International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences <p>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) is quarterly publishing online peer reviewed scientific journal sponsored by Pharmascope Publications. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, short communications, case studies and reports in&nbsp;Pharmaceutical Sciences.</p> Pharmascope Publications, Sponsored by JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation en-US International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 0975-7538 Estimation of serum electrolyte concentration among fuel pump/petrol station workers in Kirkuk city <p>Occupational exposure to petrol has been reported to cause serious health hazards especially liver and kidney disease. Electrolytes like Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, and Cl<sup>-</sup>&nbsp;are the important mediators of several physiological functions. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of petrol exposure on the serum electrolyte concentration among the workers at the Kirkuk petrol station.&nbsp;The cross-sectional study analyzed 29 petrol pump workers who were continuously exposed to petrol more at least one year in the Kirkuk city and did not have a history of any systemic illness, and 10 healthy age-matched controls who never had exposure to petrol were enrolled. The serum electrolyte levels (Na+, K+, and Cl-) were assessed in the petrol station workers working at Kirkuk city petrol station and the controls by FUJI DRI-CHEM system (Fujifilm (Japan) and expressed as mmol/l. These serum electrolyte levels were compared between the workers and the controls by Mann-Whitney U test and p values ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.&nbsp;All the participants in the study were males. None of the participants was smokers or alcohol consumers. No significant (p=0.32) difference was found in the mean age of the petrol station workers (34.22±6.57) years and the controls (36.70±6.33) years. The serum&nbsp;Na<sup>+</sup>&nbsp;levels were significantly higher in the petrol station workers as compared to the controls. Similarly, serum Cl<sup>-</sup>&nbsp;levels were significantly higher in the petrol station workers as compared to the controls. Although the levels of the electrolytes studied were in the normal recommended range but the levels of Na<sup>+&nbsp;</sup>and&nbsp;Cl<sup>-</sup>were significantly higher in the petrol station workers than the controls. Extensive studies involving larger sample sizes should be conducted to conclude the effect of petrol exposure on the electrolyte levels.</p> Dlawer Abdulhammed Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 4 2602 2606 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1401 Quality of life assessment in behçet’s disease: an observational case control single center study <p>Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent exacerbations. Limited studies have shown it has a negative impact on patients quality of life(QoL). This study aimed to evaluate Quality of Life in Patients with Behçet’s disease compared with healthy controls. A case-control study involved 71 patients with BD compared with 71 healthy controls matched in age and sex. Health-related quality-of-life was evaluated using the Short Form-36 (SF-36). All the components of Short Form-36 (SF-36), it's summary scores, and Total Short Form-36 (Total SF-36) score was significantly lower (p-value &lt;0.001 ) in patients compared to controls. Each organ involvement studied may affect independently specific SF-36 subscores. Central nervous system involvement in BD&nbsp; had a strong impact since it affects most of the SF-36 subscores. In conclusion<strong>:</strong> Health-related Quality of life was significantly impaired in Iraqi patients with Behçet’s disease compared to healthy controls. Each organ involvement studied may affect independently specific SF-36 subscores.</p> Faiq I. Gorial Mais Ajeel Jabbar Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2607 2611 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1518 Development of biodegradable scaffolds loaded with vancomycin micropartricles for the treatment of osteomyelitis <p>In this present research work, the development of biodegradable scaffolds loaded with Vancomycin micropartricles was carried out for the treatment of Osteomyelitis. Characterization Vancomycin Loaded microparticles and evaluation of the microparticles loaded scaffolds and also to carry out In-vitro release studies. Vancomycin hydrochloride microparticles were prepared with the help of double emulsion method. HPMC and Polaxomer 407 has been taken as the main polymers for the preparation of the microparticles. Chitosan was taken as the major polymer for the preparation of scaffolds for its greater biocompatibility and biodegradability. The preparation was done with the help of the solvent casting method. The formulation was taken for further characterization and evaluation studies. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry were carried out for the pure vancomycin drug, and the chitosan polymer X-ray diffraction was carried out to check the crystallinity of the prepared scaffolds. The particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index for vancomycin loaded microparticles were found to be 577.0±102.5 nm, 1624 mv and 0.254. The maximum and sustained release rate of the drug was found to be 95.6±0.478, at 16<sup>th</sup> Hr. By taking all the reports, a conclusion can be drawn that, the formulated VLM biodegradable scaffolds will show burst release at the initial time of administration, which is essential for the wound healing activity and will be sustained throughout the process of treatment of osteomyelitis.</p> Souvik chakraborty Gowda D V Vishal Gupta N Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2612 2621 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1519 Key conditions of alpha-tocopherol encapsulation in gum Arabic dispersions <p>Alpha-tocopherol or TOC is among substances that has medicinal capabilities. However, alpha-tocopherol is vulnerable to surrounding milieu settings. This leads to the necessity to shield it against unforeseen alterations during the storing or handling procedures. Encapsulation is presented as a procedure which can shield active agents from adverse changes by means of coating with polymers. In this study, gum Arabic (GA), a biopolymer derived from Acacia species, was used as the encapsulation matrix. Encapsulation process was done at different concentrations of GA dispersions (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) and at various pH levels (5.4, 6.4, 7.4 and 8.4). To evaluate the key conditions of TOC encapsulation in GA dispersion we analysed TOC encapsulation efficiency (<em>EE</em>) and rate of release (<em>RR</em>) from GA dispersions as well as loading capacity (<em>LC</em>) of GA for TOC. The <em>EE</em>, <em>RR</em> and <em>LC</em> were determined by measuring the TOC concentration in the GA dispersions using UV Visible spectrophotometry at 291 nm. Results disclosed that the key conditions for achieving a high <em>LC</em> by GA with high efficiency of TOC encapsulation were in a dispersion of 20% GA at pH range of 6.4 and 7.4. The best <em>EE</em> of TOC and <em>LC</em> of GA were 48% and 2.8%, respectively, with a TOC average <em>RR</em> of 1.05-1.09 ppm/day. The results indicate that gum Arabic is a potential matrix to encapsulate alpha-tocopherol.</p> Muhammad Fuad Al Khafiz Yuanita Hikmahwati Khairul Anam Dwi Hudiyanti Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2622 2627 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1520 The population dynamics of Т- and В-lymphocytes in blood of the cattle vaccinated against anthrax <p>Anthrax remains a serious problem for many countries in the world. Containment of major outbreaks of this disease is possible only with the help of specific preventive measures as vaccinating all susceptible livestock. Immunization of animals should create solid immunity in the organism, which should resist the development of the infection process when introducing field strains of an agent. Currently, the specific immunity of the organism to anthrax is studied in detail by Russian and foreign scientists. However, there are no data on the dynamics of the development of immunity in the literature. The purpose of this work is to study the cellular component of adaptive post-vaccinal immunity in animals at different stages after immunization against anthrax. The authors have studied the dynamics of the quantitative composition of T- and B-lymphocytes in cattle during a year. Isolation of T- and B-cells causes spontaneous rosetting of lymphocytes with erythrocytes of heterologous species of animals: sheep and mouse respectively. Recording of the reaction was carried out under a light microscope. 200 lymphocytes were counted, and the percentage of rosette-forming cells was calculated. It was found that immunization leads to an increase in the number of lymphoid cells and epiphylaixis. The increase of lymphocytes gives reason to talk about the enhanced immunity level of animals against this agent. The number of T- and B-lymphocytes in the blood of vaccinated animals has been observed for 35 days after immunization and has been maintained at the same level for two months; 3 months later the number of cells decreased, which shows weakening of the immune system and immune memory by the 6th month after immunization of animals.</p> Aleksandr P. Rodionov Lilia A. Melnicova Haris N. Makaev Ekaterina V. Pankova Svetlana V. Ivanova Albert K. Galiullin Sergey Yu. Smolentsev Copyright (c) 2019 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 4 2628 2631 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1403 A cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice towards tuberculosis among health care workers <p>Health care providers play a major role in the management of tuberculosis (TB). The knowledge, attitude and practice towards TB in health care providers will have an impact on the treatment success or failure. Studies have reported that inadequate knowledge of the health care providers led to the delivery of improper counselling content to the recipients. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards tuberculosis among health care workers in and around Chennai. A cross sectional study was conducted among 382 health care workers of the&nbsp;chest and tuberculosis department of government hospitals and directly observed treatment short-course clinics. The principal investigator administered a structured and validated questionnaire to the study participants.&nbsp;Around 500 healthcare workers were approached, and 382 showed interest to sign the informed consent. A majority (70%) of the study participants were between the age group 20-30 years. There was a highly significant difference (P = 0.006) in response to this between participants who had a history of active tuberculosis and undergone treatment for the same, and the participants with no history of TB. There was a significant difference between the study population based on their qualification and profession (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007 respectively) in using the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program guideline for reference. The knowledge attitude and practice towards TB was good in more than 80% of the respondents, yet there is room to improve. Structured periodic training towards TB will further improve the KAP of health care workers.</p> Ajith Kumar G Saranya P Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2632 2646 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1521 Stress profile and university performance of pharmacy students <p>The objective of the study was to examine the stress profile and university performance of pharmacy students. The study was necessary since high academic expectations among pharmacy students can expose them to stressful conditions. In return, stress can affect their level of performance. A quantitative approach was used to meet the objective of the study. A survey questionnaire was electronically administered to the study participants (n=591) to collect socio-demographic data, the student’s overall academic cumulative GPA, and stress indicators. The collected data was analysed quantitatively through the use of SPSS, more so using descriptive statistics and correlation tests. The study first examined the relationship between academic performance and stress and found no correlation between these two variables. The relationship between age and academic stress was also examined, and no correlation was evident. In addition, the year of study was compared to academic stress, and a significant relationship was found to exist between the two variables. Additionally, the year of study was also found to affect cognitive as well as social and interpersonal scores. The findings of the study, therefore, demonstrated the existence of no correlation between academic performance, stress, and age. These findings were unexpected, considering the general assumption that many pharmacy students experience elevated levels of stress compared to their counterparts pursuing less intensive courses. In sum, only the year of study was found to contribute to perceived stress among pharmacy students. Since academic factors are directly under the control of learning institutions, it is key that the management puts in place measures to minimise the resulting stress.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Elham Alshammari Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2647 2653 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1522 The effect of melatonin administration on the oxidative status in children with autism <p>To determine the changes in Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in addition to measuring the changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) which considered as antioxidant enzymes in autistic children receiving melatonin supplementation to evaluate its antioxidant role in autism. A follow-up study was performed in therapeutics and clinical pharmacy Department, Baghdad College of Medical Sciences, Baghdad - Iraq. The study was performed on 55 autistic children who had recruited from several private institutions specialized in autistic children care, Baghdad, Iraq between June 2018 and November 2018. The levels of melatonin, MDA, SOD and CAT were measured in the serum of 55 patients before and after receiving melatonin supplementation for three months. The results revealed statistically significant differences in the levels of melatonin, MDA, SOD and CAT between patients before and after receiving melatonin supplement. Furthermore, melatonin levels showed significant positive correlations with both SOD and CAT in addition to a significant positive correlation between SOD and CAT while MDA levels showed significant negative correlations with melatonin, SOD and CAT in autistic patients before and after receiving the supplement. Melatonin levels, CAT and SOD activity, showed to be improved significantly by melatonin supplementation with a concomitant reduction in the levels of MDA as an indicator of a decrease in oxidative stress in autistic children.</p> Mohammed BM. Al-Juboori Yasir SJ. Alrubaye Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2654 2660 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1523 Formulation of flurbiprofen transdermal patche: In vitro and Ex vivo report <p>The main aim of this study was to expand the present formulation with patch and to evaluate the transdermal patches of Flurbiprofen, NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug) used in the treatment of arthritis. Flurbiprofen is required at a sustained rate of its short half- life (3-4 hours) long term percutaneous absorption is required for its gastrointestinal side effects. Hence in this study, an effort was done to develop transdermal patches of Flurbiprofen by employing a different combination of polymers were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique. Nine formulations were prepared consists of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) E15 and polyvinylpyrrolidone in the ratios of 1:1, 1:2. Formulation, HPMC E15 and Ethylcellulose (EC) in 1:1, 1:2. Formulations, HPMC E15 and Eudragit RS100 in 1:1, 1:2, and Formulation HPMC E15 and Eudragit RL100 in 1:1, 1:2.Formulations (F1- F8). F9 formulations contain HPMC E15, Eudragit RS100 in 2:1 ratio with permeation enhancer DMSO 20% v/w of propylene glycol was used as a plasticizer in all the formulations. The developed patches were considered for several physicochemical parameters. <em>In vitro</em> drug release studies showed maximum percentage in 24 hrs for F9 formulation 94.31±1.43, showed maximum Ex-vivo skin permeation of 10,120±0.91 µg/cm<sup>2</sup>, and the obtained flux meets the required flux. The resultant data was fitted into zero; first, Higuchi and Peppas model and Formulation F9 followed zero order. Drug compatibility studies were resulted by FTIR. The results specify that Flurbiprofen transdermal patch can be designed with the required amount of flux with desire mechanical properties for the cause of better therapeutic benefits.</p> Srilatha Malvey Venkateshwar Rao J Kottaimuthu A Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2661 2669 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1524 A retrospective study on the effect of Vitamin C in the management of dengue fever in three different states of India <p>The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of vitamin C in the management of Dengue fever in the tertiary care hospitals of selected three states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Madhya Pradesh). This retrospective study was carried out for a period of 6 months from November 2017 to April 2018, in which 200 patients were selected by considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. It included 100 patients who were administered with Vitamin C and another 100 patients who were not given Vitamin C. All data were entered into the prepared PROFORMA. Mainly the increase in platelet counts and the duration of the hospital stay for both categories of patients were studied. Majority of dengue cases were in Tamil Nadu, followed by Kerala and then Madhya Pradesh depending upon the seasonal variations. Occurrence in male patients (58.5%) were more than female patients (41.5%). The most commonly affected age group ranges from 0-15 years (35.5%). Among the various types of dengue fever, a large number of patients had common dengue fever (87.5%). The 100 patients who were treated with vitamin C were mostly administered by oral routes. It was seen that the patients who were administered with Vitamin C had a greater percentage increase in their platelet count and a shorter duration of hospital stay. Study indicates that there exists an association between Vitamin C intake and length of hospital stay.</p> Kothai Ramalingam Christina S Varghese Chinchu Elias Gigi M Mathew Arul Balasubramanian Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2670 2673 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1525 The prevalence of poly cystic ovary syndrome among young adult girls <p>Polycystic ovarian disorder (PCOS) is a typical endocrine issue experienced in ladies and is related with issues, for example, menstrual inconsistencies; anovulation; barrenness; hirsuitism; heftiness; insulin opposition, dyslipoproteinemia; and, in later life, with diabetes mellitus and uterine malignant growth. Early determination is fundamental for early treatment and to limit the prompt and constant results. The predominance of PCOS in our general public has not yet been resolved. This investigation is an endeavor to evaluate its pervasiveness of youthful grown-up young ladies 18-25 Years. PCOS was analyzed by utilizing self-appraisal apparatus and BMI, and the predominance was observed to be % of the population.</p> Tamilselvi S Nalini S J Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2674 2676 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1526 Effectiveness of salt water application on episiotomy wound among postnatal mothers <p>Pregnancies, as a whole, has extended and widen changes for an antenatal mother. Maternal schemes play an important role in mother, baby and family during the antenatal period. 60 (30 experimental groups and 30 control group) patients (postnatal mothers) who met the inclusion criteria were selected by using non-probability convenience sampling technique. After selecting the sample, the investigator explained the purpose of the study and informed consent was obtained. Demographic variables were collected pre-test was done by using the REEDA scale (experimental and control group). For the experimental group, the saltwater application was given twice a day for five days in 8 hours. Control group receives the routine hospital care. On the third postnatal day, post-test was done for the experimental and control group. The data were tabulated and analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The result shows that in experimental group pre-test (3.33%) were mild healed, and 29(97%) were not healed and in control group 30(100%) were not healed. post-test in experimental group 22(73%) were healed, and 8(27%) were moderately healed, in the control group 2(7%) were healed, 15(50%) were moderately healed and 13(43%) were mild healed. The calculated‘t' value is significant at P&lt; 0.005. The study indicates that the application of salt water is effective on episiotomy wound healing among postnatal mothers.</p> Resmy V Kadirvelu Divya Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2677 2681 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1527 A study to assess the benefits of awareness programme on mammary gland self-observation to women residing at mappedu <p>Mammary gland self-observation is still suggested as a universal reach. Mammary gland health awareness permits for early disclosure of any malformation. Mammary gland self-observation proceed to be suggested by physical protection practitioner because it is free of cost, easy, require small mechanics and teaching is workable. In the current review, a descriptive research design was handed down to execute the objectives of the study. The review was organized in Mappedu rural village. In the current review, the representative consists of 100 women. Self-design questions on knowledge about mammary gland self-observation have developed to learn the representative. Detailed and a prior census have being to examine the statistics.5(5%) women experiences adequate learning regarding mammary gland self-observation. 59(59%) women experience moderate learning regarding mammary gland self-observation. 36(36%) women experiences inadequate learning regarding mammary gland self-observation. This research shows that the organized education on awareness programme was successfully expanded the knowledge of women in Mappedu regarding mammary gland self-observation.</p> Bhuvaneshwari G Vidhya G Yasmin banu Jothimeena Kalaiselvan Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2682 2686 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1528 Drug utilisation pattern and risk factor assessment on abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive aged women in a tertiary care hospital <p>To study the drug utilization pattern and risk factor assessment on abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women in a tertiary care hospital at Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. This retrospective study was carried out for a period of 6 months from November 2017 to April 2018 in which 150 prescriptions were selected for study by considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 150 prescriptions were analyzed in reproductive-aged women. Patients of age group between 41-50 years were mostly diagnosed 75 (50%) of abnormal uterine bleeding. Considering the types of AUB, most of the patients (39.33%) which has been diagnosed as adenomyosis while 59 (32.67%) of the patient has been diagnosed leiomyoma 49 (32.67%). Anaemia 102 (68%) are the most seen co-morbid condition in our survey, along with Hypertension 28 (18.6%), Infective disorders 28 (18.6%). Our findings showed that among the drugs prescribed, that antifibrinolytics were the most often prescribed drug class for AUB, and the most prescribed drug is tranexamic acid. Perimenopause 57 (38%) is the main risk factor in abnormal uterine bleeding, along with dysfunctional uterine bleeding 47 (32.6%). From we concluded that The mostly used class of drug for abnormal uterine bleeding in our tertiary care hospital is antifibrinolytics and mostly used drug agent is tranexamic acid during the period of data collection. It is found to be that perimenopause is the main risk factor in abnormal uterine bleeding along with dysfunctional uterine bleeding.</p> Kothai Ramalingam Atheena Gigi Anu Sara Thomas Abdul Mohsin Mootaparambil Arul Balasubramanian Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2687 2690 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1529 A study to assess the level of knowledge on first aid management of dog bite and treatment modality of rabies among adult <p>Dog bite lacerations are an extensive community health problem in worldwide. Dogs assault and ensuing lesions can lead to an enduring defect. They also cause a budgetary difficult for the sufferer. So the present study is done to assess the level of knowledge on first aid management of dog bite and treatment modality of rabies among adults living in Mappedu village. A descriptive research design was done in a rural area in Mappedu. 60 samples are included in our study. Purposive sampling techniques method was used in selecting the samples. Self-Structured interviews were used to collect data. The level of knowledge on first aid management of dog bite and treatment modality of rabies.16 (26%) are inadequate, 42(70%) are moderate,2(3.3%) are adequate. The study concludes that there is inadequate knowledge on first aid management of dog bite and treatment modality of rabies among adults. There is a more need for health education regarding a dog bite, rabies among adults.</p> Vimala S Bhuvaneshwari G Janaki Priya S Ishwariya K Inbarani S Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2691 2695 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1530 Face and content validation of Phacoemulsification Techniques Related To Surgically Induced Astigmatism questionnaire <p>Phacoemulsification surgical techniques are associated with surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in post-cataract surgery. However, no established tool is currently available to gather information on the surgeon's phacoemulsification techniques. This study aimed to validate a newly developed ‘Phacoemulsification Techniques Related to Surgically Induced Astigmatism’ (PTechSIA) questionnaire. PTechSIA questionnaire was designed to collect information on surgical techniques used by surgeons during phacoemulsification. Questionnaire items were generated based on peer-reviewed literature of related domains to phacoemulsification surgical techniques. The self-administered tool consisted of fifteen close-ended questions. Ten subject-matter experts (SMEs) were recruited for face validation using qualitative approach and content validation using Lawshe’s method. The items in the questionnaire were modified based on feedback from the SMEs. Content validation ratio (CVR) was calculated for each item; items with CVR value of less than 1.00 were eliminated, and the final content validity index (CVI) of the questionnaire was obtained. Out of fifteen items, six items with CVR value of less than 1.00 were eliminated (items number 2, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15) with initial CVI of 0.61. After the modification process, the number of final items was nine, with an overall final CVI score of 1.00. Overall, the finalised PTechSIA questionnaire achieved appropriate validity. Hence, the findings indicate that the PTechSIA questionnaire can be utilized for future assessments of surgical techniques and its association with SIA.</p> Md Muziman Syah Md Mustafa Nazaryna Marzuki Khairidzan Mohd Kamal Noorhazayti Ab. Halim Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2696 2700 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1531 A study to assess the knowledge of Karaya powder application on diabetic wound healing among diabetic mellitus patients <p>Diabetes mellitus is a serious debilitating longtime illness that grows in nearly 5% of the world’s peoples. People with this illness have a shortage of insulin or lessen capacity to use insulin; the hormone controlled blood glucose level. The study aims to assess the Karaya powder application among diabetic mellitus clients. The study was conducted in Mappedu village with 60 samples. The data was collected by using Structure interview questionnaires on Karaya powder. The result revealed that extract has significant effect increase knowledge on Karaya powder application on diabetic wound healing among diabetic clients.</p> Tamilselvi Nivitha Priya Monika Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2701 2704 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1532 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of phytocomponents of sargassum polycystum <p><em>Sargassum polycystum</em> is a brown seaweed, which has been reported to contain various phytoconstituents especially antimicrobial properties. However, the study on phytochemical components and biological activities of <em>S. polycystum</em> are yet fully understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to evaluate the best extraction solvents for <em>S. polycystum </em>and to determine the percentage of phytocomponents obtained in the <em>n</em>-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol extracts of <em>S. polycystum</em> via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. <em>S. polycystum</em> was collected from the coastal area of Sabah, Malaysia. After collection, it was rinsed, dried and extracted with n-hexane, DCM and methanol by soxhlet extraction. The fatty acid compounds (FAME) analysis was done using The Perkin Elmer Turbo Mass Spectrometer.&nbsp; This study showed that methanol is the most efficient solvent as it produced the highest extraction yield with 3.83%, followed by <em>n</em>-hexane with 1.69% and lastly DCM with 0.59% in <em>S.</em> <em>polycystum</em>. On top of that, this study has found 19 phytocomponents in all extraction methods of <em>S. polycystum</em>, which have been proven to possess antibacterial constituents such as palmitic acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, pentadecanoic acid and behenic acid as assessed by GC-MS analysis.</p> Nurul Najwa Zamimi Noorhazayti Ab. Halim Deny Susanti Darnis Widya Lestari Md Muziman Syah Md Mustafa Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2705 2710 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1533 A study to assess the quality of life among the women with osteoarthritis <p>Osteoarthritis (OA)&nbsp;is the most habitual type of arthritis in both developing and developed countries. It is a long-term, dynamic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by abrupt loss of cartilage in joints which results in bones rubbing together and make stiffness, impaired movement and pain. Osteoarthritis primarily affects the elderly population. It’s a significant cause of disability in elderly peoples worldwide. So the present study is done to assess the quality of life among the women with osteoarthritis, residing at Thirumazhisai. A descriptive research design was done in an urban area of Thirumazhisai. 100 women with osteoarthritis are included in our study. Purposive sampling techniques method was used in selecting the samples. Modified Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score(KOOS)checklist were used to collect data on quality of life among the women with osteoarthritis. The woman aged above 40 years has the percentage of mild pain (26%), moderate pain (72%), and severe pain (2%). In conclusion, women aged above 40 years were found to be experiencing moderate osteoarthritis pain and quality of life of women aged above 40 years experiencing a reasonable quality of life.</p> Bhuvaneshwari G Thephilah Cathrine R Rinson Kunjachan Soundarya Yamuna Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2711 2715 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1534 Diagnosis of lung carcinoma using computed tomography images <p>Lung carcinoma disease is a serious leading death every day. Early recognition and treatment can save cancer affected the human’s life. Lung carcinoma is the most hazardous and dangerous disease. Computed Tomography scanning images are the most commonly using scanning technology in the health care industry, Computed Tomography scan images are used by doctors to analyze and identify the cancerous lesion present in the lung CT scanned images. The CAD system is a powerful tool for the radiologist to diagnosis the lesion cells in an accurate way. Computer-aided techniques and machine learning techniques use digital image processing methods to implement CAD systems. The prime aim of this investigation and experimentation is to analyze the different CAD techniques, recognizing the best-developed methods and collecting their disadvantages, faults. Analyzing the drawbacks from the previously proposed model, we are implementing new techniques to overcome the drawbacks analyzed with best accuracy results. For developed methods, the feasibility study is carried on each and every step, improvements can be made were listed out. The analysis shows that having a few low accuracies, and some have high accuracy but not having 100% accuracy. In this research, the K-means algorithm is used to segment the images. K-means algorithm is unsupervised learning, which is used when we have an unlabeled dataset, the project aims to increase the accuracy of up to 100%.