaucoma is an eye disease once it occurs, it cannot be cured. Be that as it may, in the event that it is starting stage doesn't take the therapeutic treatment its prompts the lasting visual impairment.&nbsp; Most of the literature surveys&nbsp;explain&nbsp;various techniques which&nbsp;are used&nbsp;with the help of&nbsp;the optic cup&nbsp;and optic disc to detect glaucoma. It tends to be successfully identified through the best possible segmentation of optic cup and optic disc. In this paper, we proposed about, NRR [neuro retinal rim] OTSU segmentation based technique. The disease will be confirmed by calculating the CDR [cup to disk ratio], RDR [rim to disk ratio],&nbsp;ISNT ratio [inferior,&nbsp;superior,&nbsp;nasal,&nbsp;temporal] and in analysis of glaucoma detection CDR and SVM [support vector machine] play the major role in identifying the glaucoma present or not. Our experimental technique&nbsp;has got&nbsp;the outcome of 94% accuracy.</p> Naga Kiran D Kanchana V Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-16 2019-07-16 10 3 1988 1996 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1407 A death calls from unsafe heights. a study of factors influencing the outcome of surgically treated pediatric head trauma patients in baghdad https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1408 <p>Pediatric head injury accounts for a large number of admissions in emergency rooms, it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children over 1 year of age. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of surgically treated pediatric patients with head trauma in Baghdad. Patients and methods : This prospective cross sectional study was conducted in neurosurgery hospital in Baghdad including fifty two patients of pediatric age group from 1 year to 14 years old with surgically operated head trauma, in the period from 1/10/2014 till 1/10/2015. All the patients were received; examined and managed properly and followed up till 6 months after surgery. The outcome was truly affected by the mechanism of injury (p=0.001), falls from heights was the most common mechanism and it was significantly related to mortality, it also increased the rate of disability, while it had no significance regarding a good functional recovery. There were associated orthopedic injuries which also affected the outcome significantly (p=0.01) increasing the mortality and disability. The outcome was truly affected by pediatric coma scale (p=0.001), functional recovery was increased with higher score and mortality increased with lower score, and disability increased in both severe and moderate scores. Pediatric trauma score had a significant effect on the outcome (p=0.001), in score (less than 0) it increased the mortality, in score(0-5) morbidity was increased. Falls from heights are the most common mechanism of pediatric head trauma and greatly affect the outcome. Concomitant orthopedic injuries are associated with poor outcome. pediatric coma scale, pediatric trauma score are significant tools in predicting outcome.</p> Ghazwan Alwan Lafta Ali Adnan Dolachee Alyaa Khalid Al-Zubaidi Samer S. Hoz Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-16 2019-07-16 10 3 1997 2001 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1408 Evaluation the mechanical properties of PMMA / ZrO2 nanoparticles for dental application https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1409 <p>Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) mechanical strength still has a couple of disadvantages form long term denture. This work aims to evaluate the influence of Zirconium nanoparticle (ZrO<sub>2</sub>) with various concentrations (0.15, 0.35, 0.6, 0.9) on tensile, compression, fatigue strength, and hardness test. The rise of the ZrO<sub>2 </sub>nanoparticles ratio yielded to a proportional increase in the material composite strength of tensile. In addition, the compression test showed that the ZrO<sub>2</sub> ratio rise increased the compressive strength of the compound material. As for the hardness test, it has been noted that the article has a high hardness ratio and is almost perfect. Moreover, the rate of fatigue test, which is a measure of the susceptibility of corrosion-resistant material, yielded good result in which the content has shown the ability to resist erosion for a long time. All over, the results mentioned above showed reliable capacity for denture base material with improved strength, fatigue, hardness and compression with the of addition ZrO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles to PMMA.</p> Logean Qadri Al-Karam Sadeer M.Majeed Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2002 2007 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1409 Antibiotics resistance - a stumbling block to antibiotics research https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1410 <p>Antibiotics are natural or synthetic substances that inhibit the growth of infectious microorganisms and prevent from them, causing serious infections. Though the discovery of penicillin was claimed to be accidental, later on, systematic procedures for antibiotic discovery was introduced by Waksman through his streptomycin discovery. Adopting Waksman's platform, many researchers are exploring natural sources in search of antibiotics. On the other hand, the development of resistance to antibiotics is growing at a rate faster than the discovery of new antibiotics. While a number of semi synthetic and synthetic compounds with antimicrobial properties are emerging to combat the above problem, the microorganisms