</p> Sagar V Akshatha Prabhu Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2716 2726 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1535 Effect of topically applied nimodipine on the intraocular pressure on ocular normotensive and betamethasone-induced hypertensive eyes in rabbits <p>Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only strategy documented to delay the appearance and retard the progression of vision loss. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of topical nimodipine (0.5%) drop on IOP of both normotensive and induced -hypertensive eyes in rabbits. Thirty six rabbits were included in the present study .Two groups (each group contains 6 rabbits) were used to evaluate the effect of nimodipine, one as a normotensive group and the other for induction of hypertensive.&nbsp; Nimodipine ophthalmic solutions were instilled twice daily for 7 days in both normotensive and induced -hypertensive eyes (that induced by weakly subconjunctival injection of 0.7 ml of betamethasone suspension for 4 weeks). On the other hand another two groups were used to evaluate the effect of (twice daily instillation for 7 days) of Timolol and distilled water (DW).&nbsp; IOP measured by Schiotz tonometer daily at about the same time (9.0 am) to avoid IOP diurnal fluctuation. The main findings of the present study were the followings: Nimodipine (0.5%) was very effective in lowering IOP in both normotensive and ocular hypertensive rabbits. Mean IOP decreased after one day of nimodipine instillation by (1.5 ± 0.43 mmHg) in normotensive eyes and by (4.5± 1.45 mmHg) in hypertensive eyes. A significant results (P ≤ 0.05) were obtained when compared the results of nimodipine with DW (as a negative control group), on the other hand no significant differences were obtained when compared with that of Timolol (as a positive group). The results obtained in this study provide experimental evidences for the effectiveness of nimodipine (0.5%) ophthalmic solutions in the reduction of IOP. In addition to above nimodipine in&nbsp;&nbsp; applied doses were found to have tolerable ocular hypotensive effect. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Waleed K. Abdulsahib Osama Q. Fadhil Hussam H.Tizkam Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2727 2732 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1537 Anti-hypercholesterolemic agent from Indonesian rice bran <p>This research was conducted to determine the total oryzanol content of various extracts and bioassay-guided isolation of active anti-hypercholesterolemic agent from Indonesian rice bran. Hot solvent extraction was done by reflux method using single and binary solvents, namely hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, isopropanol, acetone, hexane-ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), hexane-isopropanol (1:1, v/v), and chloroform-ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v). TLC densitometric was used to quantitatively analyze the total oryzanol content in various extracts. The hexane extract was selected for fractionation and evaluated for their anti-hypercholesterolemic activity. The structure of an isolated compound was determined on the basis of NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The total oryzanol content was obtained using various solvents ranging from 27.92 to 43.59 mg/100g rice bran, in which hexane extract showed the highest amount (43.59 ± 3.36 mg/100g rice bran). β-sitosterol has been isolated from rice bran hexane extract, which shows a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol level. In summary, hexane is the best solvent to extract oryzanol compound using reflux method, and β-sitosterol was suspected to be responsible for anti-hypercholesterolemic activity in addition to existing compound such as oryzanol that contained in the rice bran.</p> Syaikhul Aziz Elfahmi Andreanus Andaja Soemardji Sukrasno Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2733 2738 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1538 Review on current status of dengue and its prevention in India <p>Dengue is an acute viral infection with potential deadly complications transmitted by both <em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Aedes albopictus</em> female mosquitoes and is said to be a severe and increasing public health problem with 2.5 billion individuals at risk. WHO currently estimates that with around 24,000 fatalities, 50 million cases of dengue disease may occur globally once a year. In India, too, the condition is getting worse as morbidity and mortality rise. Several policies have been adopted to decrease dengue burden through applied research, field-based training, and capacity building among appropriate regional and national public health stakeholders.</p> Bhavatharini Sukumaran Alan Tom Krishnaveni Kandasamy Shanmuga Sundaram Rajagopal Sambathkumar Ramanathan Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2748 2754 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1543 Hepato & nephro protective effects of naringenin-loaded tpgs polymeric nanosuspension against cisplatin-induced toxicity <p>Cisplatin (<em>Cis</em>-Diammineplatinum (II) dichloride/CIS) is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents widely used in treatment of various cancers. Naringenin (NAR), a natural&nbsp;<em>flavonoid</em><em>, </em>protect against <em>CIS</em><em>-</em>induced injury in rats without hampering CIS beneficial cytotoxic&nbsp;<em>activity</em><em>.</em> Even though NAR exhibits therapeutic potency, clinical evolution of the molecule is embarrassed because of very less aqueous solubility which corresponds to low availability at the site of the tumor. In our former analysis, nanosuspension of naringenin (NARNS) was developed by the method of high-pressure homogenization. The study had been continued to evaluate the protective role of D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) coated NARNS, against oxidative stress-induced hepato and nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats upon CIS treatment. Induction of acute hepato and neprotoxicity was done by intraperitoneal injection (i.p) injection of CIS (7 mg/kg of body weight) and administration of NAR and NARNS. Administration of NARNS virtually suppressed CIS-induced and liver injury evidenced by a reduction of lipid peroxidation level, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, creatinine and elevated enzymatic antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in rats liver tissue. Histological studies substantiated the biochemical parameters. The study suggests that NARNS has strong hepato and nephroprotective effect compared to NAR.</p> Sumathi Rajamani Gobinath Kalyanasundaram Tamizharasi Sengodan Sivakumar Thangavelu Nikhitha K Shanmukhan Arun Radhakrishnan Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2755 2764 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1544 Formulation and characterization of flurbiprofen loaded microsponge based gel for sustained drug delivery <p>The new investigation in this present work is to develop microsponges constructed novel drug delivery system for sustained action of Flurbiprofen. Quai-emulsion solvent diffusion method was engaged using Ethyl cellulose and Eudragit RS100 with drug: polymer ratio for development of microsponges. For optimization purposes, several factors are considered in the investigation. Several evaluation studies for the formed microsponges were carried out FT-IR, SEM, DSC, X-RD, particle size analysis, morphology, drug loading and <em>In vitro</em> drug release studies were carried out. Finally, it was concluded that there is no drug-polymer interaction as per DSC &amp; FT-IR. Encapsulation efficiency, particle size and drug content showed a higher impact on alteration of drug-polymer ratio. SEM studies showed that morphological microsponges are spherical and porous in nature and with the mean particle size of 38.86 μm. The gel loaded with microsponges, were followed by <em>In vitro </em>and <em>Ex vivo </em>drug release studies by modified Franz diffusion cell. Skin delivery of optimized formulation enhanced the drug residence time and maintained therapeutic concentration for an extended period of time, which is possible to show sustained action of the drug.</p> Naresh Kshirasagar Goverdhan Puchchakayala Balamurgan K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2765 2776 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1546 Patient satisfaction on Trigger finger management <p>Trigger finger relatively a common hand problem with varied treatment options from conservative to surgical release done as outpatient and daycare procedure with its own applications and limitations. Our aim is to assess patient satisfaction among the different types of trigger finger release at different areas of health care. 60 patients (Female 60%: Male 40%) with single-digit trigger finger involvement (Ring finger28.33%, Thumb26.66%, Middle finger25%, Index finger18.33%) with a mean age of 49years were divided into four groups based on card selection. The mean Short Assessment of Patient Satisfaction SAPS score was highest amongst the group in which the procedure was done at the outpatient area under percutaneous needle release technique, while the mean lowest score was obtained from group IV in which the procedure was done at the operation theatre by open release technique as daycare. Patient satisfaction and compliance were found to be higher in the group who underwent a procedure at an outpatient area.</p> Ashok Thudukuchi Ramanathan Ganesan G Ram Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2777 2780 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1547 Effect of probiotic and prebiotic in the formulation and elaboration of sausage as an alternative of consumption <p>In Ecuador, sausages are one of the most commonly used in typical foods, but traditionally these have only been beef, pork and chicken, which in turn do not contain any health benefits, on the contrary, their limited consumption is recommended. This research aims to provide the market with a new nutritional alternative that increases the variety of existing products with the difference that these sausages have an added value that are probiotics and prebiotics. To obtain a sausage formulation, variations were made in the percentages of the ingredients that were used, obtaining 3 treatments. The most popular treatment was determined by means of a sensory panel made up of 50 people, resulting in treatment 3 being the most accepted. A corresponding analysis was carried out whose result gave the presence of lactobacillus with a value of 8.8 x 108, proteins: 17.64% total fats: 26.48% cholesterol: 29.34 mg Carbohydrates: 0.82 mg / 100g dietary fiber: 3.17, the caloric intake of the sausage was 312 kcal, sodium: 495.23 mg / 100g, starch: 0.31% and according to the study of shelf life in refrigeration at 5 ° c the maximum time of consumption of the product is 22 days.&nbsp;</p> Mosquera C Donoso E Valenzuela Y M Arizaga R Ahmed El Salous Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2781 2785 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1548 A study to evaluate and assess the antibiotic prescription pattern for the surgical prophylaxis to prevent post-operative wound infection (SSI) in a tertiary care hospital <p>Surgical site infection is a major complication following surgery affecting up to 50 % of operated patients which can be prevented by appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Hence this study aims to investigate the pattern of the prophylactic antibiotic usage in patients undergoing elective surgery and to assess the percentage of drugs included in the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM). This is a Prospective study conducted at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital from April 2018 to April 2019 included medical records of 1093 Patients above 18yrs of age including both sex (male and female) who has undergone elective surgery in Department of General Surgery. Patient's demographic data and comorbidities was also collected and verified for antibiotic prophylaxis, i.e. choice and duration of antibiotics, time of administration, intra-operative dosing, choice and duration of the postoperative use. Pediatrics, Neonatal Surgeries, Pregnant and lactating women were excluded from this study. The obtained data was analyzed, and conclusions were drawn with the help of SPSS analysis software. The results shows Third-generation cephalosporin's injection Taxim (Cefotaxime) was mainly used preoperatively in 486(44.46%) patients by intravenous route followed by cefixime-191(17.47%),ciprofloxacin-161(14.73%). In addition,458(41.90%) patients received either Inj.TT or Metronidazole along with the 1st pre-operative drug. The antibiotics were administered in 2 doses (i.e.) overnight dose and other dose is given just half an hour prior to surgery. No intraoperative redosing was given. The duration of the postoperative prophylaxis was extended to 3 days to 5 days in all 1093 cases. SSI was identified in 25 cases, and overall incidence in our study is 2% which is quite compatible with other studies and incidence is common among patients with age-related risk factors and comorbidities<strong>.</strong> This study revealed that third-generation cephalosporin Cefotaxime was considered as the main pre and post-operative drug, which is based on surgeon's experience, type of surgery and local antibiotic resistance pattern. Various measures like the development of local hospital Policy, surveillance on SSIs, hospital antibiotic policy, promoting good surgical techniques and strict asepsis in the operating theatre, usage of single antibiotics, and completion of course of antibiotics can prevent the emergence of multi-resistant organisms.</p> Kisshore Kumar G Preethy R Srinivasan V Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2786 2791 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1549 Evaluation of some trace elements status in females type 1 diabetics patients and its relationship with oxidative stress <p>Disorders of trace elements in diabetic patients with type 1 are possibly led to glucose metabolism disturbance and increased oxidation, which may promote the development of diabetes and insulin resisting. We aim to clarify the role of the serum level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron &nbsp;(Fe), Zn/Cu ratio and their relations with the degree of oxidative stress in females&nbsp;&nbsp; T1D. The study included 30 healthy women and 54 women &nbsp;&nbsp;with insulin-dependent diabetes. Serum levels of trace element have determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. &nbsp;Results showed a decrease levels of Cu, Fe, &nbsp;Zn and MDA in diabetes patients compared to controls (p &lt;0.000), (p &lt; 0.000) &nbsp;(p&lt; 0.001) (p &lt;0.001) correspondingly. Significance in correlations amid Zn and age (r= -0.449, p &lt;0.032), significance in correlations among Co in addition to age (r= -0.434, p &lt;0.038) with significances in correlation amid Fe and MDA (r= 0.024, p &lt;0.366).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Seenaa kadhum Ali Elham Abed Mahdi Zinah Kadhim Kareem Mohanad Kadhim Ali Ayad Kadhim Ali Copyright (c) 2019 2019-07-12 2019-07-12 10 4 2792 2799 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1405 Effect of positioning on physiological parameters on low birth weight preterm babies in neonatal intensive care unit <p>Preterm infants are babies who are delivered before the completion of 37 weeks gestation period. They are born with immature functioning of the brain. In&nbsp; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), these infants receives many environmental stimuli, and their comfort will be disturbed. These various sensory stimulus received in NICU influence the functional and neurodevelopmental outcome of these infants and also their quality of life. So this study was intended to evaluate the axillary temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation level of these infants prior to nesting and after nesting at the 60<sup>th</sup> minute. Forty preterm infants who fulfilled the criteria of selection were included in the study by simple random sampling and segregated into case and control groups by blocked randomization. Data was collected and recorded. The temperature was recorded by a digital thermometer, respiratory rate was counted by the number of times the infants' chest rises, heart rate and oxygen saturation readings from the pulse oximeter. The result of the study showed that there was statistically significant effect of nesting at 60<sup>th</sup> minute, temperature (t=5.03966,p&lt;0.05), respiratory rate(t= -2.13,p&lt;0.05) and heart rate (t=-2.59766,p&lt;0.05). But the effect was not significant on oxygen saturation level (t=1.2,p=0.238).&nbsp; Hence this study result supports the use of nesting in NICU.</p> Alice Jeba J Senthil Kumar S Shivaprakash sosale Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2800 2804 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1550 A study to assess the effectiveness of lukewarm water compress on prevention of nipple pain among primi parous mother <p>Parenthood is a very civilizing experience. Mother is placed at the level of soul to provide sacrifice, love and affection and satisfy the need of her child. It is generally a cheerful event. The word ‘postnatal’comes from Latin word ‘post’ means ‘secundum', and ‘nativitas’ means ‘delivery’. The postpartum period begins immediately after the birth of a child and extends up to the first six weeks. The main aim to assess the effectiveness of lukewarm water compress on prevention of nipple pain among primi parous mother. The study was conducted in Thiruvallur district headquarters hospital with 60 samples. The information was collected using a non-probability convenience sampling technique. The result indicates that the application of lukewarm water compress is effective on nipple pain among primi parous mother.</p> Resmy V Juliet Jenifer Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2805 2810 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1551 Evaluation of grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) as a crosslinker on the stability of dentine collagen in total-etch adhesive systems: An in-vitro study <p>The bond strength between resin-dentine is determined by the integrity of collagen, dentine and resin monomers. The susceptibility of the dentine bond results from the instability of the bonding structure that adheres to the bonding material. This can be achieved by using collagen cross-linker, synthetically and naturally in dentine substrates which are effective in protecting collagen fibrils from degradation, as proanthocyanidine. The aim of this study was to see the effect of grape seed extract as a crosslinker on the stability of dentine collagen and see the differences between groups. This study used 27 fresh premolars or third molars which were divided into 3 groups, namely group I giving grape seed extract 6.5%, group II giving chlorhexidine 2%, and group III only giving bonding ingredients. Samples were analyzed using SEM with 1000x magnification. &nbsp;Data was analyzed using the kappa statistic, Kruskal-Wallis, dan Mann-Whitney. The result of the study significant differences between treatment groups (P &lt;0.05), the 2% chlorhexidine group showed the highest value compared to the grape seed extract group and without treatment. Grape seed extract can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine as a crosslinker to maintain bone strength of the composite restoration</p> Dennis D Fenika Maitari Trimurni Abidin Wandania Farahanny Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2811 2815 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1552 A study to assess the effectiveness of foot massage on reduction of cancer pain among palliative care patients <p>Pain is an unpalatable sensory and emotional in contact with actual or potential tissue damage. Approximately 70% to 90% of people with cancer suffer with severe pain while undergoing treatment. Cancer pain can result due to poor blood circulation, a bone fracture that occurs due to metastasis, infection or inflammation in the affected part and side effects from cancer treatments. Hence the present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of foot massage on reduction of cancer pain among palliative care patients. The quasi-experimental design was employed with40 patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected by non-probability convenience sampling technique. The researcher collected the demographic variables and done pre-test to assess the pain score by using a numerical pain scale for both the experimental group and the control group. For the experimental group, foot massage was given twice a day for five days. Control group received routine care. At the end of the fifth-day, post-test was done for both the experimental group and the control group. The data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The calculated ‘t’ value is reveals that the experimental group seems to be highly significant than the control group. So foot massage is effective among cancer patients on the reduction of pain.</p> Tamilselvi S Iyeswariya K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2816 2819 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1555 Cost effectiveness analysis of anti-hypertensive drugs used for chronic kidney disease patients <p>Cost effectiveness analysis branch of pharmacoeconomics is a technique used to aid in decision making between alternatives. A prospective observational study would be conducted in the nephrology department at O.P, Patients with CKD with hypertension, with or deprived of diabetes are included in the study. Patients with drug-induced renal disease or unknown cause. Pregnant women with chronic kidney disease are excluded from the study. The research was conducted in150 patients in which common are men. The mean age of the research people was found to be 51.2 ±7. 02. .It was observed that calcium channel blockers 127 (84.6%), diuretics 51 (34%), α agonists 33 (22%), β blockers 21 (14%), α blockers 17 (11.3%), α+β blockers 10 (6.6%), Angiotensin receptor blockers 3 (2%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 1 (0.6%) were the numerous antihypertensive drugs given to the study people. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio was assessed, and it was observed that Rs.31.80 was extra required while using diuretics than Calcium Channel Blockers for achieving respective maintenance value. The major classes of antihypertensive drugs prescribed in all of them are CCB+α agonist was found most effective CCB+ Diuretics were the second most effective. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio was calculated, and it was found that&nbsp; Rs.4.40 was Extra needed to attaining essential upkeep of blood pressure. Pharmacoeconomic study shows that Calcium channel blockers were the utmost cost-effective antihypertensive in CKD patients when linked to other antihypertensive drugs. In two-drug combination therapy, CCB+α agonist was found most effective.</p> Mohamed Saleem TS Sreeja N Kiran Karthik J Bhanu Sree K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2820 2825 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1553 Amla fruit mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its antifungal activity <p>To study the antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles synthesised from amla fruit. Nanotechnology has offered great possibilities in various fields of science and technology. It has been playing a crucial role in the development of modern materials in recent years. The antifungal activity of ZnO occurs by the deformation of fungal hyphae leading to the death of fungal hyphae, which may lead to cellular destruction. Preparation of plant extract, Synthesis of nanoparticles, Characteristics of nanoparticles, Preparation of nanoparticles powder, Antifungal activity of nanoparticles against <em>Candida albicans.</em><br>The peak found in the spectroscopy indicates the formation of ZnO nanoparticle. It is clearly seen from the graph that increase in concentration results in an increase in antifungal activity. The antifungal activity, in this case, was proved with<em> Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. </em>The results conclude that ZnO nanoparticle can be used to prevent any antifungal diseases.</p> Srinisha M Rajeshkumar S Lakshmi T Anitha Roy Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2826 2829 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1554 Kinetics of periodate oxidation of polyoxyethylene – 300, a biodegradable pharmaceutical polymer <p>Polyoxyethylene Oxide – 300 (POE) is a well-known biodegradable pharmaceutical polymer. In order to understand the stability of POE and to derive the reaction rate law, the title reaction was carried out in aqueous alkaline medium, Reaction was found to be first order dependent on the concentration oxidant (periodate) and independent of substrate (POE) concentration. A retardation of reaction rate with an increase in hydroxide concentration shows an inverse fractional order in it. Based on the studies of the temperature dependence of reaction, evaluated the activation parameters.</p> Koteswara Rao K.V.S Venkata Nadh R Venkata Ratnam K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2830 2836 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1558 Invitro and insilico anti hyperglycemic activity of cadaba fruticosa leaves - an enteric approach <p>In the present study, an effort was made to identify the anti hyperglycemic potential of ethanolic extract of <em>Cadaba fruticosa</em> leaves concentrating the enteric system. The glucose-lowering potential was studied by using the <em>in vitro</em> methods such as α amylase inhibitory activity, inhibition of glucose diffusion, glucose adsorption and uptake by yeast cells. <em>In silico</em> methods comprising of the molecular docking of the selected phyto constituents as antagonistic ligands to the disaccharide digesting enzyme α glucosidase and glucose level maintaining enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV. The plant extract inhibited α amylase enzyme and the glucose diffusion considerably, which was found to be concentration-dependent. The uptake of glucose by the yeast cells in the presence of the extract was also found to be increased. In the molecular docking analysis based on the docking score, iso quercetin was found to be a potential antagonistic ligand for both enzymes α glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV since they exhibited similar amino acid interactions shown by the acarbose and Sitagliptin which are the standard competitive inhibitors of these two enzymes. It can be concluded that the leaves of <em>Cadaba fruticosa</em> may serve as a potential anti hyperglycemic drug in future for the management of diabetes mellitus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Evangaline Rachel T Hemapreethi S Sridevi S Mythreyi R Rajeswary Hari Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2837 2844 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1559 Copper oxide nanoparticles synthesis and characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometer and TEM <p>To synthesise Copper oxide nanoparticles and study it's characterisation using UV -viz - Spectrophotometer and TEM. &nbsp;Copper oxide nanoparticles are eco-friendly, cost-efficient and diverse utilisation all over the medical field. The shape of the CuO nanoparticles are spherical, and its characterisation is done using SEM, TEM, and UV-vis techniques. The size of the nanoparticles mediated in each plant extract differs from one another. MATERIALS AND METHODS&nbsp; * Collection and Preparation of Plant extracts. * Synthesis Of CuONPs * Characterization of copper nanoparticles * preparation of nanoparticles powder. The plant extract is in green colour, and the CuO nanoparticles are seen in light yellowish in colour. Uv-VIS SPECTROMETER:&nbsp; The particle size ranges from 2-100nm and shape is spherical. The graph reached its peak at the wavelength of 300nm. The TEM shows spherical shape, dispersion and versatile nanoparticles. They appear to be arranged in a cluster, open and quasi-linear superstructures. This research shows that CuO nanoparticles shows excellent biocompatibility. The particles which are smaller in size shows great immunity. Hence the nanoparticles are expected to be used in future for effective drug systems.</p> Sadhvi B Rajeshkumar S Anitha Roy Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2845 2848 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1562 The use of sarcoptes scabiei crude extract as allergen: An attempt to prepare a vaccine <p>Scabies stands for a skin parasitic infestation as a result of mite <em>Sarcoptes scabiei</em>. It is a neglected international health problem; about 300 million cases develop scabies worldwide annually. <em>Sarcoptes scabiei</em> mite proteins are extracted, then heat-stable mite proteins concentration has been established by Bradford's method. SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis was used. The activity of mite allergens was assayed through skin prick test (SPT) in scabietic patients with 1.2 μg/ml and 2.4 μg/ml. House dust mite (HDM) antigens were skin prick tested in patients with scabies and controls. The results revealed that the SDS-PAGE profile of the parasite heat-stable proteins consisted of protein bands with molecular weights ranged from less than 10 to over than 100 kDa. Skin test demonstrated that 70% and 80% of scabietic patients had a positivity against 1.2 μg/ml and 2.4 μg/ml of sarcoptic mite extracts, respectively when prick tested. HDM extract was found to be positive in 40% of scabietic patients; while controls revealed a negative result. Sarcoptic proteins contain heat-stable allergens which able to cause immediate type-1 hypersensitivity when 1.2μg/ml of mite protein is skin prick tested, and there is cross-reactivity between <em>Sarcoptes scabiei</em> and HDM allergens.</p> Malak Majid Al-Musawi Hadi Rasool Hasan Azar Hadi Maluki Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2849 2855 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1563 Assessing quality of life among sample of iraqi patients with rheumatoid arthritis <p>Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the common chronic disease, which lead to great disability and chronic pain, and has a main adverse economic and social effect upon patients. The reason for the addition of quality of life as a pointer for health outcome result is attributed to the affectability of this measure for the evaluation of patient's health status after taken treatment and its health outcome. The purpose of the current study was to assess quality of life among a sample of Iraqi patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to determine the possible association between health’s related quality of life and some patient-certain factors. This study is a cross-sectional study carried out on 250 already diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients who attended Baghdad Teaching Hospital/Medical City/Rheumatology department. The mean age of the patients was (50.8 ± 13.1 years). The Arabic version of the (WHOQOL-BREF) Questionnaire was used to measure Quality of life. The results of the current study showed that rheumatoid arthritis has a significant effect on the quality of life of patients. The mean of the total quality of life score was 46.9 ± 9.7.&nbsp; Older age was associated with the reduced psychological and environmental score. Female patients had high physical and psychological score compared to male patients. Higher education levels worked patients directly predict the elevated quality of life score. High disease activity associated with low quality of life score. Future studies should investigate how interventional approaches addressing these predictors may lead to improve quality of life among rheumatoid arthritis patients and their impression on disease control.</p> Mirna K. Faiq Dheyaa J. Kadhim Faiq I. Gorial Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2856 2863 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1564 Antifungal activity of neem and Aloe vera formulation mediated zirconium oxide nanoparticles <p>The aim of the research is to access the&nbsp; Anti-fungal activity of Neem and <em>Aloe Vera </em>composition mediated zirconium oxide nano particles. The procedure includes a collection of <em>Azadirachta indica </em>(neem) and <em>Aloe Vera </em>plant leaves and preparation of plant extract, Synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles using a herbal formulation and Anti-fungal activity determination of synthesised zirconium oxide nanoparticles. The objective is to evaluate the activity done by neem and <em>Aloe Vera </em>composition mediated zirconium oxide nano particles against fungal infection. As a result, the addition of nanoparticles to prepared plant extracts showed mild or no colour change. Thus zirconium oxide nanoparticles are colourless in nature. But turbidity in solution appears after the addition of nanoparticles. Graphical representation of the synthesis of nanoparticles showed a peak at 350 nanometers(nm) in both initial and final readings, but the rate of absorbance showed a mild increase in final reading which confirms the synthesis of the nanoparticle. The anti-fungal activity was checked against 3 pathogenic fungi <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans </em>and it showed mild ring of a zone of inhibition around the well. Zone of inhibition increases with an increase in the quantity of nanoparticles in the well. Zone of inhibition proves the anti-fungal activity. To conclude, <em>Azadirachta indica </em>(neem) and <em>Aloe Vera</em> composition mediated zirconium oxide nanoparticles show anti-fungal activity.