are in no way working inferior to resist the actions of such substances. In fact, the development of resistance by microorganisms to above said alternatives are observed at an even faster rate than the natural antimicrobial compounds obtained from microbes. The reason behind such a faster resistance development is due to the similar structural features of semi-synthetic and synthetic compounds to natural antibiotics from microbes. The treatment of infectious diseases becomes a big task and requires a greater concern nowadays to avoid increased rates of mortality. This is an alarming condition demanding for the discovery and development of new antimicrobial compounds that would end up as a better solution for the existing problem and avoid the development of resistance. This review presents the background of antibiotics discovery and resistance development and also provides an insight into the available strategies to combat the problem.</p> Sivasankari Marimuthu Arul Jayanthi Antonisamy Sankar Malayandi Karthikeyan Rajendran Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2008 2013 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1410 A case of scrub typhus presenting as ARDS https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1411 <p>Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a disease, mainly occurring in critically ill patients. The systemic spread of infections mainly causes ARDS due to the seepage of fluid in the spaces of the lung . Scrub typhus is a infection caused by . The bite of mite transmits it. Scrub typhus is frequently due to its non-specific clinical presentation and relatively low level of suspicion in treating physicians. The clinical presentation of scrub typhus is varied from fever, , rashes, headache, to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, central nervous system involvement. The disease is usually indistinguishable from other febrile illness like enteric fever, disease, malaria and certain viral hemorrhagic fevers. Identification of an points to the diagnosis without which the diagnosis is based on a high index of clinical suspicion. We report an interesting case of scrub typhus presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome.</p> Ahmed Siddique A Jagadeesan M Mariraj I Ramkumar M Prasanna Karthik S1 Kannan R Damodharan J Mageshkumar S Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2014 2016 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1411 Kidney tumor detection and classification using image processing https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1412 <p>Kidney cancer is a disorder where the cells of the kidney become abnormal and develop into a tumor. It is also referred to as renal cell carcinoma. The detection of kidney tumor in the early stages is very important; it is said that different imaging techniques can help doctors to decide the cancer stage and determine the appropriate treatment method. The detection and diagnosis of kidney tumors are performed by scanning images of computed tomography. Most existing works in renal kidney cancer is detection and diagnosis of the existence or absence of tumor in the kidney and classify the tumor as harmless or malevolent. The fundamental goal of this paper is to propose a strategy that will characterize the type of cells present in the kidney tumor. This can be accomplished through methods like segmentation, feature extraction using GLCM and classification using multiSVM.</p> Rohith V Simmi Ramya N Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2017 2024 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1412 A typical drug design approach for AIDS in HIV genomics using various MD methods https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1413 <p>In our work, we are working with HIV genomes and AIDS proteins. In our method, we are performing sequence alignment using Needle man wunch algorithm of development and application the approach to calculate free energy and entropy by using the non-physical, chemical path through a thermodynamic series while the drug will interact with the protein. Here we are working on the principle-based on protein-protein, protein-peptide, protein-ligand, virtual screening and compulsory free energy estimation for HIV genomics and AIDS proteins. For sequence comparison, we are using the Needleman Wunsch algorithm. Proposed In our proposed work, we have taken the decision parameter is as binding energy to check the efficiency of the drug.</p> Bipin Nair B J Akshay Raj V P Chithranand V Nair Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2025 2030 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1413 AntiHIV, antitubercular and antibacterial activities of novel 1-substituted-3-(3-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrobenzopyrimidin-2-yl amino) isothioureas https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1414 <p>In this research, substituted thiosemicarbazide group was placed at 2nd position &amp; 4-methylphenyl group was placed at 3rd position of condensed pyrimidine nucleus. Entire prepared title analogues were examined for its antibacterial, antitubercular, &amp; anti HIV activities against selected bacteria &amp; virus. The target compounds 1-substituted-3-(3-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrobenzopyrimidin-2-ylamino)isothioureas (<strong>TTS01 – TTS10</strong>) were synthesized from 2-hydrazino-3-(4-methylphenyl)benzopyrimidin-4(3<em>H)</em>-one (<strong>5</strong>) by reacting with various alkyl/aryl isothiocyanates followed by methylation with dimethyl sulphate. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrobenzopyrimidin-2-ylamino)-1-(3-chlorophenyl) isothiourea (<strong>TTS09</strong>) and 2-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrobenzopyrimidin-2-yl amino)-1-(4-nitrophenyl) isothiourea (<strong>TTS06</strong>) shown most potent activity against <em>S. epidermidis</em>, <em>S. Aureus, and P. vulgaris</em> 3 µg/ml MIC. Compounds <strong>TTS06</strong> &amp; <strong>TTS09</strong> exhibited the antitubercular activity with 12.5 µg/ml MIC and antiHIV activity at 9.06 and 8.56 µg/ml, respectively against HIV1 and HIV2. Thus for further optimization &amp; development of novel antitubercular and antiHIV drugs, compounds <strong>TTS06</strong> &amp; <strong>TTS09</strong> may act as a pilot derivative.</p> Narendhar B Chitra K Alagarsamy V Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2031 2037 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1414 A Comparative approach to cluster maternal data using k-means and k-medoid https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1416 <p>In our work, we cluster the data collected on pregnancy women through hospitals, into three different categories such as elective LSCS, emergency LSCS and normal delivery. We aim to identify outliers so that we can predict the complications that can occur during pregnancy. These complications can even lead to maternal death. Clustering is performed by the aid of k-means, and k-medoid procedures which are implemented in windows form application to run in Microsoft Visual Studio, a comparison is provided on its performance and efficiency between both the algorithms and also the outlier, i.e. normal delivery cases are detected and depicted. From our work, we can clearly say that K-Means works better when the dataset is between the range of 50 – 100. Suppose the data set is greater than 500 then K-medoid works efficiently. In our work, we are considering various maternity cases. Here we are detecting normal delivery cases as an outlier.</p> Bipin Nair B J Adarsh C K Nishin S Nihar K P Shivaranjith P Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2038 2043 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1416 Poisoning trends in intensive care unit at secondary care hospital – a pilot study https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1417 <p>Poison is known as a toxic and hazardous substance that is capable of causing illness to the living organisms. It can lead to some fatal outcomes. Self-harming has become a global issue, which is a burden on society. Every year millions of people die due to the consumption of toxic compound and leaving their loved ones behind in grief. The prospective pilot study was performed on a small scale for a period of three months. Each type of poison case admitted to Intensive care unit for the three months from July 2018 to September 2018 were taken into consideration. The informed consent has been obtained from all the patients, whereas demographics details of the patient were obtained using a predesigned data collection form. During the study period, 37 cases of poisoning were reviewed. The incidence is found to be more in males 28 (75.6%) when compared to females 9 (24.3%). Our study results showed that pesticides are the major reason for poisoning with an intention of self- harming. Majority of the poisoning cases were seen in the age group of 21-30 where physical and mental stress is the major reason.</p> Sri Nanda G Balaji S Khayati Moudgil Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2044 2046 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1417 The association between gene polymorphism of certain cytokines (IL-6, IL-10) and hepatitis C virus infection locally https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1418 <p>Thirty blood samples were collected from people infected with HCV and collected 30 blood samples from healthy individuals as a control group. The samples were collected from the virus department at Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Women's Hospital and Educational Children and the Blood Bank in Diwaniyah Governorate, during the period from July 2018 until February 2019. Antibodies (Anti-HCV ) to HCV were detected in the infected serum using ELISA technique, and the diagnosis was confirmed Using the polymerase chain reaction test. Select gene polymorphism of interleukin -6 at site 174, which represents 3 genotypes GG, GC, CC in patients with HCV and control group. GG was significantly increased in patients with hepatitis C virus (63.3%) compared to the control group (30 %). The genotypes GC, CC were significantly decreased in patients with hepatitis C virus (16.7% and 20%) compared with the control group (43.3% and 26.7%), respectively. It also identified gene polymorphism of interleukin -10 at site 592, which represented 3 genotypes AA, AC, CC in patients with hepatitis C virus and control group. Genotype AC was significantly increased in patients with hepatitis C virus (53%) compared with the control group (30%). The genotypes CC, AA were significantly decreased in patients with hepatitis C virus (26.7% and 20%) compared with the control group (26.7% and 43.3%) respectively. Conclude from our current study that genotypes or alleles of IL-6 and IL-10 may play an essential role in increasing the risk of HCV in humans or play a vital role for prevention against.