</p> Santhanam P Rajeshkumar S Lakshmi T Anitha Roy Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2864 2868 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1565 Potential of mangrove (Acanthus Ilicifolius) leave extract as an alternative root canal irrigation in removing smear layer (in-vitro study) <p>Factor that should be considered in the use of irrigation is the loss of the smear layer on root canal walls. Therefore the prepared root canal can be irrigated using materials, such as EDTA 17% and 2,5% NaOCl and of extract <em>Acanthus ilicifolius </em>7,5% and 10%. To determine the potential of extract <em>Acanthus ilicifolius</em> leaves as an alternative of root canal irrigation in removing smear layer at a concentratiom of 7,5% and 10%. The type of this study is a laboratory experimental with post-test only control group design. The total sample is 24 teeth samples that have been prepared and irrigated consisting of four groups. 6 samples for irrigation 7,5% extract <em>Acanthus ilicifolius</em>, 6 samples for irrigation 10% extract <em>Acanthus ilicifolius</em>, 6 positive control samples for combination 2,5% NaOCl and EDTA 17%, and 6 negative control samples. Shooting tool used to observe the cleanliness level in the walls of the root canal is a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed using<em> Kappa statistics, </em>followed by<em> Kruskal wallis </em>analysis test and continued with<em> Mann-Whitney </em>analysis<em>. </em><em>Acanthus ilicifolius</em> 7.5% and 10% extracts can remove the smear layer when compared with the negative control group. The combination of 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA is better in smear layer removal compared to 7.5% and 10% Acanthus ilicifolius extracts. <em>Acanthus ilicifolius</em> was able to clean the smear layer on the root canal and can be used as an alternative root canal irrigation.</p> Dennis D Winda Fatika Sari Trimurni Abidin Widi Prasetia Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2869 2874 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1566 Non-pathological bony features causing snapping scapula syndrome : a study with correlation to gender and side <p>A patient of snapping scapula usually presents with perceivable, appreciable and agonizing crepitus during the movements of scapula. This study aimed at focusing on bony features which are responsible for snapping scapula and study their incidence, morphology and correlation to gender and side of the scapula. The study was performed on 50 pairs of the human scapula of known sex in the Department of Anatomy at PGIMS Rohtak. The parameters recorded were medial scapular border morphology, presence of Tubercle of Luschka and the presence of Teres major tubercle or process. The most common type of medial scapular border was found to be Convex (73%) followed by Straight and Concave types. Luschka’s tubercle was observed in only 6% of the scapula. Teres Major tubercle was present in 29% of the scapula, whereas Teres Major process was present in only 11% of the scapula and the process was curved in only 2% of the scapula. These findings are very important for orthopaedic point of view in the diagnosis and treatment of snapping scapula syndrome.</p> Ritu Singroha Usha Verma Suresh Kanta Rathee Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2886 2890 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1568 Paclitaxel loaded transfersomal vesicular drug delivery for the treatment of melanoma skin cancers <p>Over the last few years, there is tremendous growth of melanoma skin cancer in all around the world. Paclitaxel is an antineoplastic drug which is widely used for breast cancer, lung cancer, and Kaposi sarcoma. It is available only in the form of intravenous (IV), which produces tissue damage and hypersensitivity in some patients if the dose is over. In the present article, the new initiative formulation is done for melanoma skin cancer with transfersomes drug delivery systems. A different formulation of transfersomes is prepared using Span. The various characterization is done for the transfersomes like morphology, entrapment efficacy, in vitro drug release dialysis bag method. By using the Carbopol 940, the transfersomes gel was prepared. Paclitaxel-loaded transfersomes (FS-2) shows the positive entrapment efficacy 68.2% and the vesicle size 200 nm. From the in vitro dialysis bag method, FS-2 showed the high rate of drug release by nearly 72% in 12 hrs. we conclude that this will be the initial step for the further studies of melanoma skin cancer and provide the better treatment for skin cancer.</p> Sivarajakumar Raahulan Bharat Kumar Reddy Sanapalli Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2891 2897 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1569 Evaluation of an echocardiogram in the preclinical stage of valve endocardiosis in dogs using an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and an aldosterone antagonist <p>The article presents the results of a study of the dynamics of ultrasonographic changes in dogs with endocardial atrioventricular valve endocardiosis during therapy with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and aldosterone antagonist. The authors also propose a new method for estimating the cubic volume of the left atrium based on the "area-length" method borrowed from humane medicine and correlation with the routine estimation method for measuring the size of the aorta and left atrium with further calculation of the dynamic index for assessing the remodeling processes. It has shown that the appearance of diastolic dysfunction by the type of slowing down the relaxation of the transmitral flow in the left apical four-chamber projection characterized by a decrease in the ratio of early diastolic filling (peak E) and filling due to systole of the left atrium (peak A) and an increase in the time of early diastolic filling (DTE) were determined at the beginning of the disease. However, changes in the transmitral diastolic flow after 6 months took the form of "pseudonormalization", which was seen in the Dopplerogram as normalization of the ratio of early diastolic filling (peak E) and an increase in filling due to left atrial systole (peak A) and time of early diastolic filling (DTE) . After 12 months of therapy, the diastolic flow through the mitral valve in the Group 1 and partly in the Group 2 became "restrictive", characterized by an increase in the ratio of early diastolic filling (peak E) and filling due to systole of the left atrium (peak A) and a decrease in the time of early diastolic filling (DTE). However, in Group 3, "pseudo-normalization" of the transmitral diastolic flow was still observed. Also, the contractility and ejection fraction being determined did not change during the transition of the disease from the preclinical stage to the clinical one.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Based on the treatment of 75 animals, the authors found that the appearance of diastolic dysfunction, an increase in the left atrium and a dynamic remodeling index directly correlate with the onset of the clinical manifestation of endocardiosis.</p> Vyacheslav V. Annikov Anton S. Mikhalkin Lyudmila V. Annikova Alla V. Yegunova Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2907 2913 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1571 Comparative anatomy of acromion process and its association with prevalence and prevention of impingement syndrome <p>The objective of this study is to compare the morphometric features of, acromion process of humans with that of other vertebrates, and find its association with impingement syndrome. This study also aims to prevent the incidence of impingement syndrome by using various prevention techniques. For the comparative study, human scapulae were morphometrically measured and compared with the scapulae of other vertebrates. The influence of physical activities over modification of growth of acromion into various types was studied among the swimmers' population with radiographic evidence. The acromion process of 90 scapulae collected from the Anatomy Department of Saveetha Medical College and the scapula of other vertebrates like- canine, bovine, equine and apes collected from the Anatomy Department of Madras Veterinary College were studied and measured. The mean breadth of the right side and left side curved acromion is 24.26mm and 23.84mm, respectively. And for the right side and left side flat acromion it is 25.26mm and 25.36mm respectively. For canine, it is 14.87mm and 14.34mm, respectively. For bovine it is 20.33mm and 19.94mm respectively. It is concluded that apes do not have impingement syndrome due to the cranially oriented spinous and acromion process. This study also gives evidence that physical activities influence the growth of acromion into its various types, which is one of the important factors causing impingement syndrome.</p> Ayesha Parveen Yuvaraj Maria Francis Nivedha V Senthil Kumar S Gunapriya Raghunath Ponnusamy Kasirajan Sankaran Kumaresan M Balaji K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2914 2926 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1572 Study to evaluate the role of serum LDH in the diagnosis of Megaloblastic anemia by treatment response at a tertiary care center in the northeastern part of India <p>Megaloblastic anemia and Myelodysplastic syndrome are generally considered mutually exclusive diagnosis and at times becomes difficult to diagnose on the first encounter even after performing bone marrow examination. Aim of this study is to evaluate the role of LDH in the diagnosis of Megaloblastic anemia by treatment response at a tertiary care center in the northeastern part of India. Patients with age more than 12 years, Hemoglobin of patients less than 10 gm/dl, MCV ≥ 100 fl, Reticulocyte count &lt;2.5 were included in the study. Based on serum LDH level patients were divided into two groups. Group A with serum LDH level ≥ 1200 U/L and Group B with serum LDH level of less than 1200 U/L. All these patients of serum LDH ≥1200 U/L were given a treatment trial of injectable Vitamin B12 containing 1000 μg of Vitamin B12 for 14 days. The response to treatment was monitored by an increment in reticulocyte count at day 5 and day 14. Bone marrow aspiration was done in all patients who had serum LDH less than 1200 mg/dl. Seventy-nine consecutive patients, who presented with anemia (Hb&lt;10 g/dl) and macrocytosis (MCV &gt; 100 fl) were included in the study. Median LDH values were higher in the patients who responded ( vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia ) as compared to non-responders. 93.5% of patients with megaloblastic anemia had Vitamin B12 deficiency, and in comparison, the folic acid deficiency was present among just 6.5 percent patients. Serum Vitamin B 12 and Folic acid level should not be used as a sole criterion for the diagnosis of Megaloblastic anemia and other parameters such as MCV, LDH, and characteristic blood picture, should all be taken into consideration before planning an appropriate treatment strategy.</p> Saurabh Chopra Lalit Prashant Meena Jaya Chakravarty Madhukar Rai Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2927 2935 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1573 Effect of Interferon-Beta (IFN-β) on tumor suppressor and apoptotic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line <p>IFN-β (Rebif) is a drug with valuable cancer therapeutic potential as it mediates anti-proliferation and apoptosis induction. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the anti-proliferation of IFN-β through assessing gene expression of p53 and caspase-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) line (HepG2). The 50% inhibition viability concentration (IC50) of IFN-β was calculated by cytotoxicity assay, and it was tested on normal cell line (Vero). After treating HepG2 cells with IFN-β, p53 and caspase-3 expression was analyzed, at time intervals of 2, 4, 6, and 24 hrs, by real-time PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. IC50 of IFN-β was 420 µg/ml, which wasn't cytotoxic on normal cells. P53 expression was gradually up-regulated by time, and then, it was decreased after 24 hrs incubation. However, no expression of caspase-3 was detected compared to cell control. Histopathologically, cells degeneration was remarkable after 24 hrs while no change was noticed in control. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a decline of p53 and caspase-3 expression in treated cells with IFN-β, after 24 hrs, to 30% compared to cell control (50% and 60%, respectively). IFN-β has the potential to be utilized as a suppressor of HCC proliferation and inducer of malignant cells apoptosis.</p> Hend Okasha Marwa Hassan Tarek Aboushousha Safia Samir Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2936 2943 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1574 Prevalence of amoebic dysentery and giardiasis in Al-Najaf <p>The infestation with amoebic dysentery and giardiasis in the intestine play an important role in the human health deficiency in Al-Najaf since the infections may lead to gastroenteritis in human. To learn about the range of extending amoebic dysentery and giardiasis in people ( male and female ) which their ages range (1-50 ) years old this study was established for 7 months (January 2018&nbsp; to July 2018) in&nbsp; Al-Najaf. A total of 377 patient examined&nbsp; in this study,119 infections <em>Giardia lamblia</em> and 258 infections <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em>, Results indicated that the highest infection was 16.3&nbsp; in age range (31-40 ) in male patients infected with giardiasis,&nbsp; and in amoebic dysentery also the highest infection was 17.8&nbsp; in age range (31-40)&nbsp; in&nbsp; male . its referred that no significant differences between <em>Entamoeba&nbsp; histolytica</em> and <em>Giardia lamblia</em>&nbsp; according to age (31-40)&nbsp; in&nbsp; male. As The results indicated that the rate of infection in males is higher than females in all age and in both parasites. The results recorded the highest rate of infection in both parasites during the months of the study&nbsp; in July reaching 12.9 in <em>Giardia lamblia</em> and 19.2 in <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> , This is evidence of significant differences between <em>Giardia lamblia</em> and <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> in infections during the months of the study, Where the rate of infection was increased in the amoebic dysentery reaching(16.3 in April),(19.4 in May and June) and (19.7 July ) respectively.</p> Muna Hashim Ghazzay Shimaa Jabber Kiad Shimaa J. Shamran Meison Abdulbary Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2960 2964 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1576 Effectiveness of cumin cyminum plus lime administration on obesity among womens <p>Obesity is a medical condition which occurs due to the accumulation of excess body fat to the extent that results in a negative effect in health. Obese are generally known when the body mass index (BMI) of a person is above 25. According to World health organization obesity and corpulent are defined as a risk of body health due to over or abnormal accumulation of fat in a human body. 50 (25 experimental groups and 25 control group) women's who met the inclusion criteria were selected by using non-probability convenience sampling technique. After selecting the sample, the investigator explained the purpose of the study and informed consent was obtained. Demographic variables were collected pre-test was done by using BMI for both experimental and control group. For the experimental group, cumin cyminum plus lime water is given for 3 weeks on an early morning in empty stomach. The data were tabulated and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The calculated ‘t’ value is significant at P&lt; 0.005. The study indicates that administration of cumin cyminum plus lime water is effective in reducing overweight. The present study showed that cumin cyminum plus lime was not only beneficial but also safe and effective in the treatment of obesity.</p> Karpagam K Priya U Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2965 2969 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1577 Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon oil mediated silver nanoparticles -An in vitro study <p>Cinnamon is one of the main spice which is not only used for cooking as well as for medicinal purpose. Recently, plant-based silver nanoparticles are explored in various research areas. In this study, Silver nanoparticles were prepared with cinnamon oil using 1mM silver nitrate solution, and its formation was confirmed by using UV vis spectroscopy. The prepared cinnamon oil mediated silver nanoparticles were further researched for its anti-inflammatory property. It is done using a technique by Inhibition of albumin denaturation assay, and the result was compared with standard diclofenac sodium. It was found that there was a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on inflammatory activity and at 100uL, the cinnamon oil mediated silver was showed the almost equal activity of diclofenac sodium, the standard used in the study. Silver nanoparticles synthesised using cinnamon oil exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, and hence, it may be used for its anti-inflammatory activity.</p> Mohamed Thamemul Ansari K A Anitha Roy Rajeshkumar S Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2970 2972 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1579 Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitude and confidence regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation among ambulance drivers in Malaysia <p>Out of hospital cardiac arrest is a major cause of death worldwide. The outcome from out of hospital cardiac arrest remains poor, thus requiring immediate emergency medical intervention and high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ambulance drivers are part of the prehospital care team and therefore play a critical role in providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation to cardiac arrest patient. As present, there is no study that has been developed to assess the knowledge, attitude and confidence regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation among ambulance drivers. Thus, this study has developed a reliable and validated a questionnaire called AmKAC to evaluate their knowledge, attitude and confidence. The questionnaires are available in two languages, English and Bahasa Malaysia, in view of different educational background. The content validity was then assessed by content experts. Subsequently, the questionnaires underwent face validity which were pretested among 10 ambulance drivers to check for the understanding, language and readability. Afterwards, the refined questionnaires were administered to 108 ambulance drivers from the emergency trauma department of six different hospitals. The process was repeated one week after for the retest. This study reviewed reliable questionnaires in measuring knowledge, attitude and confidence among ambulance driver with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.685, 0.703 and 0.905, respectively. In addition, the questionnaire also showed good test-retest reliability and correlation between the items, by using Spearman’s rho and intraclass coefficient, respectively. In conclusion, the developed, validated AmKAC can be used in future to provide better insights of the ambulance drivers knowledge, attitude and confidence level regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation permitting organization of courses and training. &nbsp;</p> Jamie Foong Siew Wei Mohd Azmani bin Sahar Ahmad Zulkarnain Ahmad Zahedi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2973 2982 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1581 A study to evaluate the magnitude of understanding on harm’s way associated with heart disease among clients attending NCD clinic at nemam PHC <p>Non-communicable Disease (NCD), almost completely heart diseases, malignancy, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are the main source of demise worldwide killing additional human beings further wise entire further sources merge. In 2008 nearly two-thirds of the demises were due to NCD, a 36 million out of 57. Out of this almost completely 80% of demise happens in little and medium earnings nation with over 50% of them happening amid human beings completely amount 70 years old and 29% under 60 years of age. At current heart diseases (CVD) are the numeral single sources of demise worldwide with little and medium earning nations existence pretentious uneven. So the current research is ready to evaluate the magnitude of&nbsp;&nbsp; understanding on harm’s way associated with heart disease among clients attending NCD clinic at nemam PHC. A descriptive research design was chosen to evaluate the magnitude of understanding on harm’s way associated with heart disease among clients attending NCD clinic at nemam PHC 100 samples are included within our study. Prospective sampling techniques method was utilized in selecting the samples. A self-arranged questionnaire was utilized to gather statistics. The evaluate the magnitude of understanding on harm’s way associated with heart disease among clients attending NCD clinic at nemam PHC are Inadequate knowledge: 23%Moderate knowledge: 56% Adequate knowledge: 21%. The study concludes that there is moderation risk factors associated with heart disease among clients attending NCD clinic at Nemam PHC.</p> Bhuvaneshwari G Selvarani R Suriyamathi B Allwyn Moses M Kalichwaran S Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2983 2987 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1583 Controlling of oral pathogens using ginger oleoresin mediated silver nanoparticles <p>Silver nanoparticles have become a substance of great interest among researches in the present time due to its low cost and its wide range of applications in various fields. Moreover, recently, green nanotechnology has been gaining popularity because of its exclusion of damaging reagents and cost-effectiveness. In this study, ginger oleoresin mediated silver nanoparticles were prepared and confirmed with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ginger oleoresin mediated silver nanoparticles were then tested for its antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Streptococcus mutans</em>, and <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>. The antimicrobial sensitivity was found to be highest against <em>Streotococcus mutans</em> among the test organisms. Silver nanoparticle synthesised using natural substances can be used in control of oral pathogens.</p> Karthikeyan Gayathri Anitha Roy Thangavelu Lakshmi Rajeshkumar S Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2988 2991 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1580 Aflibercept or ranibizumab for the treatment of diabetic macular edema; a retrospective study <p>Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a significant cause of diabetic retinopathy and a major cause of vision loss. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two injectable drugs; intravitreal Aflibercept and intravitreal Ranibizumab for the treatment of DME of the eyes. A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients diagnosed with DME from March 2014 to January 2019 who received either intravitreal Aflibercept or intravitreal Ranibizumab injection. A total of 57 eyes were included, of which 19 eyes were treated with intravitreal Ranibizumab injection, and 38 eyes were treated with intravitreal Aflibercept injection; all eyes were examined for 3 months. Two outcomes were assessed in this study, namely; visual acuity (VA) and central macular thickness (CMT). The mean age in the Ranibizumab group was 61.1±9.5 vs 64.3±10.2 in the Aflibercept group with no significant difference (p-value=0.25). The ratio of improvement in visual acuity (VA) in the Ranibizumab group was 68.4% vs 44.7% in the Aflibercept group; (p-value=0.038) which demonstrates the superiority of Ranibizumab over Aflibercept concerning visual acuity result. However, there is no statistically significant difference between the ratio of improvement in central macular thickness (CMT) results in both groups; (p-value=1.00). In fact, the ratio of improvement in CMT in both groups was the same 78.9% for both the groups. The pre and post results demonstrated improvement in post-procedural for CMT among both the groups but only Ranibizumab group showed VA improvement post-procedural. Through this study, we concluded that both injectable drugs improve visual acuity (VA) and decrease central macular thickness (CMT) in eyes with DME. However, Ranibizumab is superior in improving visual acuity compared to Aflibercept. Further comparative effectiveness trials between Aflibercept and Ranibizumab are still warranted.</p> Khlood M. Aldossary Anfal Alruzuq Ghady Almohanna Hessa Almusallam Sara Alamri Fatima Alshehri Arwa Alzahrani Attiqa Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3000 3005 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1586 Cloud point extraction for separation, preconcentration and determination zinc (ii) in different pharmaceutical samples <p>Joining solvent extraction with cloud point extraction methods obtained a susceptible method for separation, pre-concentration, extraction and categorization of &nbsp;Zn (II), after forming an ion-pair association complex between Zn+2 and 4-(3-methyl phenyl azo)-4,5- diphenyl imidazole (MPADPI) with wavelength for maximum absorbance λmax.=496 Nm. This study shows optimum conditions for the formation and exaction ion-pair association complex under pH=9 and 0.5 mL Tritonx-100, 1×10-4 M (MPADPI) and heating at 80 Co for 20 minutes so that this study involved the effect of electrolyte and interferences along with the spectrophotometric determination of Zinc (II) in diverse samples.</p> Ghusoon Jawad Shabaa Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3006 3012 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1587 Better in solubility enhancement : salt or cocrystal? <p>Nowadays, most of marketed APIs are in the salt form. But not every single API was ionizable. Thus cocrystallization technique arised to overcome the problem. The aim of this review is to compare the solubility profile of salt and cocrystal. Both salt or cocrystal were used to improve the solubility of APIs and claimed for each other, which is the most effective in solubility enhancement. The salt was formed by ionic interaction, whilst cocrystal formed by hydrogen. Both interactions changed the interaction energy and crystal packing, thus changing the physicochemical properties of APIs. Besides, other factors affecting the solubility of the binary system were melting point, particle morphology, and solubility of coformer. The solubility comparison led to understand the underlying mechanism on solubility enhancement of salt and cocrystal itself.</p> Iyan Sopyan Tazyinul Qoriah Alfauziah Dolih Gozali Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3013 3025 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1589 Quinazolinone novel derivatives synthesis and their Biological Evaluation as Antimicrobial and Antitubercular agents <p>At a global level, tuberculosis (TB) is the disease of human values. It suffers from major health, social and economic burden in many countries. There is an inability of an effective vaccine or the use of vaccine were too long and expensive, have increased risk of spread of this disease. &nbsp;A &nbsp;series of quinazolinone derivatives prepared with the help of 2-Amino-3,4,5-trimethoxy benzoic acid and Vilsmeir reagent. &nbsp;Synthesized &nbsp;compounds &nbsp;were&nbsp; characterized &nbsp;by &nbsp;various &nbsp;spectral &nbsp;methods. &nbsp;Different activity like antimicrobial activity of the synthesised compounds were performed, &nbsp;and the most active compounds of the series were further screened for antitubercular activity against bacteria <em>mycobacterium &nbsp;H37Rv</em>. &nbsp;Results&nbsp; showed that all the synthesized compounds have antimicrobial activity. Compounds &nbsp;IV c, &nbsp;IV f, IV h &nbsp;and IV o showed maximum activity in the synthesized series.&nbsp; These four compounds further screened for antitubercular activity. &nbsp;Compounds &nbsp;IV c, &nbsp;IV f, IV h &nbsp;and &nbsp;IV o showed significant antitubercular activity.</p> Neha Krishnarth Santosh Kumar Verma Anurag Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3026 3034 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1590 Efficacy of microbes in bioremediation of tannery waste water at Dindigul district <p>Tannery waste water contains an enumerous amount of chemicals and a high level of pH, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD, which gets directly into the natural aquatic environment, thus polluting to the water quality. Because of that important to develop a cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to treat the tannery waste water. Our present research work has been done to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of tannery waste water and to decrease the value of BOD, pH, and COD by the procedure of bioremediation using microbes. Among the physical and chemical characteristics analyzed BOD, pH and COD were find to be very huge value. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus were identified and isolated and utilized in the decrease of BOD, pH, and COD in the tannery waste water. Four different concentrations of untreated tannery waste water (control, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) were prepared. The treatment was carried out for 48 hrs (2 days). It is inferred from the results that Bacillus cereus to be more effective in reducing pH, BOD, and COD than the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the untreated tannery effluents.</p> Ramees Raja Hussain A Aneez Mohamed M Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3035 3041 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1591 Role of Dexamethasone on immune dysregulation mediated through Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in mice challenged with type 1 diabetes and allergic asthma <p>Dysregulated equilibrium between T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and asthma. Conflicting evidence exist explaining the association between T1D and asthma and is still a point of debate. In the present study, our objective was to investigate the influence of associated T1Dco morbid condition on the induction of experimental asthma in mice and also to evaluate the efficacy of Dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, in these mice. Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg) in Balb/c mice. Following diabetes induction, mice were sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 µg ovalbumin (Ova) emulsified in 2.5 mg aluminum hydroxide on days 3 and 8. From day 13 to day 15, animals were challenged intranasally with 100 µg Ova in 25 µl of sterile saline. Dexamethasone treatment was initiated on sensitization day and continued once in 2 days thereafter until day 15. Control animals received only saline without Ova. On day 16, mice were subjected to nasal hyperresponsiveness (NHR) immediately after the Ova challenge. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lungs were collected 1h post completion of NHR for further analysis. Alloxan diabetic mice showed significantly lower levels of eosinophils in BALF and blood with the corresponding decrease in inflammatory cells around airways in hematoxylin &amp; eosin-stained lung sections, but with no change in NHR than in non-diabetics after Ova sensitization and challenge. Dexamethasone treatment showed a significant reduction of airway inflammation and related Th2 immune responses, with a lesser magnitude of efficacy in diabetic asthma mice than in non-diabetic asthma mice. The presence of T1D featured a unique, yet the intermediary stage of asthma induction and also presented an altered magnitude of Dexamethasone efficacy compared to the absence of T1D in the murine model of Ova induced asthma.</p> Ravikumar N Kavitha CH N Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3042 3054 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1593 Effect of hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle in isoproterenol induced cardiac hypertrophy <p>Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is a condition in which myocardial mass is increased beyond the normal range due to irreversible fibrotic events that lead to various complication like ventricular chamber dilation, thinning of the internal walls and extensive myocardial damage. In this study, the cardioprotective potential of the hydro-ethanolic extract of <em>Piper betle </em>(<em>P. betle</em>) was evaluated against cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol in male albino Wistar rats. Isoproterenol (10 mg/kg b.w., i.p., 7 days) induced cardiac hypertrophy in experimental rats which were simultaneously treated with the standard drug losartan (50 mg/ kg b.w., oral., 7 days) and hydro-ethanolic extract of <em>P. betle</em> (200 mg/kg b.w., oral., 7 days). Biochemical estimations revealed increased levels of glucose, protein, cholesterol, serum creatinine, cardiac maker enzymes (SGOT; SGPT and LDH), reduced enzymic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) and serum were observed during CH which were reciprocated to normal when treated with plant extract. Histopathological analysis of the heart tissue (left ventricles) showed repairment of cellular architecture with reduced stiffened cell layers and necrosis in plant extract administered rats thereby indicating the anti-hypertrophic potential of <em>P. betle</em>.