</p> Najwan Abdul Karim Habib Naji Alzubaidi Syoof Khoman Alwan Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2047 2053 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1418 Insilico screening chemical compounds -glucosidase inhibitor from Cordia myxa L. https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1421 <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0in; line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 200%; font-weight: normal;">One mechanism to maintain blood glucose level for diabetes mellitus is the inhibitor of the α-glucosidase enzyme to reduce the increased level. The research aimed to determine the chemical compound of <em>Cordia myxa</em> L. that can inhibit an α-glucosidase by insilico screening using the computer simulation with some docking program. The 3 D enzyme target receptor downloaded from Protein Bank Data (PDB) with 1LWJ code, and the macromolecules of a chemical compound from the sample were resulted from GC-MS analysis and optimizing the 3D conformation by. Screening of chemical compound by Autodock Vina on Pyrex Program. The results showed that 19’s chemical compounds of (<em>Cordia myxa</em> L.) having the value of free bonding energy (∆G) in the range of -5.3 kcal/mol to -9.3 kcal/mol, two compound with the higher ΔG value than the others are Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΔG -7.8 kcal/mol) and 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-(3,8,2,16-tetramethylheptadeca, 3,7,11,15, tetraenyl-cyclohexanol) (ΔG -9.3 kcal/mol).</span></p> Ahmad Najib Virsa Handayani Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad Syarif Hikmat Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2054 2057 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1421 A comparative study on different segmentation and classification methods for the diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1422 <p>Alzheimer Disease (AD) is one of the brain disorders which progressively expand over the years. It gradually harms the reasoning ability and memory of the affected person. Earlier identification can keep away the severity of the disease and can advance the feature of life. Alzheimer's disease diagnosis using image processing is an important but challenging problem around medical science since image processing made hard by noise, low contrast and other imaging ambiguities. There are many methods that exist in medical image analysis, which includes preprocessing, feature extraction, image segmentation and classification<em>. </em>Although several models have been widely used, there is a need to implement a system with more accuracy. A comparative analysis for the segmentation which comprises FCM and K-means clustering methods and classification of AD using SVM and CNN performed. These methods are used for segmentation and classification, which calculates the accuracy and consolidates their advantages. Finally analyzing efficient for the diagnosis of AD.</p> Pushpa B.R Nayana.P.Kamal Amal P.S Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2058 2070 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1422 Exploration and evaluation of efficient pre-processing and segmentation technique for breast cancer diagnosis based on mammograms https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1423 <p>Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women everywhere in the world. Since the reason behind the disease remains unknown, early detection and diagnosis is the key challenge for breast cancer control. In this work, mammogram images are initially subject to pre-processing using Laplacian filter for enhancement of tumour regions, Gaussian mixture model, Gaussian kernel FCM, Otsu global thresholding and FCM technique are employed for segmentation. Further, the efficiency of segmentation techniques is analyzed by classifying the samples into benign, malignant and healthy using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features. Linear discriminant analysis classifier is used a combination based on which efficiency used for classification of mammograms. Ensemble methods are evaluated. The efficiency has resulted in better accuracy with the ensemble-based method. The experimentation is conducted in the mini MIAS database of mammograms, and the efficiency of the linear discriminant analyzer is found to be 89.19% for GKFCM, 83.78% with Otsu and 78.38% with FCM method with GLCM features.</p> Shobha Rani N Chinmayi S Rao Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2071 2081 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1423 Effectiveness of acupressure on bio-physiological parameters in mediosternotomy patients https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1427 <p>Acupressure is one of the emerging alternative therapies for the management of the pain, anxiety and other physiological indexes. The present study was conducted at Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Whitefield, Bangalore. A total of twenty male and female patients those who undergo open heart surgery via median sternotomy were part of the study after obtaining the written informed consent. After recording the demographic data, the participants were randomly grouped into control and intervention groups using random numbers generated by computer with 10 participants in each group. The intervention was provided at PC6 acupressure point, situated on the inner side of forearm, three fingers below the wrist joint, three times a day (5-6am, 12 noon-1pm, 5-6pm) for four days. There was a significant decrease in the heart rate and blood pressure and significant increase in the partial pressure of oxygen. Further, there was decrease in the serum troponin T levels. The study support implementation of the acupressure.</p> Pritha L Valliammal S Sai sailesh Kumar Goothy Vijayaraghavan R Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2082 2089 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1427 Effect of caloric vestibular stimulation in a paraquat-induced parkinsonian mouse model https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1430 <p>The present study was taken up to observe the effect of caloric vestibular stimulation on brain neurochemicals in a paraquat-induced Parkinso-nian mouse model. 24 healthy, adult male Swiss albino mice with body weight ranging between 25 - 40g were used in the study. The middle ear cavity of the mice was irrigated with hot (40oC) water. 0.5 ml of water was taken in 5 ml syringe with the needle removed. The ear was irrigated with water drop by drop, using the syringe. Gently the earlobe of mice was shaken. The procedure was continued with the other ear. Acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and GABA were estimated. The results of the present study show a positive impact of vestibular stimulation in the management of the Parkinson’s disease. Further detailed research is required to understand the mechanism of action behind the performance of vestibular stimulation and could be adopted in the management of Parkinson’s disease.</p> Sai Sailesh Kumar Goothy Srilatha Goothy Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2090 2094 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1430 Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and serum ferritin level in healthy women https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1431 <p>Vitamin D is an essential vitamin that regulates many biological processes and involved in the ‎activity of many organs like the skin, bone, kidney, etc. ferritin is an essential marker for ‎assessment of anemic status. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between ferritin ‎and vitamin D3 in healthy women at various age groups. A cross-sectional study carried out in ‎Ramadi city and involved 92 healthy women aged from ‎20-50 years‎, the participants divided into two groups according to age: group I with age ‏‎20 – 35 years and group II with age 36 – 50 years. In the present study mean vitamin D3 in group II ‎11.8 ‎±‎ 3.5‎ ‎ng/dL was ‎significantly lower than group I (35.3 ‎±‎ 12.2‎ ng/dL) p-value &lt; 0.001, a similar ‎finding observed for ferritin (‎19.6 ‎±‎ 13.9‎ ‎vs ‎66.7 ‎±‎ 52.1‎, p-value &lt;0.001). There was a direct relationship between ferritin with vitamin D. However, this relationship was ‎only significant in group II (p-value &lt;0.05), while in group I it was statistically significant. In conclusion, low vitamin D levels associated with low ferritin, indicating that vitamin D ‎deficiency is associated with anemia.</p> Mohanad Adel Mohammed Mushtaq Talib Abed Muhannad Shweash Hayder Adnan Fawzi Muntaha Qasim Hendi Ashwaq Talib Duraij Ghuran Mahdi Salih Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2095 2098 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1431 Reduce the toxicity of prepared copper sulfide nanoparticles https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1433 <p>Copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention from biomedical ‎researchers across the globe, because of their intriguing properties, which have been ‎mainly explored for energy and catalysis related applications. The aim of the study is to ‎prepare CuS NPs by BSA entrapment to reduce the toxicity, characterizing, comparative ‎the toxicity before and after entrapment against bacteria and check the toxicity against RD ‎and L20B cell lines. CuS-BSA NPs was an easy, low toxicity and low cost chemically ‎synthesized. The CuS-BSA NPs was identified though UV-VIS ‎spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX, and Zeta potential. The antibacterial activity ‎against different G-positive and G-negative bacterial strains have been investigated for (2 ‎mg/ml) concentrations of CuS-BSA NPs and commercial CuS. A result showed that CuS-‎BSA NPs have more antibacterial activity than commercial CuS. Using different ‎parameters of CuS-BSA NPs, its anti-cancer bioactivity for every compound synthesized in ‎RD and L20B cell line was explored, and the result proved there was significant toxicity ‎against RD and L20B cell lines.‎</p> Manar M. Rashed Nada H.A. Al-Mudallal Ali A. Taha Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2099 2103 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1433 Hypolipidemic effect of azima tetracantha on lipid profile markers of carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in rats https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1434 <p>This study was aimed at evaluating the hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of <em>Azima tetracantha </em>leaves against liver toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) in male albino Wistar rats and to compare the same with the reference drug silymarin. Six groups of rats with six rats in each group were used as the experimental subject. Animals were allocated into a control group and liver toxicity control group. The remaining four groups received in addition to CCl<sub>4</sub>, silymarin (20 mg/kg/d) as a reference treatment and <em>Azima tetracantha </em>(100, 200 and 400mg/kg/d). Once the experiment period was completed, the biomarkers of lipid profile, including total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] were evaluated. <em>Azima tetracantha </em>significantly decreased the serum lipid profile markers cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, fatty acids, VLDL, LDL, and increased HDL. <em>Azima tetracantha </em>could be a promising protective agent against cholesterol through the improvement of liver function, modulation of CCl<sub>4 </sub>by-products formation and thus has hypolipidemic potentials.