</p> Doss VA Sreeja Jeevan Madhumitha Paranjothi Dharaniyambigai Kuberapandian Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3055 3062 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1594 Kinetics studies on biodegradability of pharmaceutical effluent by pseudomonas aeruginosa ES 10 <p>Every Industry has problems of effluent treatment. This can be revealed by the effective treatment of the effluent. The effective treatment can be done by using microorganisms to stabilize the organic and inorganic load of the effluent. The aim of the present work is to study the Industrial effluent microbiota and to identify some new active strains which can bring about fast biodegradation of the organic compounds. Studies were carried out to isolate the microorganisms from the collected effluent sample from the Industries of Bollaram, Hyderabad. An investigation was carried out to analyze Physicochemical parameters like Total suspended solids (TSS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of untreated effluent and to degrade the effluent using native and non-native bacteria. The results of the parameters analysis revealed that untreated effluent was black in colour with an offensive odour. pH was alkaline with a high organic load such as TSS, TDS, BOD and COD which were higher than the permissible since the effluent had a high organic load, microbes (bacteria) present within the effluent was identified and isolated. The results of the study revealed the occurrence of <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. And named as <em>Pseudomonas auruginosa</em> ES10. The presence of bacteria indicates the pollution status of the untreated tannery effluent, suggesting that it should be treated before its disposal using the biological method, particularly native and non-native bacteria for comparing their degrading efficiency. The results of the degradation study show that native bacteria <em>Pseudomonas auruginosa</em> ES10 was found to be very much successful in the reduction of toxic substances at the percentage range of 60-90% at different pH and incubation time, the bio-treated water can be reused for the agricultural and aqua-cultural purposes.</p> Farqad Alaa Hwaidi Al-Challabi Pandu. Brahmaji Rao Papathoti. Narendra Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3063 3072 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1595 Study of the effect of Nerium oleander extract in the destruction of Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea in ornamental fish <p>The effect of the extract of the <em>Nerium oleander</em> was studied on ornamental fish in vivo and in vitro, Using different concentrations and different periods. The results of the current study showed that the destruction of <em>Argulus foliaceus</em> in 50 g / 5 ml and 0.25 g / 5 ml of water after 62 and 135 minutes respectively when using the extract directly on the lice (in vitro), <em>Lernaea cyprinacea</em> was tested in the fish. The results of the study showed that <em>Lernaea cyprinacea</em> was destruction at a concentration of 50 mg/L after 15 minutes but did not affect lice, The results of the study showed that fish were cured from lice after one month of treatment at 33.33 mg/L for 72 consecutive hours. When fish were placed at 50/1500 g/L of the extract, they were treated from lice but caused the fish to die after 15 minutes after placing in a pure water bath.</p> Sundus Wafi Al-zayyadi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3073 3077 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1596 Assess the attitude and perception regarding mental illness among the care givers of mentally ill patients <p>Mental health is defined as a state of well being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stress of the life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution towards his or her own community. Mental illness refers to a condition of emotional and mental impairment that disturbs a person’s thinking, mood and ability that relate to others and daily functioning. The aim of the study was to assess the attitude and perception regarding mental illness among the care givers at saveetha medical college and hospital<strong>. </strong>A quantitative research approach was adopted with convenient sampling technique to select 100 care givers of mentally ill patients at saveetha medical college and hospital. Data was collected by using self - structured questionnaire technique. The data was organized and analyzed in term of descriptive statistics. Association between the level of attitude and the selected demographic variables were analyzed in which there is a significant association between the demographic variables such as education, residence and the type of care givers regarding mental illness. In related to on assessing the association between the level of perception and the selected demographic variables were analyzed in which there is a significant association between the gender, education, occupation, type of family and the type of care givers. This study has demonstrated that the care givers has a decreased level of attitude in relation to education, residence, type of care givers and decreased level of perception in related to gender, occupation, education, type of family and the type of care givers. The study concluded that the care givers have a low level of attitude and perception in related to mental illness.</p> Angelin Lavanya Vishnu Priya Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3078 3082 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1597 Impact of pharmacist mediated educational program on knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls <p>In India, awareness about menstruation before menarche was low, and it is viewed as unclean or dirty in society. In adolescent girls who attained menstruation for the first time, menstrual hygiene management is constrained by social, practical and economic factors such as the expense of sanitary pads, lack of water facilities, lack of private rooms for changing sanitary pads, and limited education about the facts of menstrual hygiene. The practice of good menstrual hygiene reduces the incidence of reproductive tract infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of pharmacist mediated educational program on menstrual hygiene practice. An interventional study was carried out to assess the impact of menstrual hygiene practice on knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in backward areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. A self-administered questionnaire comprises socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge related to menstruation and menstrual hygiene practice was used to collect data. The collected data was analyzed to assess the knowledge related to the menstrual hygiene practice, school attendance during the menstrual period at baseline and after providing education on menstrual hygiene. The present study reveals that 52.52% of the participants had good knowledge about menstrual hygiene. Pharmacist mediated educational program showed great improvement on the practice of menstrual hygiene such as the use of sanitary pads was improved from 40.42% to 93.38%. After educational program school dropouts was greatly declined from 55.32% to 7.33%. Pharmacist mediated program had a positive impact on menstrual hygiene practice, Government of India need to conduct more educational programs on menstrual hygiene management at a community level.</p> Bhupalam Pradeepkumar Narayana G Haranath Chinthaginjala Ramalingam P Somasekhar Reddy K Sudheer A Veerabhadrappa KV Vijayajyothi M Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3083 3088 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1598 A study to assess the prediabetic risk among adults <p>Prediabetes is a high-risk state for diabetes that is defined by glycaemic variables that are higher than normal but lower than diabetes thresholds. 5–10% of people per year with prediabetes will progress to diabetes, with the same proportion converting back to normal glycaemia. The prevalence of prediabetes is increasing worldwide, and experts have projected that more than 470 million people will have prediabetes by 2030. Prediabetes is associated with the simultaneous presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction abnormalities that start before glucose changes are detectable. Hence the present study to assess the risk factors of pre-diabetes risk among the adults in SMCH and to associate the prediabetic risk with demographic variables among adults. Quasi-experimental design was employed with 100 adults who met the inclusion criteria were selected by non-probability purposive sampling technique. The researcher collected the demographic variables and assessed the prediabetic risk among adults by using Indian diabetic risk score. The data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result shows that Out of 100 samples, 15(15%) is at low risk, 55(55%) is at moderate risk and 30(30%) is at high risk among adults. The mean and standard deviation of this study are 54.6 and 16.6, respectively, for adults. The association between the prediabetes risk and the demographic variable is statistically significant. The study reveals that the adults have a moderate risk for prediabetes which is analysed using Indian diabetic risk score.&nbsp;</p> Tamilselvi S Bhuvaneshwari G Aneesha C Anto Deepa R Indhumathi S Iyeswariya K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3089 3092 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1599 Analgesic potential of methanolic extract of fucus vesiculosus <p><em>Fucus vesiculosus </em>is a seaweed rich in various phytochemicals. Although it has documented systemic effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-oxidant, the effects on pain have not been evaluated. This study is aimed at evaluating the analgesic potential of this plant. Methanolic extract of the whole dried plant was prepared by maceration technique and was subjected to phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening yielded positive results for flavonoids, saponins, tanins and steroids. Mice were divided into five groups (n=5). Normal saline 0.9%, 2ml (negative control), Indomethacin 10 mg/kg (positive control) and extracts at 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were administered orally to mice in their respective groups. The latency to pain was assessed at 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes for each animal using the hotplate protocol. The latency to pain was increased in groups who received Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and extracted at all doses (100,250,500 mg/kg) when compared to the negative control (0.9% N/S). However, the results were statistically significant (p-value &lt; 0.05, &lt; 0.001) for Indomethacin and extract-treated groups at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg dose. Acetic induced writhing demonstrated analgesic activity at 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg treated doses, which were statistically significant (p-value &lt; 0.05) when compared with the negative control. Our study has demonstrated the central and peripheral analgesic potential of <em>fucus vesiculosus</em> methanolic extract. The specific active constituent and effects at cellular level need to be evaluated.</p> Sadia Batool Safia Saad Amani Ali Sara Abdullah Sara Mohammad Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3093 3098 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1602 Phyllanthus reticulatus mediated synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative pathogens <p>In this study, silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using <em>Phyllanthus reticulatus </em>leaf extract at different concentration (5, 10, 15 mL). The prepared samples were analyzed their optical, structural, surface morphological properties, and along with these properties, the antibacterial properties were analyzed. The UV-vis absorption spectra show SPR band around 450 nm, shift to lower wavelength due to increasing extract concentration. This shift can be ascribing to a decrease in particle size. The crystallinity nature of the prepared samples is observed by the XRD profile; the calculated particles size by Scherrer’s formula displays a decrease in size with respect to leaf extract volume. From the SEM image, it can be seen that irregular and large size particles prepared at 5-10 mL and the smooth spherical shape and tiny particles were observed in the sample prepared at 15 mL. The small and spherical shape nanoparticles show good antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacterial pathogens. The activity of large and irregular shape particles may be due to the release of Ag+ ions and generation of ROS. Because of cell wall difference in bacteria, the better activity is observed against gram negative bacteria.</p> Gomathi M Prakasam A Rajkumar P.V Rajeshkumar S Chandrasekaran R Kannan S Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3099 3106 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1603 Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia with Generic Imatinib in patients from Northeastern part of India <p>Imatinib is now used as the first-line drug to treat CML patient. However, the emergence of resistance to Imatinib in CML patient, the side effect of bone marrow suppression, fluid overload and gastritis are a major limitation of the use of Imatinib in the treatment of CML. This study was conducted to see the therapeutic response and side effect profile of generic Imatinib Mesylate in newly diagnosed CML patients. All cases of CML were given generic Imatinib and followed prospectively with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. They were followed at an interval of 2 weeks till complete hematologic response, thereafter at an interval of 6 to 8 weeks. Cytogenetic and molecular response at the end of one year also evaluated. Among 36 CML patients, 33 were in chronic phase 2 in accelerated phase and 1 in blast crisis while 35 were Philadelphia+ve and 1 was ph–ve at initial presentation. Minimum duration to achieve CHR was 2 week with a mean of 5 weeks. At 3 month except one 35 patients achieved CHR (97%). Out of 36 patients, 27 were subjected for Philadelphia chromosome at one year which shown 23 patients (85.18%) achieved a major cytogenetic response. 8 (38%) patients achieved a major molecular response and one patient (4.76%) was having a complete molecular response at one year. 8 (22.22%) patients developed hematological toxicity to Imatinib with Pancytopenia most common. In conclusion, Generic Imatinib is having an excellent therapeutic response in CML patients although higher response rate may be due to smaller sample size and lesser duration of follow up.</p> Siddharth Samrat Lalit Prashant Meena Jaya Chakravarty Madhukar Rai Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3107 3113 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1604 A study to assess the quality of life among parents of autism spectrum disorder patients <p>Children with autism are more at risk for developing many due to expressive communication difficulties. Research continues to show that stress is related to parenting practices and parent effectiveness within the family system, the parents, the child, and their interaction are three possible sources of parental stress which disturbs the quality of life. The study aims is to assess the demographic variable on quality of life among parent of autism child and to assess the knowledge on quality of life among parents of autism child. A quantitative research approach was adopted with convenient sampling technique to select 40 parents who attend the child development hospital. Data was collected by using standardized questionnaire . The data was organized and analyzed in term of descriptive statistics. The data collection tabulated and analyzed by using mean and standard deviation. Majority of the sample has a fair quality of life, some of the samples has a good quality of life, and a minority of the sample has a poor quality of life. The study results suggest that parents of autism children's need more guidance to improve their quality of life.</p> Mary Minolin T Jojimol J Jemima M Kowsalya K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3114 3117 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1606 Anti-inflammatory activity of Myristica fragrans extract <p>In simple terms, inflammation can be defined as a reaction from the body to an injury in living tissue. Anti-inflammatory drugs help in controlling and reducing this inflammation. Natural spices showing anti-inflammatory properties with no side effects, hence they can be used as an efficient anti-inflammatory drug in the near future. To determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) using MTT Assay. The plant material was obtained as a gift sample from Life Care Phytolabs Private Limited. An extract was prepared from the sample. Cell viability assay – MTT Assay was performed, and Raw cell line 247 was used to study the anti-inflammatory potential of the extract. The results collected were put into a graph and table for discussion. A gradual decrease in the number of inflammatory cells as the concentration of the extract was increased was observed in the inflammatory cell line. The cell viability, which was 7.08% when the concentration of the extract was 1ng increased up to 30.6% when the concentration of the extract was increased up to 100ug. The MTT assay test on a raw cell line 247 showed that the Myristica fragrans extract exhibits some level of the anti-inflammatory property. Further research on isolating the specific component of the extract responsible for its anti-inflammatory property can be done in the future.</p> Farhat Yaasmeen Sadique Basha Rajeshkumar S Lakshmi T Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3118 3120 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1607 Efficacy of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal action on four medicinal plants extract the A.arabica, T.chebula, A.indica, and V.vinifera against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans -An in-vitro study <p>The aim of the study was to test the anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activity of four medical plants extract the A.arabica, T.chebula, A.indica, and V.vinifera against the streptococcus mutants and Candida albicans organisms. The extracts obtained from the medicinal plant of A.arabica, T.chebula, A.indica, and V.vinifera was procured and powdered. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the obtained extracts was determined by using the tube dilution method, and the bacterial strains of Streptococcus mutants and Candida albicans were cultured into the extract obtained at a concentration of 1mg/ml, 500µg/ml, 250µg/ml, and 100µg/ml respectively. The extracts obtained from A.arabica and T.chebula had a better anti-bacterial property when compared to the other two medicinal plants and the extracts obtained from A.indica and V.vinifera had a better anti-fungal property when compared to the other two medicinal plants. These plants extracts showed the anti-bacterial property in previous studies to add on to the review of literature in our study it proved that A.indica and V.vinifera had a better anti-fungal activity when compared to another two medicinal plant extract<strong>.</strong> The clinical significance of the medicinal plant extract can be effectively used as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent as it was compared with the gold standard values of Streptomycin and Amphotericin B.</p> Sunayana Manipal Lubna Fathima Sajid T Hussain Venkat R Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3121 3126 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1608 Public policy of GST in India: A study on pharmaceutical sector with special reference to Healthcare <p>India's greatest duty move is now a reality. 1999 was the year when GST was thought of. The amending bill for the full-powered launch of GST was approved by the Rajya Sabha on 8 August 2016, and it was enacted in late August. It is essential to comprehend that GST isn't a duty concession scheme where every good and service has become way cheaper just because the administration has decreased the duty rates. The single Revenue Neutral Rate (RNR) was a difficult system to manage, and thus the Indian govt. I wanted to fix it. Nonetheless, because of practical reasons, "four GST slabs have been set at 5%, 12%, 18%, and 28%. Precious metals have a special rate. The rate of 18% would anyway be relevant for most goods. GST was enacted on 1 July 2017."</p> Arun Gautam Shivani Kampani Gaurav Lodha Vadera M L Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3136 3142 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1611 New bio-amphiphilic structures of sucrose via amides linkages <p>A series of four new derivatives of sucrose have been synthesized using the straightforward methodology in order to give a mono substituted analogs of sucrose at C<sub>-6’</sub> of fructose moiety. The synthesis was started from the reaction of sucrose with tert-butylchlorodiphenylsilane, which is able to react with an only less <em>steric hindrance</em> hydroxyl group at C<sub>-6’</sub> due to its bulky structure. The other hydroxyl groups were acetylated by the reaction with acetic anhydride in pyridine. Then free the hydroxyl group at C<sub>-6’</sub> again by the treatment with t-butylammonium fluoride in THF. The later was activated by conversion to a good leaving group via tosylation, followed by functionalized via azidation to give the precursor of the target series hepta-O-acetyl-6’-azido- sucrose. The precursor was coupled with four alkyl halides (C<sub>12</sub>, C<sub>8-4</sub>, C<sub>14</sub>, C<sub>10-8</sub>) via Staudinger reaction to produced the target structure after deacetylating. The purity and chemical structure of the synthesized compound was confirmed by CHN elemental analysis, high-resolution mass and <sup>1</sup>H, <sup>13</sup>C NMR spectroscopy.&nbsp;</p> Salih Mahdi Salman Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3143 3154 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1612 A study on understanding the blood lipid profile of the hemodialysis patients in Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq <p>One of the most frequently worldwide recorded health conditions, is a chronic renal failure (CRF), especially in elderly individuals induced due to renal damage. Kidney damage and therefore, dialysis have several detrimental effects on the body organs and their functions. According to those effects, this study was conducted to recognize the blood lipid profile of the hemodialysis patients in Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. Such determination gives assurance for overall functions of the body organs in order to place proper medical management of those levels if disturbed. From Al-Diwaniyah General Teaching Hospital, Diwaniyah City, Iraq, 68 (50, 33 males and 17 females, hemodialysis CRF (H-CRF) patients and 18, 11 males and 7 females, healthy individuals) samples of blood were collected. For revealing the levels of serum blood lipids of the participants, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were tested using a cholesterol oxidase method for TC and HDL-C, a glycerol kinase method for TG, and the Friedewald formula for LDL-C. The results unveiled significant (<em>p</em>˂0.01) higher TG levels in H-CRF patients than those in healthy individuals. In addition, HDL-C revealed significant (<em>p</em>˂0.01) lower levels in the H-CRF patients than those in healthy people. No significant (<em>p</em>˃0.01) data were observed from the TC and the LDL-C levels in both groups. This work demonstrates the level changes of the TGs and the HDL-C in the serum of the hemodialysis patients which need proper medical intervention for the correction of those levels.</p> Shaymaa Rabeea Madhkhoor Jameel K. Alumeri Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3155 3158 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1613 Dual evaluation of some novel chalcone annulated pyrazolines as anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents via in-silico target study on cyclooxygenase-2 <p>A novel series of chalcone bearing pyrazoline moieties were (P1 to P7) synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques. The anti-inflammatory studies showed the compounds P1, P2, P5, and P6 have produced the noteworthy inhibition on protein denaturation (81.39 - 96.57 %) when compared to standard 98.17%&nbsp; whereas, the antiproteinase activity was in the range of 84.55- 90.44 % when compared to the standard, 95.95 %. The compounds, P1, P2, P5 (2-Cl, 4- Cl &amp; -NO<sub>2</sub> substituent) bearing electron-withdrawing groups and the compounds P3 &amp; P6 (4-N(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> &amp; -OH substituent) possessing electron-donating group in its phenyl ring system exhibited the prominent activity. Further, to explore the molecular mechanism, the <em>in-silico</em> docking study against COX-2 enzyme was performed. The compounds were also screened for their antibacterial activities. Among them, the compounds P1, P2, P3, P5 and P6 showed the significant antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogen such as, <em>Bacillus cereus</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Serratia marcescens </em>and<em> Staphylococcus typhi</em> with maximum zone of inhibition within the range of 12-14 mm and 19-25 mm for 100 and 200 µg/ml concentrations respectively when compared to that of standard drug Gentamycin, whose ranges between 15-18 mm and 25-28 mm correspondingly.</p> Thangavelu Prabha Selvaraj Jubie Palanisamy Selvamani Subbiah Latha Thangavel Sivakumar Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3159 3169 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1615 Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among a Sample of Chronic Hepatitis C Patients in AL-Najaf Province /Iraq <p>Previous studies in Euro-American countries have shown that patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection have increased levels of neuropsychiatric symptoms. While chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been reported in Arab countries such as Iraq, there is little studies about the neuropsychological burden associated with chronic hepatitis C among patients in the Arab region. The aim of the current study was to measure the prevalence and level of severity of depression, anxiety and stress among a sample of chronic hepatitis C patients in AL-Najaf province /Iraq. The current study was cross-sectional study carried out on (110) already diagnosed chronic viral hepatitis C patients who attended the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Center/Al-Sader Medical City/Najaf/Iraq during November 2018 to May 2019. In addition, (100) apparently healthy subjects were included as a control group. The Arabic version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess mental health. Both the prevalence rates and severity levels of depression, anxiety and stress were significantly higher in chronic hepatitis C patients compared to the control group (<em>P</em>&lt;0.001). Stress level is negatively correlated with age and is significantly more in single. Anxiety level is less with a higher level of education. Depression was significantly higher in those having children. The study indicates that the presence of chronic hepatitis C infection is associated with a higher risk of psychological burden. Accordingly, meeting the psychological needs of such patients would need to be addressed.</p> Hanan Najem Najaf Dheyaa J. Kadhim Ahmed J. Alkofee Dheyaa A. Al-Mashhadani Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3170 3177 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1616 Level of Stress and Adapting approaches among Caretakers of Cancer Patients receiving Palliative Care <p>Cancer influences the patients as well as his/her whole house. Managing Cancer patients is a regular task of handling them. In the expansion of making stress to the clients, it puts monetary, individual, stress and social disturbance to the relatives. The study focuses on evaluating the level of stress and Adapting approaches among Caretakers of Cancer Patients receiving Palliative Care. A descriptive study was conducted among caretakers of cancer patients receiving palliative care, Data were assembled using self-administered stress rating scale, COPE inventory, and structured interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was adopted. The sample size was 60. The outcomes demonstrated that 72% of the members were females, and 28% of them were placed with the age bunch of 51 and 60 years. 52% of them belong to the Hindu religion, and 41% were jobless. 63% of the patients were reliant on relatives for all tasks of day by day living. Evaluation of stress uncovered that 85% of the members had moderate stress, and 15% had severe stress. Members received both negative and positive adapting. There was a huge negative connection (r = 0.80, P = 0.01) among stress and adapting. Palliative care is stressful, testing and can affect the parental figure's physical, enthusiastic, mental, and social prosperity. Comprehension lived encounters of caretakers of cancer patients receiving palliative care is significant for the health personnel's to improve the help, direction, and training given to the caretakers of cancer patients receiving palliative care.</p> Jagadeeswari J Prathap Mohan M Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3182 3185 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1619 Synthesis and characterization Some of heterocyclic compounds from Nitrogen derivative <p>This paper involves the synthesis of new oxazepine derivatives by multi-reaction steps. The first step synthesis azo derivative from 2-naphthol with 3-aminoacetophenone. The second step was the condensation reaction between ketone group of the azo compound and different primary aromatic amines (4-amino phenol, 3-nitro aniline and 4-methyl aniline) to yiled new azo Schiff base compounds (S1-S3) respectively. In the final step, Oxazepine compounds (L1-L3)and (L4-L6)were prepared from reaction imine compounds (S1-S3) with maleic and phthalic anhydride in toluene as solvent. All these derivatives were characterized by melting point, FTIR, HNMR and 13CNMR.</p> Sarah Mohammed Abed Hasan Thamer Ghanem Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3186 3196 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1621 Role of nutrition in rehabilitation of patients following surgery for oral squamous cell carcinoma <p>Malnutrition in oral cancer patients leads to poor response to treatment and reduced quality of life. The present study assessed the nutritional status of patients treated for oral squamous cell carcinoma and evaluated the need for implementation of any institutional protocol regarding the type of nutritional intervention employed for these patients. Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone primary tumor resection with or without neck dissection and reconstruction from June 2015 to June 2018 were evaluated. Of the patients with complete data recalled for review, only 25 reported to our Institute, including 12 who had undergone surgery alone and 13 who had undergone surgery plus adjuvant radio and/or chemotherapy. Their nutritional status was assessed by measuring their Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores, and MNA scores in the groups that underwent surgery alone and surgery plus adjuvant therapy compared by independent sample ‘t’ tests. Of the 12 patients who underwent surgery alone, eight had normal nutritional status, and four were at risk of malnutrition. Of the 13 patients who underwent surgery plus adjuvant therapy, only one had normal nutritional status, whereas 12 were at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. Mean MNA score was significantly higher in patients who had undergone surgery alone than in patients who had undergone surgery plus adjuvant therapy (p=.001). Risk of malnutrition was higher in patients who underwent surgery plus adjuvant therapy than in patients who underwent surgery alone. Postoperative care of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma should include nutritional management to improve patient prognosis and quality of life.</p> Mahathi Neralla Jones Jayabalan Rinku George Jyotsna Rajan Santhosh Kumar M.P Ahmed Elham Haque Arthi Balasubramaniam Pradeep J. Christopher Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3197 3203 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1622 Optimization of Persea Americana pulp incorporated cookies using sensory analysis: a response surface methodology <p>The sensory properties are vital in catching shopper eye and subsequently impacting their inclinations and purchasing choices for nourishment items. Taste, colour, texture, mouthfeel, aroma, flavour, and overall acceptability are sensory properties which are regularly used to portray the nature of the treats, just as to foresee customer response. In this examination were embraced to discover the impact of various degrees of Persea Americana fruit pulp (A), honey (B) and wheat flour (C) consolidated treats and their ideal levels. Information got from Response surface methodology of Persea Americana incorporated cookies treats were exposed to the investigation of change (ANOVA) and examined utilizing a second-request polynomial condition. Response surface methodology was demonstrated to be a satisfactory methodology for displaying the organoleptic parameters and the level of preferring of good Persea Americana cookies. After the effects of this investigation discovered that a most extreme attractive score that can be accomplished with the ideal estimation of taste was 7.8, texture 6.68, flavour 7.11 and by and overall acceptances 8.44 scores. This example was viewed as the best advancing hotspot for tangible traits.