</p> Saleem K Nargis Begum T Muhammad Ilyas MH Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-11 2019-07-11 10 3 2104 2108 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1434 Design, optimization and comparative IN VITRO evaluation of sustain release matrix tablet using ARAUCARIA HETEROPHYLLA gum https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1435 <p>The present study deals with the formulation of oral sustained-release tablets using natural gum <em>Araucaria heterophylla </em>gum, and the results were compared the formulations with existing polymers. The gum was isolated from the bark exudates of <em>Araucaria heterophylla </em>tree Sustain release matrix tablets of aceclofenac as a model drug were prepared with the proportions 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of<em> Araucaria heterophylla</em> gum by direct compression method. The results were compared with sustain release matrix tablets formulated from similar proportions of Guar gum and HPMC K4M. The tablets were evaluated for their physical characteristics. The formulation with 30% concentration of the gum showed a release of -91.68±0.72% whereas the formulation with 30% guar gum showed a drug at release 91.26±0.41% after 8 hrs, while HPMC at 30% concentration gave a drug release of 86.26±0.61after 8 hrs. The other parameters are satisfactory and are within the Pharmacopoeial limits. The stability studies carried out under accelerated conditions as per ICH guidelines infer that the gum is chemically stable, compatible and maintain its physical and <em>in vitro</em> characteristics throughout the shelf life of the formulations.</p> Gayathri R Sundaraganapathy R Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2109 2116 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1435 Biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using herbal formulation and its characterisation https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1436 <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-IN">To study the biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using herbal formulation and its characterisation. To study the copper oxide nanoparticles biosynthesis using Moringha oriefera&nbsp; (I) Synthesis of nanoparticles using copper sulphate&nbsp; (II) Characterisation of nanoparticles using UV-visual spectroscopy. The size of the synthesised nanoparticles are found to be 2-100nm. The graph reached its peak at the wavelength of 300nm using UV-vis spectroscopy. The shape is spherical. These TEM and UV spectroscopic analysis confirmed the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles. Overall results, confirmed the size and shape of CuO nanoparticles using this process and suggested their applications in biomedicine.&nbsp;The biosynthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average size of 2-100nm. The present research about the biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using the plant extract Moringa Oleifera has excellent biocompatibility. The particles which are smaller in size shows more immunity. Hence the nanoparticles are expected to be used in future for the effective drug systems and immunity against diseases.&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></p> Revathi B Rajeshkumar S Anitha Roy Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2117 2119 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1436 Factors affecting the outcome in surgically treated civilian penetrating head injury: Case series https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1437 <p>Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is any injury that causes penetration of the scalp, skull, meninges, and brain. It is a traumatic brain injury caused by either low-velocity sharp objects (e.g. a knife), high-velocity projectiles (shell fragment or bullets) or blast injury is the consequence of the detonation of complex explosives with or without PBI and closed head injury. To evaluate the factors (pre-operative and operative) that affect the surgical outcome of civilian PBI. This study was done from February 2017 to October 2018 prospectively &amp; retrospectively. The study involved only the civilian patients that got a penetrating head injury and surgically treated in Neurosurgical Teaching Hospital/Baghdad/Iraq. The data include thirty-nine (39) operated patients with PBI. Data information includes the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), radiological investigations (computerized tomov graphy (CT-scan) and plain X-ray) the outcome determined by Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). The patients were followed up during the time of hospitalization. The surgical outcome of the penetrating head injury in this study was assessed by GOS and was as follow, good recovery 10 patients (25.6%), moderately disabled 11 patients (28.2%), severely disabled 5 patients (12.8%), vegetative 6 patients (15.4%), Dead 7 patients (18.0%). Good outcome 21 patients 53.8% while poor outcome 18 patients 46.2%. GCS is significant factor (p-value = 0.002), time not affecting, CT-finding is significant factor (p-value = 0.000), blood pressure &gt;= 90 mm Hg is a good predictor factor (p-value =0.001), speech difficulty is poor predictor factor (p-value = 0.004), outcome of inlet alone better than inlet and outlet. There are many factors affecting the surgical outcome in civilian penetrating head injury, and the significant factor is pre-operative GCS, CT-scan which is the best radiological investigation for pre-operative and post-operative assessment and show the details of the injury, blood pressure &gt; = 90 mm Hg which is a good prognostic factor.</p> Ali Adnan Dolachee Ghazwan Alwan Lafta Abdulqadder Nabil Mohammed Alyaa Khalid Al-Zubaidi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2120 2126 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1437 An R based interface to understand cognitive ability of different participants using fixation and saccade detection https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1438 <p>Eye-tracking is an emerging area of science in a wide range of computer vision-based applications. Eye-tracking mainly deals with where the person is looking at and for what duration. In this work, we propose an R based interface to visualize the eye-tracking data as fixations and saccades that depicts where the person looking at –fixations and saccades and what duration – fixation duration. Through the eye-tracking metrics that are visualized in our work, one can visualize the difference between the viewing behaviour of various participants. The differences thus depicted can later be studied in order to understand the cognitive abilities of the participants. The paper contains a detailed survey of the existing literature and the experimental results generated using the R interface.</p> Akshay S Ashika P Aswathy Ramesh Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2127 2131 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1438 Standardization and bacteria inhibitory test of purified extract of mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq) seeds and leaves https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1439 <p>Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq) is one of the plants that is often used by the community as traditional medicine. One of them is antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, and eczema. This study aims to obtain standardized extracts from mahogany seeds and leaves. Standardization of purified extract of mahogany has been carried out according to the monographs of extract standardization guidelines, which include testing of specific and non-specific parameters. The results of the specific parameter testing showed that the purified extract of mahogany seeds is a thick extract, brown to reddish, smells distinctive and has a bitter taste. While the purified extract of mahogany leaves is a thick extract, greenish-brown in color, distinctive smell and has a bitter taste. The chemical content of purified extract of mahogany seeds and leaves showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and saponins. Water-soluble essence levels in mahogany seeds and leaves was 14.84% and 10.28%. While the ethanol-soluble essence levels in mahogany seeds and leaves were 15.38% and 12.43%. Testing of non-specific parameters on mahogany seeds and leaves showed the results of drying shrinkage levels of 0.22% and 8.84%, moisture content of 2.60% and 4.04%, total ash content of 1.71% and 1.93%, levels acidic insoluble ash 0.38% and 0.32%, Total Plate Number (ALT) of mahogany seed bacteria 1x102 colonies/g, Number of mahogany mold seeds 4x10 colonies/g, heavy metal lead contamination and cadmium in mahogany seeds 0.0607µg/g and&lt;0.003µg/g. The inhibitory diameter of each concentration of seeds against Escherichia coli, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9%, is 12,67; 13,67; 17,67; and 19,67 mm, respectively. The inhibitory diameter of each concentration of leaves against Escherichia coli, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9%, is 10,27; 10,90; 13,46; and 15,68 mm, respectively.</p> Virsa Handayani Rezki Amriati Syarif Ahmad Najib Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad Abdullah Mahmud Nurasyiah Jumaris St Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 2132 2138 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1439 Heparin-induced gross haematuria : a case study https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1440 <p>Spotting blood in urine can be alarming. In many instances the cause is harmless, but blood in urine can indicate a serious disorder. Haematuria can be categorized into two categories, such as gross haematuria and microscopic haematuria. Gross haematuria is visible with naked eyes, and easily identifiable, whereas microscopic haematuria can be identified after doing a urine test under a microscope. It is important to know the primary cause of bleeding. It can be either due to medications, kidney disorders, urinary tract infections or strenuous exercise's. Here we report a case series of gross haematuria for three patients where it has been caused by anticoagulant drug heparin. Our case series illustrates a strong causal relation with heparin causing gross haematuria.