</p> Jobil J Arackal Parameshwari S Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3209 3216 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1624 Effectiveness of contrast hydrotherapy on knee pain among osteoarthritis patients <p>Many patients with osteoarthritis experiences knee pain, but if untreated, it may lead to chronic knee pain. This may quietly limit the functional abilities and impairs the quality of life. Thus the study was conducted with the aim to determine the effect of contrast hydrotherapy on knee pain. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted with 30 samples who met the inclusion criteria. Samples were assigned into experimental and control group by convenience sampling technique. A pre-test was conducted by using Numerical pain rating scale in both experimental and control group. Contrast hydrotherapy was administered to the experimental group, and the control group was continued with the routine practice. Post-test was conducted after 7 days with the same tool for both the group. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The study findings revealed that contrast hydrotherapy was effective in reducing the level of knee pain at the level of p&lt;0.05 in the experimental group. Contrast hydrotherapy is inexpensive, safer method, does not cost the time, reduce the risk pharmacological intervention and can be affordable by all the participants. This therapy may be recommended in both clinical and community setting to reduce the pain, thereby improves the quality of life.</p> Thenmozhi P Nisha P Prema J Shreeba R Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3217 3222 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1625 The distribution of gastric malignancies in AL-Diwaniyah province-Iraq, a retrospective study <p>Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting gastrointestinal tract. It a multifactorial illness, both genetic and environmental factors involving in etiology. A wide variation in the incidence of gastric cancer in different geographical regions. Endoscopy is the most sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis. The aims of this study is to describe the distribution rate of gastric cancer in AL-Diwaniyah province in Iraq in correlation with the patients age, sex and the histopathological types of gastric cancer. From about (4078) patients who underwent gastroscopy for different indications at&nbsp; AL-Diwaniyah gastroenterology and hepatology center in Iraq during the period between November 2015 and April 2019, (76) patients were founded to have gastric cancer by documented histopathological study of tissue biopsy. Gastric cancer distribution was about (1.8%). Males are affected more than females in a ratio of (1.37:1). Out of (76) total number of patients with gastric cancer ;(69) patients (90.79%) having gastric adenocarcinoma ( most common type) with male to female ratio of (1.46:1). (5) Patients (6.58%) having gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and (2) patients ( 2.63%) having lymphoma. In patients with adenocarcinoma,(12) patients (17.39%) were less than (40 years) of age, (31) patients (44.93%) were between (40-60 years) and (26) patients (37.68%) were older than (60 years). The intestinal-type adenocarcinoma was the most common histopathological type (63.77%), followed by diffuse type (30.43%), mixed&nbsp; (4.35%) and mucinous(1.45%). Gastric cancer incidence is increasing with advance age; it still a public health and challenging problem. Mass screening or surveillance programs is the best method for the detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer at an early stage.</p> Osamah Tahir Muslim Mohammed Abdulmohsin Abdulmaged Ali Abbas Radhi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3229 3235 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1626 Cytotoxic effects of Ceiba pentandra L. mediated silver nanoparticles on HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines through ROS generation and cell membrane damage <p>In this study, we assessed the biological effect of <em>Ceiba pentandra</em> bark silver nanoparticles (CP-AgNPs) on HCT-116 cancer cells with an emphasis on cell cytotoxicity, quantification of ROS and determination of mitochondria membrane potential. &nbsp;The synthesized <em>Ceiba pentandra</em> bark silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer, High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The synthesized silver nanoparticle cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were studied on colorectal cancer cells (HCT-116). The nanoparticles exhibited an inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) at (60μg/mL). CP-AgNPs significantly inhibited cell viability and changed the morphology of HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, CP-AgNPs increased the level of reactive oxygen species, induced cell apoptosis in HCT-116 cell lines through the interference of the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicated that <em>Ceiba pentandra</em> bark silver nanoparticles (CP-AgNPs) might act as prospective anticancer agents in colon cancer cells.</p> Masese Osoro Brian Selvi S Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3236 3243 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1627 Isolation and identification of various Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing uropathogens in a tertiary care hospital, Chhattisgarh <p>Extended Spectrum B-Lactamase producing bacteria has become a worldwide problem and made the treatment very much complicated due to their resistance ability against the wide number of antimicrobial drug. This study was undertaken to measure the emergence of ESBL producing bacteria in urine collected from the patient Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Science, Bilaspur, C.G. A total of 141 <em>Eterobactericeae</em> groups isolates and identified. A Total of 81 ESBL producing uropathogens were identified. The most prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria was <em>E. coli</em> 59(41.84%) followed by <em>Klebsiella</em> species 12(8.51%), and <em>Enterobacter species</em> were 06(4.26%). ESBL producers are confirmed by the Phenotyping confirmatory disc diffusion test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer method showed most resistance were ampicillin (88.9%), Ciprofloxacin (69.1%), amoxycillin clavulanic acid (76.5%) resistance to ESBL producers and least resistant to imipenem 15(18.5%). We are confident that this research will be helpful in human beings and further medical microbiological study.</p> Rajesh Kumar Sahu Sagarika Pradhan Shweta Sao Ramanesh Murthy Ekta Agrawal Anubha Patel Neha Pandey Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3244 3250 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1629 In vitro screening of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial potential of Micrococca mercurialis whole plant extracts <p><em>Micrococca mercurialis </em>is widely used for the treatment of sores, skin diseases, cold, fever, rheumatic pain, and infections. The present study aimed to study the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antibacterial potential different whole plant extracts (aqueous, ethanol, petroleum ether) of <em>Micrococca mercurialis </em>by <em>in vitro </em>methods<em>. </em>The amount of phenols, tannins, flavonoids and Vitamin C were estimated by conventional methods. Free radical scavenging potential was assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays. HRBC membrane-stabilizing study was done to determine its anti-inflammatory property by <em>in vitro</em> method. Activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Bacillus subtilis</em> were determined in <em>Micrococca mercurialis</em> extracts. The phytoconstituents in the extracts of <em>Micrococca mercurialis</em> were explored by GC-MS analysis. The extracts of <em>Micrococca mercurialis</em> exhibited varied <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The GC–MS results confirmed the presence of twenty-nine phytoconstituents totally responsible for the biological activities of <em>Micrococca mercurialis. </em>This pilot study has provided a scientific validation for the folkloric use of <em>Micrococca mercurialis</em> against many infections and diseases.</p> Thendral Hepsibha B Gayathri Devi R Lijitha L Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3251 3262 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1630 Smartphone app for asthma self-management – a literature review of contents and functions <p>A self-management is an important thing in achieving optimum health outcomes. One of the many effective ways that help improve the outcomes of self-management in asthma is through the use of smartphone applications or popularly known as apps. The apps have been designed to help patients in controlling asthma complaints. This study aimed to examine contents and functions featured in the reviewed studies as well as to suggest what functions and contents should be featured in an asthma self-management smartphone app. This study used a systematic approach to examine and review the contents and functions of asthma management apps from selected studies. Inclusion criteria of the study included studies related to the use of asthma control or asthma self-management apps, providing information about contents and features of asthma apps, apps in the reviewed studies designed for laypersons or patients, studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals in English, and original articles. All the studies had been taken from 2013 to 2018 from three databases, namely Pubmed, Science Direct, and ProQuest. Exclusion criteria included full text unable to be accessed and unable to obtain complete full statistical data. Results of this study showed that the most popular functions and contents featured in the asthma apps involved asthma education, medication use monitor, medication reminder, asthma control test, peak flow meter, asthma symptom monitor, and asthma action plan. Less popular functions and contents included a chat with others, Air Quality Health Index, and Quality of Life Questionnaires.&nbsp;</p> Ghozali MT Satibi Zullies Ikawati Lutfan Lazuardi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3269 3276 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1632 A non-randomized interventional study to promote the knowledge, attitude and practices of community pharmacists towards pharmacovigilance <p>Pharmacovigilance promotes the safe and effective use of medicines and thereby optimizes the treatment quality. However, lack of awareness among community pharmacists towards pharmacovigilance decreases the proportion of adverse drug reactions reported and impairs the signal detection process. Hence this study was designed to assess and promote the awareness and attitude of community pharmacists towards pharmacovigilance. This educational interventional study was carried out with 102 community pharmacists across Chennai. A pre-validated three domain-containing questionnaire, 20 items was used to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice before and after the educational intervention.&nbsp; Knowledge, attitude and practices of community pharmacists towards pharmacovigilance was significantly increased after the educational intervention (P&lt;0.05, 95%CI). Median difference in an overall score of knowledge and practice was observed to be 4 and 4.5, respectively.&nbsp; Though the frequency of ADR reporting was not found to be greatly increased in our study, mass educational programs with adequate sampling intervals are needed to strengthen the signal generation process.</p> Kumaraguru Anbalagan Shanmugasundaram P Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3286 3292 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1634 Body fat distribution, cardiorespiratory fitness, and lipid profile in first degree relatives with type 2 diabetes mellitus <p>Evaluation of people at increased risk like first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus (FDRDM) may be useful to reduce the risk of disease progression, development, early intervention, and to take precautionary measures. &nbsp;By considering the multifactorial pathophysiological changes of D.M., we have examined the body fat distribution, cardiorespiratory fitness, and lipid profile of FDRDM. Similar age, height, waist-hip ratio (WHR) in both groups, significantly higher body mass index (BMI) in FDRDM, was observed in our study. Percentage body fat and blood glucose levels in fasting were elevated considerably, and 12 min walk distance was low in FDRDM. Visceral fat was slightly high, but it was not statistically significant. In FDRDM, High-density lipoproteins (HDL) were less but not statistically significant. Significantly higher levels of &nbsp;Total cholesterol (T.C.), triglycerides (TGL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) were seen high in FDRDM when compared to controls. Higher body fat percentage reduced cardiorespiratory function and abnormal lipid profile in FDRDM may lead to the development of severe cardiovascular events and necessitates lifestyle modification at early phases of disease development.</p> Shaik Azmatulla Rinku Garg Anil Kumar Sharma Navpret Mann Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3293 3296 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1637 Impact of glycaemia, dyslipidemia and anxiety level on oxidative stress in prediabetic and diabetic patients <p>Diabetes is one of the growing health crises.&nbsp; The current study was conducted to analyze the impact of glycaemia, dyslipidemia and anxiety level on oxidative stress in prediabetic and diabetic subjects. This cross-sectional study comprised of 140 subjects.&nbsp; Based on ADA criteria, subjects were divided into diabetic patients (n= 54) and pre-diabetic patients (n=44).&nbsp; Forty-two healthy subjects with normal fasting blood glucose level were served as a control group.&nbsp; Anthropometric measurements and blood pressures were measured using standard procedures. The biochemical parameters for measuring oxidative stress, blood glucose levels and lipid profile were estimated. Anxiety level was measured using the STAI questionnaire. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (nmol /ml) were significantly higher in pre-diabetes (3.14±0.42) and diabetes mellitus (3.43±0.78) compared to normal controls (2.26±1.08).&nbsp; The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (U/ml) were higher in diabetes (11.35±3.51) and pre-diabetic subjects (8.55±2.50) compared to healthy subjects (8.11±4.11). MDA had a significant positive correlation with Fasting blood sugar (FBS), Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), waist to hip ratio and waist circumference. SOD also had a significant correlation with FBS, HbA1c, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and Body Mass Index.&nbsp; The present study confirmed that diabetic and prediabetic patients are suffered from more oxidative stress than nondiabetic subjects, and it is influenced by their glycemic status and abdominal obesity which is leading to the progression of the disease. Dyslipidemia and anxiety levels didn't mark influence on oxidative stress in prediabetic and diabetic patients.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Remya Paul Mukkadan J K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3297 3303 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1635 Preparation of self micro emulsifying drug delivery system(smedds) of poorly soluble drug eprosartan mesylate and its in vitro evaluation <p>Eprosartan Mesylate (EM), an angiotensin II receptor blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure. But poor solubility and bioavailability (13%) of eprosartan mesylate is a major challenging factor for improving its drug release rate. The main objective of the present work to develop and characterize self micro emulsifying drug delivery system of eprosartan mesylate by using compatible oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. For the selection of oil, surfactant and cosurfactant, solubility screening studies has been carried out. The nine formulations are prepared using peppermint oil, tween 80 and PEG 400. A pseudo ternary phase diagram was prepared to determine the self emulsion region. Four optimized formulations were prepared at 1:1 ratio(a mixture of surfactant and cosurfactant). These four formulations were evaluated for self-emulsification time, droplet size measurement, drug content analysis robustness to dilution test, viscosity analysis, f.t.i.r. The study and in-vitro diffusion studies. The ratio of scosmix (a mixture of surfactant and cosurfactant) of optimized formulation (pf5) was varied to pfa1 (2:1), pf2 (3:1), pfa3 (1:2) and compared with pure drug. The formulation having pfa1 (2:1) shown drug release of 93.13 % in 330 minutes where as pure drug showed a drug release of 54.51% in 330 minutes. So the prepared SMEDDS formulations were efficient and better than the pure drug, and it followed Korsmeyer pappes due to highest r<sup>2</sup> value followed by Hixon crowel. It was concluded that incorporation of eprosartan mesylate in selfmicroemulsifying system is a great potential for improving the solubility and dissolution rate of eprosartan mesylate.</p> Sabitri Bindhani Snehamayee Mohapatra Rajat Ku. Kar Utkalika Mahapatra Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3304 3314 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1636 Inflammation and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics <p>Indians are more susceptible to diabetes mellitus (DM) because of genetic reasons &amp; improper life-style habits. Currently, the occurrence of DM has been prevalent in youngsters especially in &nbsp;India, in our present study, we attempted to explore the role of oxidative stress, &nbsp;inflammation in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus (FDRDM). Inflammation was assessed by using high sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP), Interleukin 6 (IL6),&nbsp; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and oxidative stress by using malondialdehyde and total antioxidant status. FDRDM and control groups had similar for age, height, and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Weight and body mass index (BMI) was significantly high in &nbsp;FDRDM. &nbsp;Total antioxidant levels (TAOS) were less, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly more in the FDRDM group. Inflammatory markers were significantly high in FDRDM. &nbsp;We conclude that increased oxidative stress and inflammation may lead to more derangements in glucose homeostasis in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), it could increase the chances of development of cardiac events and necessitates early lifestyle modifications.</p> ShaikAzmatulla RinkuGarg Anil Kumar Sharma Navpret Mann Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3315 3318 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1638 Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expression system using TorA signal peptide for Recombinant Human Albumin (rHA) secretion <p>Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood plasm. This protein consisted of 585 amino acids with a molecular weight of 66 kDa and 17 disulfide bonds. HSA obtained from conventional technique allow viral or prion contamination. For that reason, recombinant DNA technology becomes a promising alternative. Because of its well-known genetic, simplicity, and capacity to accommodate many foreign protein, <em>Escheric</em><em>h</em><em>ia coli</em> remains the most widely used in the production of recombinant proteins. But, overproduction of protein may lead to the formation of inclusion bodies and proteolytic degradation. These problems can be overcome by using protease-deficient strain and protein secretion into periplasmic space. The objective of this research is to secrete recombinant HA on <em>E. coli</em> BL21(DE3) using TorA signal peptide and proved using SDS-PAGE. This research method begins with the preparation of competent cell and transformation of <em>E. coli </em>BL21(DE3), expression of recombinant HA in <em>E. coli</em> BL21(DE3), and characterization of expression result by using SDS-PAGE. The result of this study was rHSA can be secreted into extracellular medium using TorA signal peptide with a molecular weight of ± 66.5 kDa.</p> Iman P. Maksum Astri Lestari Retna P. Fauzia Saadah D. Rachman Ukun M.S. Soedjanaatmadja Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3319 3324 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1640 Development and validation of stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of related substances in Raloxifene hydrochloride tablets dosage forms <p>This work is intended to thrive a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of Raloxifene HCl related compounds in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The separation was achieved Inertsil C8 (150 x 4.6 mm ID, 3.5μm)column using a gradient method. Mobile phase A is 0.01M KH2PO4 buffer (pH4.5), and mobile phase B is acetonitrile used in this work. 1.0 mL/ minute is the flow of rate and at 280nm noticed wavelength is monitored. For specificity, the limit of quantification, the limit of detection, linearity, accuracy, method precision, intermediate precision, robustness and stability this method is validated. The six injection impurities of standard solutions at the 4.0 µg/mL conjecture concentration were confirmed experimentally for LOQ values. The correlation coefficient of the impurities is more than 0.99. All impurities meet the criteria for linearity of both the impurities and raloxifene. The RSD recoveries obtained for impurities are not more than 10%. The achievement of this study demonstrated that the method is selective, linear, precise, rugged, robust and stability-indicating for the determination of related substances in raloxifene HCl tablet dosage form.</p> Babu C Suresh Reddy K.V.N Shashi Kumar K.N Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3325 3331 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1641 Interaction between Two Transcriptional Factors CTCF and YB-1 – Truncated domains in Brain Cancer Cell line <p>CTCF is a protein involved in the regulation of transcription, insulator function, and the X-chromosome inactivation. It is an 11 ZF transcriptional factor which is highly conserved between the species. Identification of proteins interacting with CTCF can help to elucidate the function in the cell. Previously reported studies had identified numerous CTCF protein interacting partners, and one of the interacting partners chosen in this study is YB-1. Brain cancer cell –RGBM was selected as a model to study the interaction between CTCF and YB-1. Firstly, proteins were transformed and expressed in the bacterial expression system, and these proteins were chosen to further map the interaction via pull-down assay. Results showed CTCF-ZF was the only domain able to binds to YB-1 CSD. Other truncated areas did not show any interaction hence demonstrating the interaction between these two proteins took place at the ZF for CTCF and CSD for YB-1. Next, the significant of the interaction was further characterized using the mammalian two-hybrid system. Results show strong interaction when both we co-transfected into RGBM cells. Thus, this study shows a significant binding between CTCF/YB-1 interaction in the brain cell line.</p> Daruliza Kernain Shaharum Shamsuddin Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3332 3338 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1642 Assessment of comparative bioavailability of Itraconazole capsule 100 mg under fasting conditions by average bioequivalence (ABE), population bioequivalence (PBE) and individual bioequivalence (IBE) approaches <p>The assessment of interchangeability (prescribability and switchability) is one of the debatable topics in the generic drug industry. Currently, the question is whether we have an adequate assessment system for the evaluation of generic drug products. The objective of the study is to assess the comparative oral bioavailability of Itraconazole capsule 100mg after administering single dose to adult, healthy, human subjects in fasted state by different bioequivalence approaches like&nbsp; average bioequivalence (ABE), population bioequivalence (PBE) and individual bioequivalence (IBE) and to monitor the safety of study subjects. An open-label, balanced, randomized, two-treatment, two-sequence, four-period, crossover, single-dose comparative oral bioavailability study was conducted in sixteen healthy, adult, human subjects in a fasted state. Test formulation, Itraconazole capsule 100mg, and reference formulation, SPORANOX<sup>® </sup>&nbsp;(Itraconazole) capsule 100mg, were administered in a fasted state. The test formulation, Itraconazole capsule 100mg, showed bio-inequivalent against reference SPORANOX<sup>® </sup>&nbsp;(Itraconazole) capsule 100mg in study subjects under a fasted state. Also, the test formulation exhibited a similar safety and tolerability profile compared to the reference formulation. There was no report of serious adverse events (SAEs) and deaths in the study. The test formulation was found to be bio-inequivalent to reference formulation in the study subjects under a fasted state by estimating different bioequivalence approaches like average bioequivalence, population bioequivalence, and individual bioequivalence.</p> Francis Micheal Balamurali MM Mohanlal Sayana Rajendra Prasad M Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3339 3345 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1643 Integrated medicine management system for malaysian healthcare sector <p>Medicine management is an approach supported by evidence to prescribe and manage the patient’s medicines to protect the safety, tolerability, and potency of the medication. It helps practitioners to achieve the optimum use of medicines for a patient, optimizes the treatment benefits and accomplishes the best results for each patient. The three components of the Medicine Management System (MMS), which are Electronic Health Record (EHR), e-prescription, and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) are vastly used. Despite the values of MMS, only 15.2% of public hospitals in Malaysia utilize the system using different features. This paper reviewed the components of the current MMS, the utilization and challenges of MMS implementation in the Malaysian context, and proposed a new integrated MMS. The proposed MMS is grounded on three theories, namely System Theory, Utilization Theory, and Evidence-Based Theory. The main aspects of the integrated MMS are e-prescription, appropriateness of dosage regimen, covering best current evidence, show alerts of any medicine-related issues, and centralization of patient data that will be designed for all healthcare centers. If any issues arise in the prescribed medicine, an alert will be supported by the current foremost evidence that shows on the prescriber’s system. However, if no issue is detected, the prescription will be saved in the patient’s record and will show on the pharmacy system with direction and cautions related to the medicines. The proposed MMS is postulated to increase the productivity of the healthcare system by reducing medicine-related issues, improve communication among healthcare professionals, enhance patient health, and enhance practitioner operations.</p> Rabbia Alamdar Allan Mathews Sharanjit Kaur Khairulanwar Husain Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3346 3355 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1644 Portal vein thrombosis post-splenectomy in thalassemia major patients <p>β-thalassemia major is a chronic, inherited hematological disease that leads to chronic anemia in the affected children. One of the options of treatment in such patients was splenectomy; however, it is not without risk of many complications; one of them is the thrombotic events. A prospective study of 55 patients with β-thalassemia inscribes in this study. 14 patients (25.5%) had a normal thrombocyte count and 41 patients (74.5%) have an abnormally high thrombocytes count which was significantly associated with PVT (P. Value &lt;0.001), Regarding the WBC count, it extended between 4000 to more than 30,000, in both genders with non-statistically significant differences between both genders, (P&gt;0.05). Regarding the serum ferritin, the mean level was 2908.5 ± 1024.3 ng/ml. In males, the mean S. Ferritin was relatively higher than that of females, 3167.6 ± 1841.3 mg/dl, and 2573.8 ± 1150.6 ng/ml. The weight of the spleen was up to 1500 grams in 25 (80.6%) of males and 20 (83.3 %) of females while it was more than 1500 grams in the remaining and females and males, without a significant difference statistically in the spleen weight of, (P&gt;0.05). The most frequent presenting symptom was abdominal pain. It was founded in 46 patients (83.6%), followed by fever in 76.4%, diarrhea in 58.2%, and Nausea and vomiting in 31 (56.4%). 3 patients out of the 55 (5.5%) developed portal vein thrombosis in their follow up period. Post splenectomy PVT in thalassemia the patient is relatively frequent (5.5%) complication that require a high degree of doubt for diagnosis early, especially in patients with postoperative pain of the abdomen within 2 months after surgery, Female gender, Large spleen and postoperative increase number of platelets are risk factors for PVT so one can initiate surveillance by Doppler ultrasound postoperatively and start antiplatelet prophylactic therapy immediately for such patients.&nbsp;</p> Kussay M. Abbas Zwain Samer M. Mohamed Al-Hakkak Alaa A. Al-Wadees Zainab Mahdi Majeed Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3356 3368 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1645 Ulipristal acetate determination using MBTH <p>A simple visible spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of ulipristal acetate present in bulk and tablet formulation. The currently proposed method is established based on MBTH oxidation by ferric ions to form an active coupling species (electrophile), followed by its coupling with the ulipristal in acidic medium to form high intensified green colored chromophore having lmax at 609 nm.&nbsp; Validated the method as per the current guidelines of ICH. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 6.25 – 37.50 μg mL<sup>-1</sup> with a high regression coefficient (r &gt; 0.999). Reproducibility, accuracy, and precision of the method are evident from the low values of R.S.D. This method can be used in quality control laboratories for routine analysis of ulipristal acetate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms. </p> Giri Prasad Gorumutchu Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram Kishore VNV Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3369 3375 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1646 Comparative evaluation of wound healing activity of tilvadi ghrita and durva ghrita on diabetic wound model in rats <p>Previous studies proved the wound healing potential of Tilvadi Ghrita (TG) and Durva Ghrita (DG) on normal wounds, so this study was conducted to investigate wound healing activity of TG and DG on diabetic wound model in rats. Forty-eight adult female Wistar rats in eight groups were used. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes in diabetic groups. Excision wound was made on the dorsal shaved surface of rats, and then Framycetin sulfate cream (FSC) 10%, TG and DG were applied in control and treatment groups. While in normal control and diabetic control groups, no medication was done. Wound photographs were taken on alternative days to evaluate wound healing. Percentage wound contraction, the effect on wound size, and epithelization period parameters were studied. Ghritas were investigated for their preliminary phytochemicals, Physico-chemical properties, skin irritation test, and wound healing activity in normal and diabetic rats. Data were expressed as mean ± SEM and analyzed using Two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple range test. Studies revealed that TG and DG do not cause any harmful skin reactions, so both ghritas were found to be safe for topical application. Both formulations showed better and fast healing as compared to untreated normal and diabetic control groups. After comparative investigation, it was observed that DG possesses higher wound healing potential in normal and diabetic groups with comparison to TG. Wound healing action in normal and diabetic wounds, it endowed due to the presence of different phytoconstituents reported in the literature and proved to be beneficial in the management of wounds.