</p> Sumit Kumar Rai Khayati Moudgil Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2139 2141 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1440 Molecular characterization of covalently closed circular plasmid DNA in local Streptomyces strains isolated from soil with detection of antibiotic production and antibacterial activity https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1441 <p>Various of <em>Streptomyces</em> species have two kinds of plasmids, circular plasmids (8 to 31 kb) and linear plasmids (12 to 1700 kb). Covalently closed circular (CCC) plasmids are profuse in the genus of <em>Streptomyces</em> and involved in production and resistance of antibiotics by genetic controlling. We collected fifty clinical soil samples from different regions in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf province/Iraq. The samples included five from Al-Ghadeer Quarter, five from Al-Karama Quarter, 10 from Kufa University, five from Al-Ameer Quarter, four from Al-Forat Quarter, 10 from North Quarters and eleven from desert roads in Al-Najaf. Diluted samples were cultured on Yeast extract Malt extract (YEME) agar medium as a selective medium; then the presumptive <em>Streptomyces</em> colonies were subcultured on Tryptone Yeast extract (TYE) agar, then incubation at 37ᵒC for 7 days. Seven biochemical tests for identification of <em>Streptomyces</em> isolates these are: Catalase test, Oxidase test, Urase test, Kligler Iron Agar test (KIA), Simmon᾽s Citrate test, addition to MacConkey agar test and Mannitol Salt agar test. Five antibiotic discs were used for detection of antibiotic sensitivity of the <em>Streptomyces</em> isolates; these are: Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Vancomycin, Ampicillin, Erythromycin. The sensitivity of the antibiotics was observed by recorded the diameter of inhibition zone around the discs. Two test bacteria (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em>) were used for the determination of antibacterial activity<strong>. </strong>Plasmid isolation was done by the alkaline lysis method. This method is characterized by the rapid isolation of DNA from <em>Streptomyces</em>. Then, detection of Plasmid DNA occurred by using agarose gel electrophoresis.</p> Suad A Al-Hilu Wisam H Al-Shujairi Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 10 3 2142 2152 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1441 Antifungal susceptibility testing of candida – Methods and issues in current practice https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1372 <p>Despite the availability of many antifungal drugs in clinical practice, the occurrence of antifungal drug resistance is on the rise. Since the antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) is not done routinely in many of the microbiology laboratories, it is very difficult to determine which antifungal agent is very effective for a particular infection. There is a real need for precise, reproducible and extrapolative antifungal susceptibility testing methods to aid the therapeutic management. The practice of empirical treatment for fungal infections further promotes the emergence of resistant strains. The AFST practice would essentially help the clinicians in appropriate decision making. Although conventional AFST methods are somewhat cumbersome, many novel AFST methods are currently available in many laboratory settings which would provide a quicker result many times. In essence, the application of AFST along with identification of the fungus up to species level would definitely be very helpful in selecting the primary antifungal agents for treatment especially in difficult to manage and invasive fungal infections. This review will throw light on the various AFST methods available and their issues in the current practice.</p> Lakshmi Krishnasamy Priya Santharam Chitralekha Saikumar Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1778 1784 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1372 Transfersome vs liposomes as drug delivery vehicle for the treatment of skin cancers https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1375 <p>Skin cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It is estimated that by 2030, there will be around 13.1million deaths can occur due to skin cancer. Current treatment of skin cancer includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Chemo-resistance, off-target effects and poor bioavailability are the major challenges for currently available drugs for the treatment of skin cancer. Transfersomes is a novel, elastic vesicular drug carrier composed of phospholipids, surfactants and ethanol for enhanced transdermal delivery. This article we have reviewed about merits/demerits, liposomes vs transfersomes, preparation methods, characterization, mechanism of skin delivery, and application and regulatory aspects of transfersomes in treating various skin cancers.</p> Sivarajakumar Raahulan Bharat Kumar Reddy Sanapalli Sai Kiran SS. Pindiprolu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1795 1807 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1375 Bacteriocins: Production, different strategies of purification and applications https://pharmascope.org/index.php/ijrps/article/view/1376 <p>Food safety and quality are the major concern for food processing industries. In today's world, people are getting more conscious about food safety parameters. In this regard, bacteriocin plays a major role in ensuring the safety and quality of food products. From those, LAB bacteriocins are of great interest due to their GRAS status. They are widely used in food preservation, agriculture and pharmaceutical industries. They have also been incorporated into food packaging material due to their both antibacterial and antifungal properties. In this review, we highlighted the possible ways to produce and purify bacteriocin and also the potential application to be used as a natural preservative.</p> Vishakha Sharma Rahul C Ranveer Neelam Jain Gajender Kumar Aseri Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 3 1808 1817 10.26452/ijrps.v10i3.1376