</p> Shakila Shabbeer Shaikh Krishna Murthy Rajkumar V. Shete Rahul S. Solunke Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3376 3384 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1647 Compaction behaviour and mechanical characteristics of chewable binary tablet mixture containing lactose (Flowlac 100) and date (Phoenix dactylifera) powders <p>This study aimed to develop a formulation for a chewable tablet using date powder (DP) and Flowlac 100 utilizing a direct compression method. The powders were compacted as single and binary mixtures at five different formulations (DPL1, DPL2, DPL3, DPL4 and DPL5) to study their compaction behaviour. Stressor ranging from 15 to 74 MPa in a cylindrical die with flat face punches were introduced during the fabrication process, and the mechanical properties (plastic work, flexible work and tensile strength) of formed tablets were investigated. Findings of this study demonstrated that with a high percentage of DP in the formulation resulted in a high reading of plastic work, while a low amount of DP revealed low elastic work. Tensile strength of the tablet, on the other hand, varies with the percentage of DP present and applied pressure used. Formulation with 60% DP (DPL4) displayed the highest tensile strength compared to the other formulations, and it is coherent with industrial preferable tensile strength limit. In conclusion, the current findings could be useful in formulation and fabricating date chewable tablet which can be used as a food supplement by all categories of consumers since it is easy to be consumed by a wide range of age.</p> Fara Wahida Ahmad Hamidi Mohd Shamsul Anuar Azhari Samsu Baharuddin Mohd Afandi P. Mohamed Mohd Nazli Naim Suraya Mohd Tahir Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 10 4 3385 3391 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1648 Role of various signalling mechanism in pathogenesis and therapeutics of obesity <p>This paper is a summary of appetite pathogenesis, therapy, and various mechanisms involved in obesity. Pathogenesis related to obesity deals with energy expenditure physiology and energy intake. The pathogenesis of obesity also contributes to energy regulation. Obesity usually happens when the consumption of energy is more than energy expenditure. It also includes relative research of monogenetic triggers contributing to deficiency of nutrition consumption and depression in key legislation. Obesity therapy involves the finding of hormones, neuropeptides, receptors, and transcription factors that involve the growth and regulation of eating behaviour, metabolic rate, and adipocyte. This paper also deals with various pathways which have a huge scientific basis in research in obesity. This review also focusses on the relation the pathways share by bringing them under one preview to understand their importance in the research area of obesity. It also includes comparative research and study work, which included the role and importance of various mediators like PYY, Ghrelin, Leptin, Adiponectin, along with inflammatory mediators like TNF Alpha and Interleukins. An insight into the role of oxidative stress highlighting its role and importance in obesity is also reviewed. Obesity therapy overview as well as newer strategies are also discussed. It also includes the methodology of exploration and obesity treatment in a novel way. Overall the review is a blend that incorporates major problems along with the latest treatment strategies to understand the demonic nature of this disease.</p> Yash Prashar Nilesh J Patel Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 10 4 3398 3408 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1650 Evaluation of mutagenic property of poly herbal formulation of annona squamosa, zingiber officinalis and triticum aestivum plant extracts by bacterial reverse mutation test <p>Cancer is the second deadliest cause among all ailments even after the development of modern research and technologies. This leads in search of alternative sources of treating cancer. Herbal formulations were considered to be the rich sources of treating agents for most of the ailments from agelong days. Bacterial Reverse Mutation method of evaluation is one among the preliminary phase incorporated to assess the mutagenic potential of herbal formulations. The selected Polyherbal Formulation (PF3) of <em>Annona Squamosa, Zingiber Officinalis, and Triticum Aestivum </em>in 1:1:1 ratio was evaluated for its mutagenic potential. The results with method I - Plate incorporation and method II - Preincubation indicate that, the PF3 extract at a maximum dose of 5 mg/plate did not cause a positive increase in the mean number of revertant colonies per plate with any of the tester strains either in the presence (+S9) or absence of metabolic activation (-S9). The rich flavonoids and other phytoconstituents of the formulation may be responsible for antimutative properties with the possible inactivation of mutagens or by interfering in the process of mutagenisis. The higher studies were needed to be proven further to authenticate the mutagenic potentialities.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Rajesh R Jagadeesh Singh S D Channabasava R Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 10 4 3409 3419 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1657 The Effect of Exercising on Smokers’ Lung Capacity <p>The purpose of this research paper is to investigate&nbsp;whether exercising can reduce the harmful effects caused by smoking.&nbsp;Additionally, the hypothesis of this research study proposes that results will show that the percentage lung capacities of smokers who exercise are similar to non-smokers who don't exercise in which it will prove that exercising does, in fact, decrease the harmful effects of smoking as a smoker who exercises is almost as healthy as a non-smoker who does not exercise. Henceforth, the hypothesis of this research will be accepted. To know that, a questionnaire was prepared, which assisted in placing the individuals in one of 4 groups. The sample size included 152 participants aged 18 and above from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. A spirometer was used to find the real lung capacity of the participants. The estimated vital capacity was calculated by substituting the height and weight of a person into an equation that gives the body surface area, and then the answer is either multiplied by 2,500 or by 2,000 to find the estimated lung capacity for males or females respectively. After collecting the essential data, it was found that people who smoke and exercise have higher lung capacity than those who smoke but don’t exercise. The t-test was used, and it was found that the difference is significant between those two sets of data. The results imply that exercising could, in fact, reduce the harmful effects of smoking as it has been predicted in the hypothesis. However, in order to be completely free of the risks of smoking, it is highly recommended to quit smoking as well fully.</p> Sondos Majdi Taher Marit van Silfhout Asiya Nazir Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 10 4 3420 3439 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1658 Genotoxic property of poly herbal formulation of annona squomosa, zingiber officinalis and triticum aestivum plant extracts by in vitro chromosomal aberration test <p>The present study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of polyherbal formulations by chromosomal aberration test. Cancer being the second most cause of death among all ailments even after the improvised medications needs alternative sources of treatment. Herbal sources were always among the one as prime treatment sources. Polyherbal formulations were taking the lead in medications because of their broad spectrum of activity and synergic effects. <em>Annona squamosa, Zingiber Officinalis, and Triticum Aestivum </em>formulation with 1:2:3 ratio has shown significant results in the definitive and confirmatory chromosome aberration assays. Indicated the test article PF3 did not induce a statistically significant increase in the percentage of cells with aberrations both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. PF3 was found non-clostagenic at a maximum dose of 15 µg/ml in the CHO cell line. Inhibition of chromosomal aberration, DNA fragmentation, and maintenance of cellular integrity may prevent the genotoxic effect. Further optimization and <em>in vivo </em>authenticated studies need to be proven.</p> Rajesh R Jagadeesh Singh S D Channabasava R Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 10 4 3449 3460 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1662 The development of analytical methods to determine metoclopramide-hydrochloric acid in the standard raw and it compared with pharmaceuticals <p>The three novel easy, to the prepare and sensitive spectral methods, were used to estimate metoclopramide in both standard and pharmaceuticals. The effective double–electron, was present in the metoclopramide compound helps to interact in an acidic medium with a reagent such as diazetide resorcinol and 8-hydroxyquinoline reagents.&nbsp;The present article was extended to find out three analytical methods with UV-V is the detector.&nbsp;In both A and B methods, two azo-dyes are formed, they are orange-red and red stable and have high water solubility, giving highest absorption values at 415 nm and 485 nm but the C method will depend on a complex colour configuration with the p-benzoquinone reagent, which has a maximum absorption at a wavelength of 285 nm. Beer's law was applied in a range of concentrations between 1 and 10 μg / ml, 2-20 μg / ml and 1-30 μg / ml. The values ​​of the molar absorption factors were (4.1224 × 104, 3.0229 × 104 and 1.7373 × 104) L mol-1cm-1 with a sensitivity of Sandell’s equal to 0.2606 × 10-4, 0.9834 × 10-4 and 0.2568 × 10 - 4 μg cm-2 to methods A, B respectively and LLOD values ​​were 0.255, 0.553 and 0.158 μg / ml to methods A, B and C. LLOQ 0.512, 0.898 and 0.455 μg / ml to methods A, B, C respectively. The constant fixed Kf configuration was also calculated for the colored outputs of the reaction where it was found to be equal to 43.6435 × 108, 54.6261 × 10-8 and 17.29099 × 106 L2 mol-2 to all methods A, B, C respectively. The values ​​of G were calculated based on -43.9293 KJ / mol, -44.3735 and -51.2019. G values, molar absorption factor, Sandell sensitivity, detection limit.</p> Khawla Salman Abd-Alrassol Qutaiba A. Qasim Maitham Ali AL-Rikabi H. N. K. AL-Salman Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 10 4 3461 3474 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1663 Study of in-vitro antioxidant activity of various extracts of aerial parts of Olax scandens <p><em>Olax scandens</em>Roxb. (family <em>Olacaceae) </em>Available in throughout tropical India. The current study, aerial parts of different concentrates of <em>Olax scandens</em>was evaluated for its <em>in-vitro </em>antioxidant potential by Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl activity, superoxide scavenging activity, iron chelating activity taking ascorbate,&nbsp;&nbsp; quercetin &amp; Ethylenediamine tetraacetate as the standard correspondingly. An IC<sub>50</sub> value was originated that methanolic concentrates of <em>Olax scandens</em>is more efficient in Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, superoxide radical activity, Iron chelating capacity compared EA &amp; PE concentrates. The methanolic concentrates of <em>Olax scandens </em>&amp; ascorbate exhibited antioxidant potential possessing IC<sub>50 </sub>226µg/ml &amp; 66µg/ml (DPPH). 185µg/ml &amp; 60µg/ml (Superoxide) , 287µg/ml &amp; 65µg/ml (iron-chelating Activity) respectively. Invitro antioxidant studies obviously show methanolic concentrates of <em>Olax scandens</em> have better antioxidant activity. These results indicate that aerial parts of methanolic concentrates <em>Olax scandens</em>could serve as a natural antioxidant, which may be useful in preventing free radical-induced diseases.</p> Pranaya P Akila Devi D Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 10 4 3475 3480 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1664 Antibacterial activity of water spinach herbs against acne-inducing bacteria <p>Acnes is commonly caused by infection by <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em> when the sebum is overproduced from the body. Based on previous research, water spinach extract had antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of water spinach (<em>Ipomoea aquatic </em>Forsk.) herbs extract against bacteria <em>Propionibacterium acnes. </em>Extraction was carried out by the reflux method using three different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using a rotary evaporator. Antibacterial activities were assessed by using disc diffusion, microdilution, and equality to reference antibiotics. All three extracts of water spinach herbs had better antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. The ethanol-water spinach herbs extract had the best antibacterial activity against <em>P. acnes</em>. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of ethanol-water spinach herbs extract on <em>P. acnes </em>was 1280 µg/ml while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was &gt; 5120 µg/ml. The equivalency of ethanol-water spinach herbs extract to tetracycline hydrochloride presented 1163.87 µg ethanol extract (with density 1% extract: 0.780) equal to 1 µg tetracycline hydrochloride. All three extracts of water spinach herbs had antibacterial activity against <em>P. acnes</em>. The ethanol extract had the best antibacterial activity against <em>P. acnes</em> among all three extracts.</p> Singgih M Ivan A Fidrianny I Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-07 2019-11-07 10 4 3481 3488 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1669 Effects of commonly used medicinal herbs in Jordan on serum total antioxidant status and clinical laboratory testing <p>The use of medicinal herbs is widespread and growing. We tested the <em>in-vivo</em> effects of commonly used medicinal herbs in Jordan, on normal human volunteers after oral administration of aqueous extracts for several days, to see whether the <em>in-vitro</em> chemical antioxidant activity of a given herb replicates <em>in-vivo</em> and to see whether a given medicinal herb affects the results of selected clinical chemistry tests performed on the serum. Healthy volunteers were given orally aqueous herbal extracts daily for five days. Venous blood samples were taken before and one hour after the first dose of aqueous extract and then one day after the last dose of day five. Total antioxidant status and 13 of routine clinical chemistry tests were assayed on the serum. The tested herbs caused a significant increase in serum total antioxidant status. The studied herbs can be arranged in decreasing order of their <em>in-vivo</em> antioxidant strength after one hour of first consumption as follows: <em>Nigella sativum &gt; Rosmarinus officinalis &gt; Zingiber officinale &gt; Verbena triphylla &gt; Origanum syriacum &gt; Salvia triloba.</em> The studied herbs except<em> for Rosmarinus officinalis</em> also caused a significant increase and/or decrease in 10 out of 13 laboratory tests performed on the serum. These results indicate that oral administration of aqueous extracts of medicinal herbs although improve the serum total antioxidant status, they could also significantly alter some laboratory results used for diagnosis or evaluation of diseases and this may negatively affect patient’s care. The present study highlights the importance of obtaining information regarding patients’ uptake of herbal products that might interfere with some laboratory testing.</p> Yousif. Y. Bilto Nessrin. G. Alabdallat Ali. M. Atoom Noaman. A. Khalaf Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 10 4 3489 3497 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1723 Investigation of hair growth promoting ability of herbal gel containing Zingiber officinale <p>In East Asia, <em>Zingiber officinale</em> has been used traditionally to stimulate hair growth. In the present investigation, extraction of the powdered rhizomes of <em>Zingiber officinale</em> was carried out using alcohol: water (1:1), water, and alcohol. Preliminary pharmacognostic evaluation of various phytoconstituents was done by various chemical tests. Obtained extracts were studied for their antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Candida albicans.</em> The further herbal gel of 5% of extracts of <em>Zingiber officinale</em> and 5% minoxidil (standard) were prepared using carbopol 934 as a base. Prepared formulation (F1-F4) were evaluated for various parameters like pH, viscosity, spreadability, homogeneity, stability studies, drug content, <em>in vitro</em> release, skin irritation, and <em>in vivo</em> hair growth activity. &nbsp;Amongst the prepared formulations, a gel containing hydroalcoholic extract (F1) showed better spreadability, homogeneity, optimum viscosity, nearly neutral pH, faster release, produced negligible erythema and edema, was stable at different temperature. It was found that gel (F1) showed better results on the length of the hair strand (28mm), which was nearly equivalent to the standard solution of minoxidil (25mm). Conclusively, the hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Zingiber officinale </em>could be used to improve hair growth<em>.</em></p> Trivedi R.V Bansod P. G Taksande J. B Mahore J. G Tripurneni S. R Rai K. R Umekar M. J Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 10 4 3498 3507 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1724 Effectiveness of Afatinib and Gefitinib in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mutations in Indonesia: Observational Studies with Retrospectives <p>Effectiveness data can describe the results or performance of an intervention (treatment) in daily clinical practice and also provide recommendations to policymakers regarding the need or not of health technology to be implemented into the health care system. Research related to the effectiveness of afatinib and gefitinib is still minimal, especially in Indonesia. This study aims to provide an overview of the effectiveness of afatinib and gefitinib in daily clinical practice (the real world) as first-line therapy. This research is an observational study with a retrospective approach that observes the medical records of NSCLC patients who have EGFR mutations in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta and Dr. Kariadi General Hospital Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia in the period January 2016 - March 2019. The effectiveness seen is the Progress Free Survival and Overall Survival based on the patient's medical records and analyzed using the Kaplan Meier test to see survival. There were 113 patients identified, 27 patients using afatinib and 86 patients using gefitinib. Afatinib had significantly superior progression-free survival (448 days or 14.7 months; 95% CI = 12-17.4 months; p = 0.002) compared to gefitinib (344 days or 11.3 months; 95% CI = 8, 4-14.3 months), however, overall survival of afatinib is no better than gefitinib (472 days or 15.5 months; 95% CI = 13.8-17.2 months vs 653 days or 21.4 months; 95% CI = 18-24.8 months) with a value of p = 0.302. Afatinib has superior progression-free survival compared to gefitinib, but not overall survival as first-line therapy in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations.</p> Seftika Sari Tri Murti Andayani Dwi Endarti Kartika Widayati Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 10 4 3516 3522 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1727 Neurobehavioral and neuroprotective role of captopril in the rotenone model of rat Parkinsonism <p>Angiotensin-converting enzymes are increasingly being tested in therapeutics of Parkinsonism. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral changes and neuroprotective role of captopril in the rotenone model of Parkinsonism in rats. Adult Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of six each. Parkinsonism was induced with rotenone (3 mg/Kg intraperitoneal) in three groups. The experimental group was treated with captopril (20 mg/kg intraperitoneal). The effects were compared with a standard group treated with levodopa (12 mg/Kg) and Benserazide (3 mg/Kg). Behavioral effects were evaluated by the rotarod test, spontaneous locomotor activity, hole board test, forced swim test, and tail suspension test. Neuroprotection was noted with an estimation of glutathione and lipid peroxidation from rat brain homogenate. Levels of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA were also noted. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the brain evaluated for any histoarchitectural changes. Rats pre-treated with captopril have shown a significant increase in the duration of stay in the rotarod test, a significant increase in the number of head dipping in hole board test, significant lower duration of immobility in forced swim test and tail suspension test. Captopril has a significant neuroprotective role, as evidenced by a significant decrease in levels of glutathione and a significant increase in lipid peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and MAO-B levels. Captopril has significant effects on brain neurotransmitters, as evidenced by dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine. Captopril has shown significant neuronal protection by increased expression of Bcl-2 immunohistochemistry in rotenone-induced PD. Captopril has shown significant improvement in motor coordination (as evidenced through rotarod test), exploratory behavior (hole board test), depression (forced swimming test, and tail suspension test). Captopril significantly reduces oxidative stress conditions. Captopril has not shown major histoanatomical changes in the rotenone model. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; neuroprotection; dopaminergic neurons; Parkinsonism; rotenone model</p> Prakash KG Bannur BM Madhavrao C Saniya K Sudha M J Viveka S Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-11 2019-11-11 10 4 3523 3534 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1728 Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial evaluation of some sulfonamide Schiff base derivatives <p>New series of Schiff base compounds obtained from sulfa drugs have been synthesized by the reaction of sulfonamide compounds (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, or sulfamerazine) with corresponding aromatic aldehydes (3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde or 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde). The synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, ESI-Mass, and <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectroscopy to confirm the chemical structures of synthesized compounds. The purity of all synthesized compounds were verified using pre-coated TLC (MERCK) plates using dichloromethane: methanol (9:1) solvent system. The chromatographic plates were viewed under ultraviolet(UV) light at 254 nm The sulfonamide Schiff base compounds were tested for antibacterial evaluation against two pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria (<em>Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp.)</em> and two pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>). The antibacterial activity of synthesized compounds was evaluated by assessing the inhibitory concentration by measuring their inhibition zone versus certain kinds of standard antibiotics with concentrations (500, 750, and 1000) μg /ml. Most synthesized compounds at high concentration were moderately active against all tested bacteria ,compound SH7 showed best antibacterial activity for both (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) bacteria while SH8 compound exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and weak activity (&lt;10 mm) against Gram-negative bacteria and all synthesized compounds were less antibacterial activity for all tested bacterial strains than standard drugs.</p> Mustafa M. AL-Hakiem Rita S. Elias Munther A. Mohammed-Ali Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-11 2019-11-11 10 4 3535 3543 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1729 The Design and Anticancer Activity of a Citropin1.1 Hybrid Peptide with Selective Activity Against Highly Invasive Metastatic Cell Lines <p>Citropin 1.1 is an amphipathic alpha-helical cationic peptide that exhibits potent anticancer activity <em>in vitro</em>. Citropin 1.1 was found to be active against 60 cancer cell lines, and this activity was mainly attributed to its ability to bind and lyse membranes of cancer cells. One of the major drawbacks of developing Citropin 1.1 as an anticancer agent is its lack of apparent selectivity toward cancer cells and its ability to cause significant lysis of normal human erythrocytes and mammalian cells at high concentrations. This low selectivity index places severe restraints on the development of Citropin 1.1 as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we have designed a Citropin 1.1 analog named Citropin A that retained the biological activity of the parent peptide. Citropin A was fused to an anionic fragment in order to neutralize the positive charge carried on the parent peptide rendering it inactive. The resultant hybrid peptide named Citropin-MMP was designed to contain a Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavable consensus sequence that would be cleaved to release the active Citropin A once it encounters highly metastatic MMP producing cancer cells. Citropin-MMP was found to be completely inactive against non-MMP producing cancer cells and normal mammalian cells. However, when Citropin-MMP was administered to MMP producing cells, its antiproliferative activity was regained, and the peptide displayed exclusive activity against MMP producing cancer cell lines.&nbsp;The data of our study indicate that this enzyme-based cleavage strategy could prove to be successful for the development of Citropin-MMP as a novel therapeutic agent for the purpose of inhibiting the proliferation and invasion of highly metastatic invasive cancer cells.</p> Ammar Almaaytah Mohd Alaraj Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 10 4 3544 3553 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1730 Histological and Antioxidant Effect of different phone waves on the liver and kidney of male rats <p>There is tremendous concern about the potential harmful effects of cell phone microwaves. The results are contradictory. However, the effects of these waves on the body have been reported. In this study, the effect of cellular microwaves on sperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity in relation to the duration of exposure and frequency of these waves were studied. This experimental study was conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats (150-200 g). The animals were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 18). Group 1 Natural control rat were fed to standard laboratory feeding Animals for 14 days. Group 2 animals were exposed to cell phone receiver stimulated waves (915 MHz frequency) for 14 days, and Group 3 animals were exposed to simulated waves of a cell phone antenna (950 MHz frequency) for 14 days.&nbsp;The results indicated that the total antioxidant capacity in all exposure groups decreased significantly compared with the control group (P &lt;0.05). Increased exposure time within two weeks caused a statistically significant decrease in sperm motility and mobility (P &lt;0.05).Effect of phone waves on liver and kidney of male Sprague Dawley rat. The study of pathological anatomy revealed a clear and appropriate deviation. These results found blood enzymes such as amino-aspartase transferase (AST), amino amines (ALT), and creatinine levels. The results showed no significant changes in both liver and kidney physiological functions. Malondialdehyde level (MDA) and total antioxidant contents were performed. The level of glutathione (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) was in normal ranges. Exposure to cell phone waves can reduce sperm movement and mobility in rats. These waves can also reduce the total antioxidant capacity in rats and lead to oxidative stress.</p> Nuha Sh. Ali Haidar Alsaedi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 10 4 3554 3559 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1731 Prediction of maternal diabetes and adverse neonatal outcome in normotensive pregnancy using serum uric acid <p>Diabetes mellitus, with adverse neonatal events are challenging issues to all obstetricians and pediatricians, where uric acid could play a vital role. We aimed to assess the relationship and prognostic benefits of serum uric acid measured at about 20 weeks’ gestation in normotensive pregnancy, with subsequent maternal diabetes, and neonatal complications. All singleton normotensive pregnant women with normal blood glucose, serum creatinine, and weight before pregnancy, whom attended Medical City Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Baghdad, were involved and regarded as the case group, on the condition that their serum uric acid measured at 20 weeks’ gestation &gt; 3 mg/dl, but if ≤ 3 mg/dl, they would be registered as a control group. A complete follow up was performed regularly during pregnancy, and after delivery; regular assessments of maternal blood glucose were done up to one year. Maternal diabetes mellitus (DM), small for gestational age (SGA) neonates, and preterm delivery (PD) constituted (27.59%), (43.60%), and (1.97%), respectively in case group which had significantly included maternal DM and SGA (<em>P</em> &lt;0.001). Also, elevated mid-pregnancy serum uric acid was strongly associated (<em>P</em> &lt;0.0001) with maternal DM (5.86 ± 0.69) and SGA (4.78 ± 0.34). Cut-off values of uric acid of 4.76 mg/dl were best associated with maternal DM, while 4.33 mg/dl with SGA. In conclusion, the cut-off points of 4.76 and 4.33 mg/dl of maternal mid- normotensive pregnancy serum uric acid have the potential ability to predict Maternal DM and SGA, respectively.</p> Shaymaa Kadhim Jasim Hayder Al-Momen Afraa Mahjoob Al-Naddawi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-13 2019-11-13 10 4 3563 3569 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1736 Molecular study of BRCA-1,2 and P53 gene polymorphisms among post-operative breast cancer patients <p>Breast cancer is a malignant tumor in groups of cancer cells that may develop into (invade) or spread to distant body regions around tissues. In both advanced and developing nations and in many parts of the globe, the burden of breast cancer is rising. It's the most prevalent malicious person illness in females, with 18% of all female cancers and the third most prevalent cause of cancer death globally.&nbsp; This case-control study was organized to explore the potential role of chosen genetic parameters in the Al-Diwanyia province in random samples of breast cancer patients the research, 5 ml of blood samples from 50 women with post-operative breast cancer attending the outpatient oncology department at Al Diwaniyia Teaching Hospital were employed compared to 50 women without cancer, patient ages and control ranged from 18 to 80 years. Among the three susceptibility genes studied, BRCA In BRCA-1 GG genotype evidently proposed a risk factor for tumor as had an (OR 5.3191) and risk factor (EF 0.065); AG &amp; AA genotypes, on the other hand, played a rather preventive part as they had no risk factor (PF) of 0.0476 &amp; 0.1667 respectively and low OR (0.7619 &amp; 0.7917 respectively) and patients had 16%, and 84% of patients had G and A alleles respectively. The genotype of BRCA-2 AG As had the risk factor (OR 13.4146) and the risk factor (EF 0.1851), the AA genotype, on the other hand, did not have a risk factor role since it had a protective fraction (PF) of 0.9103 and a low OR (0.0731). Patients have 10% of G and 90% of A alleles compared to 100% of A only. In the P53 CC genotype, tumor etiology has evidently been proposed, as was the case with (OR 1.2941) and risk factor (EF 0.091). The GC genotype, on the other hand, did not have a risk factor as it had (PF) of 0.087 and low OR (0.4565) and patients had 56 percent of G allele and 44 percent of C allele compared to 52 percent of G and 48 percent of C control.</p> Aws Rassul hussain Al-salin Hammadi Al-Hilaly Rawaa Magid Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-13 2019-11-13 10 4 3570 3577 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1733 Chronic periodontitis and its correlation with socio-demographic and oral health parameters: a retrospective study in adult population <p>Chronic periodontitis is the second most common oral disease worldwide. It is a multifactorial disease with a bacterial plaque as the necessary factors; however, other factors such as age, systemic conditions and social habits do play a determining role in the development of periodontitis. Therefore, this study evaluated the correlation between the severity of chronic periodontitis with a series of socio-demographic background and clinical variables. This was a retrospective, observational study of chronic periodontitis population that attended IIUM Dental Clinic from the year 2014 to 2017. The data was extracted from patients’ case records systematically using structured data extraction form. Only case records with full clinical history and periodontal charting were undertaken as samples. IBM SPSS-24 was used for data analysis. Chi-square (χ<sup>2 </sup>) and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied to infer the above relationship. The result of the analysis revealed that over four years, 157 adults were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, which comprised of 68.8% who suffered from the severe form. The mean age group was 48.6±11.55 years old, with the majority of them were Malays, male, and aged between 50 to 64 years old. Those who are professional workers, suffered from systemic diseases and were addicted to tobacco exhibited more severe disease, though statistically not significant. Patients with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis showed greater plaque deposits and had deeper periodontal pockets than those with mild form (p&lt;0.05). They also presented with more tooth loss. Severe chronic periodontitis was found prevalent in the studied population. As a conclusion, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlations with the severity of the disease except for gender, plaque control levels, and a number of deep pocket sites. Future studies should consider including more sample size from multicenter population.</p> Munirah Yaacob Nurul Farahin Mahirah Fazid Siti Mahirah Sao’di Juzaily Hussain Suhaila Muhammad Ali Siti Mahirah Sao’di Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-13 2019-11-13 10 4 3587 3593 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1739 Effect of an oat extract on oxidizing Stress and antioxidant defense in male rats with type 1 diabetes <p>The strong n-butanol extract of oats (Avena sativa) seed was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats to improve lipid peroxidation and inhibitor standing. Four teams, NDM, and three diabetic teams were allocated thirty-two male rats. Diabetes&nbsp; was caused by injection- streptozotocin (60 mg / kg B.w., i.p. Two hundred mg/deal of blood sugar rodents was used as a diabetic. Diabetes groups (G2, G3, and G4) were trained to extract n-butanol (60 mg / metric unit weight, B.w.) or twenty-one days of endocrine injection (4 IU / animal). Weight gain was reported on the 22nd day. Fluids were collected for knockout cells to judge glucose concentrations and subcellular of aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, catalase, biochemical dismutase (SOD), glutathione - transferase, reductase, malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase (Gr) concentrations. Diabetes rat (G2) showed a significant increase in glucose. The weight gain increased in the ALT, SOD, CAT, GSH-transferase But there decreased GSH enzyme and old AST. Treatment of N-butanol extract from oats (G3) or endocrine (G4) varied between old glucose, weight gain and normalization of all supermolecule inhibitors. Finally, n- Butanol from oatmeal has a strong role in lowering hyperglycemia and as an antioxidant</p> Haidar Alsaedi Reem abdul Raheem Mirdan alsaad Huda Raheem Hashim Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-13 2019-11-13 10 4 3594 3599 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1740 The knowledge, attitude and confidence on first aid response among childcare providers following FAT4CP© training in negeri sembilan, Malaysia <p>Children daycare centres have nowadays become a necessity due to the guardians’ job constraint in this modern globalization era. Increasing demand of daycare centres showed ramification on unintentional injuries at the childcare settings. The incidence is becoming more common and this may lead to a lawsuit for negligence. Failure to provide proper first aid response is one of the issues faced by the caregivers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the effects of first aid training and certification on knowledge, attitude and confidence (KAC) among childcare providers in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 54 Negeri Sembilan childcare providers before and after they received a comprehensive module on the first aid training. The training comprised of three major components; basic life support, trauma injuries and non-trauma injuries. Throughout the training, participants were given a series of lectures, hands-on practicals and small group discussion on specified topics from the module. Overall results showed a significant increase in knowledge, attitude and confidence (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) after the respondents’ had received the FAT4CP© training.&nbsp; The first aid training provided to the childcare providers was found effective and had successfully improved their knowledge by 12.5% and their confidence to perform first aid increased by 20.0%. They are now more prepared and efficient at handling any emergency situations at childcare centres. Our results suggested that FAT4CP© training programme was able to increase knowledge, attitude and confidence of childcare providers in Negeri Sembilan to handle emergency cases. Therefore, the programme is suggested to be implemented at all childcare centres in order to improve and sustain the providers’ abilities in handling emergency situations.</p> Sahar Azmani Nadia Mohd Effendy Izuddin Fahmy Abu Faizul Helmi Addnan Mohd Radzniwan A Rashid Abd Rahman Hayati Che Ilina Isahak Norsham Juliana Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 10 4 3600 3607 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1741 Comparison of health-seeking behaviour between urban and rural malay population of negeri sembilan, malaysia <p>There is a growing interest on researches related to health-seeking behaviours. However, there are minimal studies in Malaysia which focus on this issue. This paper aimed to determine the health-seeking behaviours among the Malay population and its association based on the localities of the urban and rural population. To achieve this purpose, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using face-to-face interview method. A total of 480 respondents participated in this survey with the majority (57.7%) of them were from a rural area. Among all the subjects, 4.9% and 5.4% of urban and rural participants respectively, did not seek treatment when they were sick. The reasons being are they chose to ignore the pain (80%), time-consumption (8%), and they do not believe in modern treatments (8%). A higher number of rural participants chose public healthcare facilities compared to urban (82.3% <em>vs</em> 72.6%, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001), whereas a higher number of urban participants chose private healthcare facilities in contrast to rural participants (25.3% <em>vs</em> 16.4%, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001). For participants with chronic diseases, 5.3% did not go for follow-up, 91.2% rely on healthcare staffs for information on the diseases, and 18.9% took traditional or supplementary medicine. Majority of the participants are in agreement that the accessibility to public healthcare facilities in terms of distance, transportation and operational time, as well as the services to get treatments,&nbsp; were good. Overall, majority of the respondents prefer to seek treatments from public healthcare facilities followed by private facilities and pharmacies. However, there is a small number of participants who did not seek for treatments, including those with chronic diseases. Further studies shall be conducted to explore the barriers to seeking treatments in this population.</p> Mohd Dzulkhairi Mohd Rani Muslimah Ithnin Nadeeya ‘Ayn Umaisara Mohamad Nor Norsham Juliana Nadia Mohd Effendy Sahar Azmani Khadijah Hasanah Abang Abdullah Muhammad Shamsir Mohd Aris Izuddin Fahmy Abu Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 10 4 3608 3615 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1742 Preparation and characterization of vetiver oil encapsulated polymeric microcapsules for sedative and hypnotic activity <p>In the present work, in view of the medicinal properties of vetiver oil (extracted from the roots of <em>Vetiveria zizanioides </em>L.), we made an attempt to encapsulate vetiver oil in a biocompatible polymeric system made of sodium alginate with gellan gum or karaya gum. Sodium alginate and gellan gum or karaya gum were ionotropically cross-linked to encapsulate vetiver oil. Vetiver oil encapsulations in these microcapsules were 35.92 ± 3.18 % to 78.55 ± 3.35%. Vetiver oil encapsulated microcapsules were of spherically shaped with 656-769 µm mean diameter. This vetiver oil encapsulated microcapsules made of alginate-gellan gum blends were found capable of providing a long release of encapsulated oil, showing the potential for the sustained release application. These microcapsules were analyzed by FTIR, DSC, and SEM, etc. In addition, sedative and hypnotic activities of vetiver oil encapsulated polymeric microcapsules in the male Swiss albino mice were evaluated. The sedative-hypnotic activity of vetiver oil encapsulated polymeric microcapsules in rats was observing the number of crossing and motilities. The results proves that vetiver oil encapsulated polymeric microcapsules decreased motility when compared to the control group.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Syed Ansar Ali Amit Kumar Nayak Kalyan Kumar Sen Prabhakar T Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 10 4 3616 3625 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1743 Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological activity of Ibuprofen Acyl Hydrazones and their Conversion into 1,3,4-Oxadiazoline Derivatives <p>This work implicates the synthesis of Ibuprofen Acyl Hydrazones and then Converted into the new 1,3,4-Oxadiazoline derivatives that characterized by proton-NMR, FT.IR and elemental microanalysis (CHN) techniques. The intermediates and final compounds were investigated for their physicochemical properties, including the melting point,&nbsp; color, the yield percent, and thin-layer chromatography performed by using TLC silica gel (60) F254, Merck (Germany), to identify the purity of the products and to know the reaction endpoint. Compounds were monitored by UV light irradiation and the elution by using the following systems:: ethyl acetate: hexane ( 3:7), ethyl acetate, ethanol:dioxan (1:1) and methanol: chloroform (1:9). The study was performed using Swiss albino mice (25-30 g) for the pharmacological activity assessment. Hind edema template of carrageenan used for anti-inflammatory activity assessment and the analgesic activity evaluated using ( writhing induced by acetic acid ) and hot plate method, the results show that all the final compounds present with good anti-inflammatory plus analgesic activities exhibited in the animal model of our experimental work&nbsp; , we observed that the standard compound and the synthesized derivatives substantially reduced carrageenan-induced edema at all-times (2,4,6,24) hours, all chemically synthesized new compounds actually significantly reduced the number of acetic acid writhings induced in mice and finally in hot plate method there is high increase in the reaction time to painful stimulation</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mustafa Q. Alderawy Leaqaa A. Alrubaie Falah Hassan Sheri Basim Jasim Hameed Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 10 4 3626 3635 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1744 Evaluation of anti bacteria effects of citrate-reduced silver nanoparticles in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli <p>Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has long known for its inhibitory and bactericidal effects. However, due to its’ attractive antibacterial property, on-going research with various synthesis strategies actively been conducted. In this study, the synthesis of AgNPs was reported, using a simple chemical reduction method with citrate as the reducing agent TEM was used to characterize the obtained AgNPs. Then, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> were used to identify the antibacterial activity of AgNPs. The inhibition effects of AgNPs against these two bacteria were observed via disc diffusion, and MIC assays and the effects of AgNPs mode of action on both bacteria were further observed under TEM. The formation of AgNPs at ̴ 400 nm, which is the surface plasmon resonance peak was observed using Uv-Vis spectroscopy. The size of AgNPs mostly in the range of 1-10 nm and their morphology appeared to be spherical. Based on the MIC assay, <em>Escherichia coli</em> exhibit low MIC value with 0.049 mg/ml as compared to<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em> with0.391 mg/ml MIC value; correspond to the effective antibacterial activity by the citrate-reduced AgNPs. Further observation on the bacterial surface structure can be seen with cross-sectional TEM image, and it provides an insight into the AgNPs mechanistic aspects of AgNPs against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised using the citrate reduction method. Results obtained in this study thus elucidating promising findings to employed AgNPs as an antibacterial agent, and this composition needs to be further study and develop into an antibacterial agent.</p> Hor Jia Wei Mohd. Syafiq Awang Nor Dyana Daruliza Kernain Yazmin Bustami Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 10 4 3636 3643 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1745 The association between the presence of fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and the incidence of obesity in Iraqi persons in Holy Kerbala <p>Obesity is regarded nowadays as one of the worldwide medical and psychosocial problem so that many researches had been dealt with the underlying causes of resistant obesity and increased body mass index “BMI”. Recent data demonstrate the strong association between the presence of obesity with specific gene called fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO). Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was detected that are discovered that closely related to the increased incidence of obesity among populations, notably rs9939609 and rs17817449 SNPs. To evaluate the presence of these SNPs as a predisposing factor in obese persons with BMI exceeds 30. <strong>A</strong> 100 obese persons were selected randomly along with 50 body-fitted people as a control group. Molecular detection of these SNPs was done by RT-PCR followed by statistical analysis.&nbsp; there was significant increase in expression of AA genotype of FTO rs9939609&nbsp; SNP in obese persons in comparison to non-obese group (0.60 ± 0.04 versus 0.28 ± 0.06 respectively at P&gt; 0.002) and significant increase in expression of GG genotype of FTO rs1781744 SNP in obese persons in comparison to non-obese group 0.59 ± 0.04 versus 0.22 ± 0.05 respectively at P&gt; 0.001)</p> Zainab Nizar Jawad Kamal Abul Rasool Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-16 2019-11-16 10 4 3644 3648 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1747 Enhanced bioactivity of Pure ZnO and ZnO-Ag nanocomposite Using Sol-Gel method for Self-Cleaning Application <p>In the current study, Pure ZnO and Ag-ZnO nanocomposite are established using the sol-gel method with the influence of ammonia solution NH<sub>4</sub>OH to incorporate Ag ions into ZnO and form Ag-ZnO nanocomposites. Then pure ZnO and Ag-ZnO nanocomposites were annealed at 450<sup>o</sup>C for tow h in a muffle furaning using temperture controlling, and heat rate was set at temperature 100<sup>o</sup>C per min. The structural and morphological properties of samples were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and FESEM with Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX). In addition, the antibacterial activity of pure ZnO and Ag- ZnO nanocomposite was evaluated against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms by plate count test. The results of the test revealed strong antibacterial behavior of nanocomposite against bacteria as compared to pure ZnO and improved efficiency of incorporation Ag ion on ZnO.</p> Azhar J. Bohan Ghaed K. Salman Duha S. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 10 4 3649 3656 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1748 Ratio spectrum derivative quantitative analysis of propranolol and diazipam in combind pharmaceutical mixtures <p>Two new spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneously estimation of DZP and PRO using the first ratio derivative method (DD1) and the second ratio derivative (DD2). The two methods were succeeded to the estimation of both drugs with a range of concentrations from (5-50 µ<sup>-1</sup>), depending on Peak to baseline, peak area, peak to peak at specific wavelengths for each compound. The analytical results and of the estimate of The DZP and PRO showed that Rec% values ranged from 95.04-104.97% and 96.30-104.69, and RSD% were between 0.00948-4.87736 % and 0.1163-3.37655%, for the first and second ratio derivative respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the estimation of both PRO and DZP in its pharmaceuticals forms.</p> Suhad Abdel Moneim Yassin Khalaf F Al-Samarrai Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 10 4 3657 3664 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1749 Evaluation of the effectiveness of sterilization materials added to drinking water in the elimination of the Larval stages of parasites in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate <p>The study was conducted to investigate the cysts and eggs of intestinal parasites in drinking water in four models of drinking water for water purification projects in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate for the period from 1/10/2017 to 1/10/2018. The results of the examination of river water in four districts in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf governorate showed the presence of five species of parasites are cysts of&nbsp; <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> by 39%, and the eggs of the&nbsp; <em>Ascaris</em> worm by 12%,&nbsp; worm <em>Ancylostoma duodenale</em>&nbsp; by 4%, &nbsp;<em>Giardia lamblia</em> cysts 40%, and the eggs of&nbsp; <em>Enterobius vermicularis </em>by 18%. The results of the tap water examination showed that there were five types of intestinal parasites, but at a lower rate than in river water<em>,&nbsp; Entamoeba histolytica</em> cysts by 16%, eggs of <em>Ascaris</em> by 7%, <em>Ancylostoma duodenale</em> eggs by 2%, <em>Giardia lamblia</em> cysts by 29%, and <em>Enterobius vermicularis</em> by 5% overall.</p> Sahira Ayed A. Al-Musawi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-20 2019-11-20 10 4 3665 3668 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1750 Assessment of arteriovenous fistulas made with the oval-shaped anastomosis technique in the end-stage renal disease patients <p>The end-stage renal disease still holds significant health problems, getting, good, long term functioning vascular access for hemodialysis is our utmost value. Autogenous techniques are generally used for access. There are many surgical methods for getting autogenous access in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to assess the outcomes of the “oval-shaped anastomosis” technique used during the creation of arteriovenous fistulas in patients with advanced renal impairments. We randomly selected and retrospectively examined 52 patients on whom the “oval-shaped anastomosis” technique had been performed. Forty-nine (94%) patency rate in the 52 randomly selected patients on whom we used this mechanism in the first 6 months follow up. The patency and good functioning fistula created for hemodialysis is our priority in advance renal impairment. This technique has been particularly useful in stiff arteriosclerotic arteries, and it provides a more comfortable and clear anastomosis.</p> Samer Makki Mohamed Al-Hakkak Firas Shaker Mahmoud Al-Faham Alaa Abood Al-Wadees Mehmet Besir Akpinar Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-20 2019-11-20 10 4 3669 3673 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1751 Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, and Rilpivirine from their degradation products Analysis by HPLC <p>A simple, expeditious, and explicit stability-indicating High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical test method was developed for the quantitative analysis of Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, and Rilpivirine in bulk drugs and combined dosage formulations. Using the ICH guidelines method was validated using a C18 column of size 250 mm X 4.6 mm, 5µ, maintained at 25<sup>o</sup>C. The total run time maintained was 10 min. Acetonitrile and 0.1% TEA prepared in water adjusted with pH 3.0 was adapted as a mobile phase. The injection volume of samples was 20μL and UV-DAD detector system set at 265 nm used for UV detection. As per the ICH guidelines method was validated. The retention times were observed as 2.52, 3.27, 6.70 min for Emtricitabine, Rilpivirine, and Tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate, respectively. Linearity ranges were observed 24-56 µg/mL Emtricitabine, 3-7 µg/mL Rilpivirine and 30-70 µg/mL Tenofovir. Relative Standard Deviation not exceed 2%. In contract to the conventional method of HPLC, a method developed was able to give better resolution of swift retention times in the separation of various degradation products along with the pure active pharmaceutical ingredients. The proposed method exhibited excellent reproducibility and repeatability. The stress studies performed by following ICH guidelines indicated that the present HPLC method is explicit and stability-indicating. Since the present HPLC method has the capacity to separate the drugs with high resolution in tablet dosage forms, hence the method can be exploited for routine analysis of quality control sample and stability analysis.</p> Srikanth Kanithi Chebolu Naga Sesha Sai Pavan Kumar Thulaseedhar Alumuri Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 10 4 3674 3681 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1753 Aloe Vera as Topical Hydrogel; Formulation and Rheological Assessment <p>Aloe is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering plants. The most widely known species is Aloe Vera [AV], which mainly used internally and externally on humans as alternative medicine. The commercial topical dosage form has some limitations as absorption variability, short retention time, and improper viscosity and consistency.&nbsp; This research aimed to reformulate AV as a topical hydrogel, to assess the rheological properties of this formulation, and to study the effect of storage on its rheological properties. AV hydrogel different formulation was prepared by using 0.5, 1, and 2% Carbopol 934 as a gelling agent in different concentrations. The rheological properties as viscosity, Farrow's constant, and rheological behaviors were determined. The effect of storage for twelve-month on the rheological properties was also performed. The results indicate that direct and non-linear relation between the concentration of carbopol 934 and the estimated viscosity of the hydrogel. The viscosity ranged from 9073 -936451 cp, which is suitable for topical application, the Farrow's constant was &gt; 1; which confirmed the pseudoplastic flow with a thixotropic behavioral rheology. The effect of storage of formulation for 12 months has no significant effect on all rheological parameters at p ≤ 0.5, which indicated the stability of the prepared hydrogel. AV successfully prepared as a topical hydrogel; this formula will help in the elimination of improper consistency associated with topical marketed products. The rheological assessment indicated the suitability of the prepared formulation for topical application, the excellent stability in flow properties against storage for a prolonged period, and the formulation exhibited pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavioral rheology.</p> Hala M Alkhalidi Khaled M Hosny Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-25 2019-11-25 10 4 3682 3687 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1754 A comparative study to assess the efficacy of permethrin (topical) and benzyl benzoate (topical) for the treatment of scabies patients <p>Several attempts have been made to come up with the anti-scabies drugs that are more efficient and safer. In India, scabies is more prevalent in overcrowded communities with low socioeconomic conditions, due to which the best efficient anti scabies drugs or treatment are unaffordable to them. To comparatively assess the efficacy of permethrin (topical) and benzyl benzoate (topical) in scabies patients. Study subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of scabies were included in this study. After enrolling 178 study subjects, they were equally distributed to two study groups (A &amp; B) using a computer-generated random allocation number and were given the desired respective therapeutic interventions. Subjects in Group A were given permethrin 5% cream. The Benzyl Benzoate 10% to 25% emulsion was allocated for Group B subjects. Efficacy of two groups of drugs was compared in terms of improvement in clinical grading of disease (%) &amp; improvement in clinical grading of pruritus (%) during follow up visits at the end of 1, 2, 4 &amp; 6 weeks. The mean age (± SD) for study subjects in the Group A was 18.18 ± 11.33 years, whereas, in Group B, it was 28.86 ± 12.39 years. The clinical cure rate of Permethrin and Benzyl benzoate was 72% and 34% at the end of the first week. It was 98% and 60% at the end of the second week. Data shows that permethrin is more efficacious than Benzyl benzoate. Comparatively, during consecutive visits, permethrin provided better and fast improvement in pruritis grade than benzyl benzoate. In the treatment of scabies permethrin (topical) was found to be more efficacious in comparison to benzyl benzoate (topical). The clinical cure rate of Permethrin and Benzyl benzoate was 72% and 34% at the end of the first week. Permethrin provided better and fast improvement in pruritis grade than benzyl benzoate.</p> Chitti Babu G Kavita Dhar Bagati Praveen Agarwal Jyostna Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-28 2019-11-28 10 4 3688 3693 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1755 Design, Molecular Docking and In-Silico Analysis of Novel thiadiazole-azetidinone hybrids as Potential Antitubercular Agents <p>The recent emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis has become a cause of concern for the management of tuberculosis globally.&nbsp; Shikimic acid pathway seems to be a potential and favorable target for the drug design of new anti-infective agents. This work aims to change the focus from traditional cell approaches to the target-based design of novel thiadiazolyl-azetidinone derivatives with Shikimate kinase as the drug target for anti-tubercular activity. Thiadiazole and azetidinone derivatives were methodically reprised to design a series of 3-chloro-4-(aryl)-1-(5-sulfanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)azetidin-2-one derivatives (AZ1-AZ12). Molecular docking studies were performed on a crystal model of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> Shikimate kinase (MtSK) using Vlife MDS 4.4 suite to evaluate their anti-tubercular potential. Further, drug-likeness properties and ADMET prediction were performed by molinspiration and admetSAR software to better describe the designed molecules as prospective candidates. 3-chloro-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-(5-sulfanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)azetidin-2-one (AZ3), was found to be have better dock score when compared with the natural substrate, Shikimate. Docking studies confirmed that the molecules showed significant binding in the active site region of Shikimate kinase. Strong hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions with amino acid residues and other parameters further explicate their effectiveness for inhibition of MtSK. Also<em>, </em>the physicochemical properties and drug scores for the designed compounds obtained by <em>in silico</em> studies were found to be satisfactory, signifying the overall potential of the designed molecules to be drug candidates. Thus these molecules could be explored as a lead for further anti-tubercular studies with <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> Shikimate kinase as the drug target.</p> Vedika Dadlani Pushpendra Tripathi Rakesh Somani Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 10 4 3694 3703 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1756 Evaluation of hydrated extract of phaseolus Vulgaris L. (bean plant) on hypoglycemia and hypolipidemic in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino Wistar rats <p>The current research was intended to comprehend hypoglycemic and anti-lipidaemic exercises of hydrated common bean (<em>phaseolus Vulgaris </em>L.) seed extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. At a set portion fluctuate of 100, 200,300 mg/kg body weight of common bean extracts was orally directed as one portion for every day to polygenic disorder rats for a measure of thirty days. The impact of <em>P.vulgaris</em> L. on hypoglycemic, glycosylated hemoprotein (HbA1c) and blood serum lipid profile (Total cholesterin), Triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), High-density lipoprotein (HDL)) in plasma were estimated in the regular and diabetic induced rat. The outcomes demonstrated that quick glucose,serum TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, levels were significantly (p&lt;0.05) attenuate, while blood serum HDL, the level was extensively (p&lt;0.05) upgraded inside the diabetic rats. The inconclusive amount of pace of 300 mg/kg is more reasonable than that of a hundred mg/kg. Our examination so shows that <em>Phaseolus vulgaris </em>L has a powerful adversary to diabetic and anti-lipidaemic impacts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and results were comparable to reference drug glibenclamide.</p> Helisha Ruth Obonyo Senthemarai Selvi V Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 10 4 3704 3710 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1757 Biosynthesis of Silver nanoparticles using Desmodium Gangeticum leaf extract <p>A range of methods is available for the synthesize nanoparticles. However, these methods are associated with the production of undesirable byproducts which are quite hazardous and high costs. Thus a number of efforts are being made to develop novel cost-effective safe &amp; reliable "green" procedures which caned produce desired nanoparticles. In this study, we caned successfully develop a green synthesis method for preparation of silver nanoparticles using Desmodium gangeticum leaf extract as reducing &amp; capping agents. The method was found a quite effective inversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles in a short interval of time. The developed nanoparticles exhibited Surface plasmon resonance at around 500 nm. The particles are nearly spherical, and the size ranged between 16-64nm. The average size was noted to be around 40 nm. The nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology using UV-vis, TEM, FTIR analysis and FESEM. The developed method carries the advantage of the completion of the reaction in a short time. The crystalline nature of the synthesize nanoparticles was assessed &amp; confirm by XRD &amp; EDX Studies. From FTIR studies, it can be understood that the flavonoids could be adsorbed on the metal surface by interaction with carbonyl groups. The process was carried out in the environment-friendly condition.</p> Niladry Sekhar Ghosh Ritu M Giilhotra Ranjit Singh Angshu Banerjee Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 10 4 3711 3716 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1758 Fasten, simple, and specific stability of the avant-garde RP-HPLC method for estimation and validation of nystatin in pharmaceutical formulations <p>In this study, a simple and reliable stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the analysis of Nystatin in the pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation was performed in the isocratic mode on an Ion Pac column; Arcus EP‑C18; 5μm, 4.6×250 mm, 30 °C) using a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate 0.05 M buffer/ Methanol mixture (30:70) and a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 305 nm. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min. The HPLC analysis method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity, according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The results indicated that the retention time was 8 min, and no interferences were observed from the formulation excipients and stress degradation products. &nbsp;The specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ of the method were validated. The method was linear over the range of 5–500 μg/mL with an acceptable correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9996). The method’s limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.01 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that this validated method can be used as an alternative method for the assay of nystatin. This validated HPLC method could be used for routine analysis, quality control, and the stability of analysis of Nystatin formulations.</p> Dawood CH. Al-Bahadily Rasool Chaloob Kulood H. Oudah H. N. K. AL-Salman Falah Hassan Shari Hussein H. Hussein Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 10 4 3717 3727 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1760 Assessment of Novel Cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with chronic heart failures <p>In a recent analysis, incessant heart failure (HF) stays a significant remedial test with decreased launch division. There is a growing need to tame HF in contemporary. In a bid to the reduction of financial burden and mortality rate brought by chronic heart, failure medics have developed approaches to deal with situations to enhance the better living condition of people. The current study was aimed to the investigation of new cardiovascular biomarkers, for instance, development factor 15 (GDF-15),soluble suppression of tumorigenicity (sST2), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patient with dilative cardiomyopathy (DCM) or ischaemic (ICM).200 patients from different parts were enrolled in the study for analysis of the diseases. The various test was carried out on patients who presented themselves in the lab. As the control measure in the study, they included around 76 patients without heart failure or coronary artery diseases. 59 patients who were suffering from ICM and 65 who were diagnosed with DCM were included in the study. The analysis was conducted through the use of ELISA by taking a sample of samples from all patients.H-FABP, suPAR and sST2 were high in patients with DCM and ICM contrasted with the control gathering (p &lt;0.00010).The analysis also indicated that there was no significant difference between DCM and ICM biomarker levels. Analysis indicates that novel cardiovascular biomarkers, for instance, GDF-15, ST2, H-FABP, and uPAR, offers high potential for diagnostic DCM and ICM patient precisely.</p> Abbas Sabbar Dakhil Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 10 4 3728 3732 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1761 Hepatitis B and C Viral Infection in B-Thalassemic Children <p>The main objective of this study is to show how both hepatitis B and C Viral Infection in B-Thalassemic patients occurs and a study of their liver functions. To define the occurrence of either hepatitis A or B and C viral infection across the B-Thalassemia key clients/patients in Thalassemia Center of AL-Diwanyia Maternity and Children hospital from 1<sup>st</sup>. Jan. – &nbsp;1<sup>st</sup>.Nov.2017. To carry out the study, it enlisted 54 patients; 31 patients were male (57.4%) in which the male to the female ratio was 01.4:01. Results for this study revealed that 2 patients had Hepatitis B (3.7%), and 6 patients had Hepatitis C (11.1%). The Liver enzymes were significantly more in those patients having either Hepatitis B or C viral infection. According to this study, it was revealed that the occurrence of HBsAg seropositive in B-thalassemic patients was 307%, and Anti-HCV seropositive were 11.1%, and the rate is lower than reported in many countries. The occurrence of Anti-HCV seropositive is higher than that for HBsAg seropositive. Also, the probability of having liver injury was high for thalassemic patients whom were HBsAg positive &amp; Anti-HCV positive than that of seronegative for HBsAg &amp; Anti- HCV.</p> Mokhles Mahdi Abolewaikh Almayyahi Flayyih Hassan Shnawa Al-Hameedawi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 10 4 3733 3737 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1762 Solution state stress degradation studies of antifilarial drug albendazole <p>This study was conducted to explore the stress degradation studies of antifilarial drug albendazole (ALB) in the solution state. The stress conditions targeted were hydrolytic (acidic, neutral, and basic) as well as oxidative.&nbsp;The drug was degraded under different concentrations of stressor and time of exposure. All the degraded samples were then subjected to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) as a detector. The final concentration of stressor, as well as the duration of exposure for each condition, were optimized from the results.&nbsp; The method optimization was also done on a C18 stationary phase with a varying mobile phase composition. The parameters of the mobile phase varied were organic modifier and buffer type and concentration and gradient as well as run time. The optimized method included acetonitrile as an organic modifier, 10 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 3.0) as a buffer that was pumped in a gradient mode, and run time was fixed at 57.00 min. The samples were further characterized by subjecting to instrumental technique Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The results highlighted the degradation products formed under the study conditions. Some of the degradation products were common to all hydrolytic conditions, but some were seen only under oxidative conditions.</p> Sanju Nanda Mohini Bajaj Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 10 4 3738 3749 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1763 Acute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Apium leptophyllum pers in swiss albino mice <p>The recent study was planned to determine the acute toxicity study of Apium leptophyllum pers. A single dose of 400,1200,2000 mg/ kg of ethanolic extract of Apium leptophyllum pers according to the OECD guidelines and the dose level was administrated orally into swiss albino mice. Oral administration of maximum level of ethanolic extract of Apium leptophyllum pers upto 2000 mg/kg body weight to experimental group of albino mice was evaluated. Biochemical, haematological&nbsp; and histopathological parameters were checked throughout the study. Signs of toxicity, mortality and body weight were monitored for 14 days post treatment of Apium leptophyllum pers . There is no substantial variations were noticed in control and treated groups. Result revealed that the ethanolic extract of Apium leptophyllum is safe and no toxicity was caused.&nbsp;</p> Siva Ganesh M Radhika J Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 10 4 3750 3754 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1764 GC-MS analysis of phytochemical components in the ethanolic extract of Acanthus illicifolius from mangrove forest Purworejo Indonesia <p>Jeruju has the potential as a source of bioactive components. Steroids are commonly found in mangroves, especially in the mangrove leaves (Acanthus Illicifolius) or better known as jeruju plants. However, the use of mangroves in Indonesia as a medicinal plant is still very limited. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the bioactive components of mangrove plants. The purpose of this study was to determine the active content of jeruju leaves (Acanthus Illicifolius) as an analgesic with the Gas Cromatographic Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis method. The design of this study was experiments with the stages are sampel preparation, extraction and fractionation and GC-MS analysis. The results of the Acanthus Illicifolius study contain protein, carbohydrate, saponin, sterooid, triterpenoids, and phenol. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results showed that the compound separation was evidenced by the presence of spots as a result of elution with the detection of ferric chloride spray at UV 254 nm and 365 nm. Blotches eluted fluorescently on UV 365 nm with spot colors of phenolic compounds in visible black gray with phenol Rf detected 0.85. At the retention time of 40.22 to 43.89 minutes, there were 3 peaks of a large chromatogram and indicated the presence of topiramate, budesonide, and spingosine.</p> Heni Setyowati Esti Rahayu Nasruddin Kartika Wijayanti Puspita Septie Dianita Prasojo Pribadi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-04 2019-12-04 10 4 3755 3760 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1765 Nephroprotective activity of Sinapis alba in gentamicin induced murine model of renotoxicity <p><em>Sinapis alba</em>, belongs to the family Brassicaceae and is known to possess an antioxidant capacity. Based on this background, this study was planned to look for the nephroprotective activity of <em>Sinapis alba</em> seed extract against nephrotoxicity caused by gentamicin in rats. <em>Sinapis alba</em> seeds were dried in the shade and then powdered. Then, the powder was subjected to extraction with 95% ethanol and brought to a syrup consistency by distilling the solvent and reducing the pressure using a water bath. Animals were divided into four groups. Each group had six animals in it. Group 1 serves as normal control, while the next group was disease control (received gentamicin). The rats in third and fourth groups were treated with the extract of <em>Sinapis alba</em> (200 and 400 mg/kg). The animals were sacrificed, and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out after the 8<sup>th</sup> day of study. Results of the study showed positive effects with 200 mg/kg as well as 400 mg/kg doses of <em>Sinapis alba </em>extract. Serum urea, creatinine, and BUN was reduced significantly in the test group compared to the group which received gentamicin (p&lt;0.05). Moreover, this biochemical evidence was also validated with the histopathological results indicated with the absence of necrosis and casts in the tubular lumen. Ethanolic extract of <em>Sinapis alba</em> administered by the oral route in an experimental murine model using gentamicin as an instigator of damage to the kidney, effectively reduced renal damage in rats, therefore provides a scientific evidence of a renoprotective effect.</p> Nikitha Suvarna J Amrita Parida Basavaraj Poojar Sumanjali Daggupati Manju V Rashmi R. Rao Copyright (c) 2019 2019-12-06 2019-12-06 10 4 3761 3767 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1766 Assess the knowledge regarding the risk of cardiovascular diseases among systemic lupus erythematosus patient <p>India is a country with different beliefs like religious, cultural, variation and economic diversity in the health care setting.&nbsp; SLE is a long term disease which involves multisystem, leading to loss of immune tolerance to own antigens. The study aims to assess the knowledge regarding the risk of cardiovascular diseases among systemic lupus erythematous patient at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital. A quantitative research approach was adopted with convenient sampling technique to select 60 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who attend at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data was organized and analyzed in term of descriptive statistics. The study findings revealed that among 60 samples, 10 (16.7%) had inadequate knowledge; 16 (26.7%) had moderate knowledge, 34 (56.7%) had adequate knowledge on systemic lupus erythematous risk. The majority of the patients with systemic lupus erythematous had moderate knowledge regarding the risk of cardiovascular.</p> Parimala L Vanitha R Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2739 2741 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1539 Assess the prevalence of leucorrhoea among women in reproductive age group <p>Leucorrhoea is one of the major problems encountered in Gynaecological practice. The most common cause of leucorrhoea is physiological, followed by vaginal infections due to bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites. Other causes include foreign bodies, cervicitis and atrophic vaginitis. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of leucorrhoea among women in reproductive age group and to determine the association between the demographic variable and prevalence of leucorrhoea. A Non-experimental descriptive design was used to assess the prevalence of leucorrhoea among women in reproductive age group. Purposive sampling method was used. A total of 60 reproductive age group women participated in the study. Checklist method was used to assess the prevalence of leucorrhoea. The data was collected, organized and analyzed in term of descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed that out of 60 samples, 28(46.66%) were mild, 32(53.33%) were moderate, and none of them was severe. There is a statistically significant association with variables such as age, a number of child, income and education at P&lt;0.05 level. Thus this study reveals that leucorrhoea is most likely among women in reproductive age so as nurses should assess the early manifestations to prevent the gynaecological diseases.</p> KalaBarathi S Jayabharathi K Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2742 2744 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1540 Development and validation of a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices of young adults in Malaysia towards sugar sweetened beverages <p>The objective of this study is to produce a validated and reliable questionnaire that can assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Malaysian young adults towards sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Content validation was done using I-CVI and face validity index (FVI) was used to performed face validation. Construct validity was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis. Cronbach’s Alpha (α) was established to determine internal reliability, and Pearson Correlation (PCs) was used to measure the inter-rater reliability of the items. Public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Experts in Nutrition and Health Sciences and undergraduates aged 18 and above. I-CVI lead to the elimination of one item in the attitude domain and all items obtained satisfactory levels of FVI. The measurement of α lead to the elimination of several items and PCs indicated excellent inter-rater reliability (r &gt; 0.7; p &lt; 0.05) for all of the remaining items. The evidence on the validity and reliability of a questionnaire to assess KAP on SSB has been obtained. It can now be used among young adults in Malaysia.</p> Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng Norsham Juliana Nordin Siti Zarifah Abd Latif Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2992 2999 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1584 MRSA as a causative factor for ecthyma gangrenosum: a rare case report <p>Ecthyma gangrenosum is a skin manifestation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in immunocompromised individuals. Here we report a case of a 64-year-old diabetic female with Ecthyma gangrenosum lesions on both lower limbs, admitted for surgical debridement. Pus culture taken during surgery showed growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was started on appropriate antibiotics with reasonable glycemic control using parenteral insulin. The patient responded well to the above treatment and was discharged.</p> Kiran Madhusudhan Madhusudhan Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2745 2747 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1541 Papillary thyroid cancer patient with hyperthyroidism - a case study <p>Thyroid carcinoma is the majority widespread endocraine malignancy in that papillary thyroid cancer is a well-differentiated type. Since hyperthyroidism protects from thyroid cancer due to lack of reproduction of thyroid tissue by the thyroid-stimulating hormone. The papillary carcinoma is the fast-growing and metastases to local region rapidly. A 60 years old post menopausal women with a known case of hypertension of past 6 years on treatment and with hyperthyroidism of past 2 months was presented in the outpatient department in the hospital with chief complaints of mass in the neck with dyphagia, cough, breathlessness, sense of fullness and odynophagia of past 2 weeks. On physical and general examination patient found with diffuse thyroid swelling with enlarged right sided lymph node. The patient was diagnosed with papillary thyroid caricinoma with various investigation reports includes CT Scan, Immouno history chemistry reports, Histopathology and Two fine-needle aspiration biopsies. The patient has undergone 6 cycles of chemotherapy with the corticosteroids, anti-cancer drugs which includes Vincristine, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, anti- emetic drugs and also with H2 receptor blockers. The papillary thyroid cancer is common and occurs predominantly in females than in males and with good prognosis and decreased death rates. The higher level of thyroid function is very rare in case of PTC.</p> Punitha S Vedha pal jeyamani Sindhu S Bhuvaneshwari P Arshath A Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3178 3181 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1617 Prediction of risk of major bleeding with using CRUSADE bleeding score in Acute coronary syndrome patients: A case series <p>Use of intravenous heparin in Acute coronary syndrome possess a major risk of bleeding to patients. However, the estimation of risk using bleeding scores in Indian settings is yet to be established. These case series assess the risk of major bleeding associated with the use of Antithrombotic agents in patients with acute coronary syndrome using CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines) bleeding score. Relevant patient data was collected from hospital records and patients were followed up till discharge. All the four cases reported showed the risk of in-hospital bleeding with anti-thrombotic agents evident as two cases of hematuria, one case of gum bleeding and one case of hemorrhagic stools. All the patient presented with chest pain to the hospital; following a diagnosis of the acute coronary syndrome, they were prescribed with antiplatelets and anticoagulants. This accompanied a bleeding event which was categorized using CRUSADE bleeding risk score. In-hospital major bleeding imposes a burden on the patient's quality of life. Use of CRUSADE bleeding score helps to predict the severity of risk in a less expensive, non-invasive manner. Further, large scale studies will pave the way for using CRUSADE as an efficient bleeding predictor score.</p> Castelino Renita Edwin Jitha Thankachan Lisa Mathew Adackapara Aneena Suresh Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3204 3208 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1623 Writer’s Cramp or Focal Dystonia- Case report of a Rare Neurological Disorder <p>There are various neurological disorders which are clinically diagnosed and treated every day. Focal dystonia's such as Writer’s cramps or musician’s cramps is one such neurological disorder that is not very common, but if remains undiagnosed or not treated appropriately causes severe disability and anxiety to the patient. It not only hampers them emotionally and socially but also leads to professional problems. There are various treatment modalities available. Patients complain of spasm or cramping of muscles, which is sometimes associated with pain and inability to write or play an instrument which he/she used to play perfectly some time ago. Identifying this disorder and treating it in time can benefit the patient to a great extent. Though not a single treatment has turned successful in all patients. Some patients get relieved by behavioural therapy, while others respond to medical treatment.</p> Ghalaut P S Meenal Babra Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-13 2019-11-13 10 4 3560 3562 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1735 Sublingual spray: a new technology oriented formulation with multiple benefits <p>Sublingual drug delivery system was a well-established platform for delivering the drug that need to exhibit quick action without any first-pass metabolic effect, but various pitfall in the regular sublingual drug delivery systems such as a tablet, capsule etc., that can be overcome by novel sublingual drug delivery technology such as particulate sublingual spray. Sublingual spray for drug administration has gained attention in the market since it proved its propensity to by-pass the first-pass metabolism and to initiate a rapid onset of action due to its atomized micro particulate nature, which is significantly higher than the other sublingual formulations. The approval of sublingual spray by the regulatory agencies may commence further research in this field by subsuming various essential drugs for indications such as cancer pain, cardiovascular issue etc. This article comprises a detailed study on the drawback of conventional sublingual drug delivery system and the approach by which these drawbacks can be overruled by spray technology in the sublingual area and the, in-depth mechanism of drug delivery through sublingual with the help of atomization followed by the entire formulation strategy along with evaluation and industrial perspective of the sublingual spray dosage form as a future tool of patient-friendly drug delivery.</p> Aravindhanthan V Anjali P B Arun Radhakrishnan Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2875 2885 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1567 Health-related quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation with tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment: a systematic review <p>Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) have been recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) as first-line therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutations. In addition to prolonging Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival, one of the treatment goals also considers improving the health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which can help to achieve the patients' treatment targets. Several systematic review studies related to HRQOL in advanced NSCLC patients have already been carried out, but there are only a few studies of HRQOL in NSCLC patients who experience EGFR mutations and are treated with TKIs in their specific treatment. This Systematic review aims to provide an overview of the impact of TKIs on HRQOL. Relevant studies were identified from Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus. They were limited to articles explaining TKIs as first-line therapy, written in English, not a systematic review or meta-analysis, and not containing incomplete text. Electronic data-based search produced 112 articles, with 21 articles matched the title and abstract, yet only nine articles met the inclusion and exclusion to be reviewed. In general, the impact of HRQOL on TKIs is better than platinum and placebo-based chemotherapy. Afatinib, erlotinib, and gefitinib further improved HRQOL compared to platinum and placebo-based chemotherapy seen from the improvements in symptoms, physical function, and social function scale. However, gefitinib vs erlotinib showed no significant difference in patients’ the quality of life. TKIs provide better HRQOL than platinum and placebo-based chemotherapy.</p> Seftika Sari Tri Murti Andayani Dwi Endarti Kartika Widayati Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2898 2906 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1570 Recent updates on dry powder for inhalation for pulmonary drug delivery systems <p>Pulmonary drug delivery system is an attractive and most promising approach which is gaining great impetus for the delivery of various therapeutic agents which includes administration of proteins and peptides, agents for the treatment of tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), various fungal infections, cancer, etc. This route has gained great importance due to its large surface and the absorptive area, which can potentially bypass the hepatic first-pass metabolism. The dawn of nanotechnology has brought a lot of advancement in the pre-existing formulation aspect with respect to reducing the systemic toxicity and dosing, specific targeting and enhanced efficiency of the treatment. This review reflects on the basics of pulmonary drug delivery, various formulations options available for administration via dry powder inhalers and advances in the same.</p> Sanjeevani Shekhar Deshkar Alisha Swizal Vas Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 2944 2959 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1575 Regulatory compliance of herbal medicines – A review <p>Recently, herbal medicinal products (HMP) have gained importance and are extensively used in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. A commercial herbal medicinal product should comply with the regulatory requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. Currently, the standards and regulations of herbal medicinal products are varying from country to country, which poses a challenge to the manufacturing companies to place a standardized herbal product in the global market. Hence a collaborative effort must be taken both by regulatory bodies and the World Health Organization (WHO) to establish harmonized regulations for a herbal medicinal product. An attempt has been made in this review which may pave the way to meet out the constraints and challenges in the manufacturing and marketing of herbal medicinal product worldwide.</p> Malathi Seshasayee Konda Ramadoss Kailasam Koumaravelou Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3127 3135 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1609 A Review on Bacterial Food-Borne Disease <p>Food-borne illness are diseases happened because eating polluted water or nutriment containing microbes or their toxins. This paper reviews previous studies of foodborne illness, particularly foodborne illness happened because bacteria which represent 66% of problems. Vibrosis, Shigellosis, Bacillosis, Listerosis Salmonellosis, Botulism, and staphylococcal food poisoning are the main dietary disease happened because of bacteria<em>.</em> Bacteria in nutrition will increase beneath optimal cases and secrete poison in nutrition. After swallowing, poisons were absorbed by Intestinal epithelial lining that make natural harm to tissues. In certain cases, poisons are transmitted to tissues or devices like the central nervous system, kidney nor liver where they can cause damage. Foods carried diseases are divided into two collections which are food infection and poisoning. Food infection is happened because eating food, including fertile pathogens that secrete toxins in the intestine only, while poisoning is acquired by eating poison formed by pathogens (secrete toxins directly in the food). The most clinical sign of food poisoning are abdominal cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and headache. Diagnosis of foodborne illnesses carried by a patient’s record and the symptoms. Protection of foodborne diseases can be depended on food safety control during the production, processing, and distribution, secession of uncooked from cooked food, cooking carefully, and save food at a safe temperature.</p> Abbas Mayar Hezam Ahmed Sabah Al-Jasimme Faiza Kadhum Emran Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3223 3228 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1628 Drug induced psychiatric disorder-A mini review <p>This article reviews the agents that are responsible for producing psychiatric symptoms in an individual as a result of drug abuse, which may lead to delusions and hallucinations. There are several categories of drug that are responsible for producing psychiatric syndromes such as benzodiazepines, cannabis, amphetamines, alcohol, inhalants and hallucinogens. Long term use of these drugs may lead to drug dependence, intoxication and may even worsen the condition. The general management of drug-induced psychiatric disorder is to minimize the use of the drug, gradual withdrawal of the drug and patient counseling.</p> Nivetha S. R Divya M Arul B Kothai R Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3263 3268 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1631 Regulatory on stability studies for In-vitro diagnostic medical device <p>The stability of an in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical device reagent is the ability to maintain the performance characteristics over a defined time interval. The stability studies are performed to demonstrate that the product remains viable under the specified storage condition until the claimed time period. Since, stability of the IVD cannot be directly assessed through accuracy, performance attributes or customer testing; it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to evaluate the performance of the product by identifying critical factors affecting the stability through developing stability plan, stability protocol and conducting real-time stability studies, accelerated stability studies, in-use stability studies and transport simulated stability studies.</p> Sella Senthil M Arun Radhakrishnan Venugopal M Gowthamarajan Kuppuswamy Copyright (c) 2019 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 10 4 3277 3285 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1633 Consumer buying behavior and attitude towards pharmaceuticals <p>Pharmaceutical industry is a fastest growing industry in India. It is valued at above US 40 billion dollars. India exports large amount of drugs to difference parts of the world. Nowadays people are conscious of what they buy. Even if doctors prescribe a medicine, consumers resort to internet to get more information on the medicine before they consume it.&nbsp; Consumers have different perceptions on various kinds of drugs. Understanding the consumer attitude towards drugs will help the marketers to formulate marketing strategies better. The present study examines as to what the consumers look out when they reach to purchase a drug from the pharmacy. &nbsp;This paper scrutinizes and gives insights on consumer behavior and their attitudes towards buying different types of pharmaceuticals (like over-the counter drugs, herbals, ayurvedic, analgesics etc). The paper highlights the importance of factors like price, trust and &nbsp;brand in making importance purchase decisions. Further it was also observed that most of the people prefer buying over-the-counter drugs, which might end up being misused by the consumers. However, it was also found that consumers try to be well-aware of the medicine before buying or consuming it. Along with it, price sensitivity is something which majorly dominates the buying behavior of the consumers.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Suraj Kushe Shekhar Tony P Jose Rehin K R Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 10 4 3392 3397 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1649 Impact of melatonin against pilocarpine incited seizures in rats <p>Epilepsy is a standout amongst the most widely recognized genuine mind issue, can happen at all ages and have numerous potential causes. Epilepsy takes place because of a wide range of cell or biochemical changes, for example, modifications in particle channels work, synapse level (excitatory and inhibitory), synapse receptor work, vitality digestion and oxidative stress. This study was performed to explore the possible antiepileptic effect of Melatonin against pilocarpine-induced seizure in male rats. The research was carried out on (40) healthy male Wister rats weighing between 200-300 gm; they were equally allocated to four groups (10 rats in each group).Group (1) normal group (not received any drug), Group (2) negative control group (received only pilocarpine during induction of seizure, Group (3) positive control group (Valproic acid group received 20 mg/kg orally twice daily) and Group (4) Melatonin group (3 mg/kg received orally once a day).Rats of each group (except normal group) were injected intraperitoneal with pilocarpine hydrochloride (400 mg/kg) after 21 days of tested drugs administered orally. The mean onset and duration of seizure were determined to evaluate the efficacy of tested drugs and to compare these effect with that of the normal group and Valproic acid group. Besides, the mean of onset and duration of seizure, neuroprotective effect (Neu N), NMDA receptor, Sodium channels were measured in all groups after convulsion had been induced to detect the effects of the tested drugs on these parameters by comparing them with normal, negative and positive groups. Melatonin had a preventive and anticonvulsant effect against pilocarpine-induced seizure in rats due to decreasing the onset and severity of seizure this effect may be by blocking sodium channels and NMDA receptor also Melatonin had a neuroprotective effect by preventing damage to neurons this effect by decreasing the inflammation and oxidative stress.</p> Osama Q. Fadhil Waleed K. Abdulsahib Hussam H.Tizkam Faruk H. AL-Jawad Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 10 4 3440 3448 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1661 Assessment of potential use of garlic (Allium sativum) against growth of microbes <p>Garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em>) is cultivated worldwide for its medicinal and nutritional value. Garlic is an effective antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and antiviral agent. Garlic contains organosulfur compounds which impart antimicrobial property. Garlic is known to be highly effective in reducing growth of bacteria. Garlic bulb contains organosulfur compound, allicin, which is responsible for the efficacy of garlic against the growth of microbes. This compound can hinder the formation of bacterial acetyl-CoA, a precursor required for metabolic activities in bacteria. The present review indicates that garlic shows considerable inhibitory effect on microbial growth. Thus garlic can be used as a sustainable alternative to treat diseases and provide a solution to minimize our dependence on chemical-based drugs in future.</p> Neha Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 10 4 3508 3515 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1726 Efficacy of Garlic and Onion against virus <p>In the current scenario, pharmaceutical industry is dependent on chemical based drugs to treat viral infection. However, these drugs are known to induce many side effects in human body. There is pressing need to promote safe alternative to chemical based antiviral drugs. Onion and garlic are natural sources which are known to possess antiviral properties. It is well known that onion and garlic are rich source of organosulfur compounds. Organosulfur compounds like quercetin and allicin are associated with inhibition of viral infection. These chemicals can hinder virus attachment to host cell, alter transcription and translation of viral genome in host cell and also affect viral assembly. Quercetin can affect entry and attachment of Enterovirus and Influenza virus on host cell. This compound also has ability to inhibit RNA polymerase which is necessary for viral replication. Quercetin also inhibit process by which virus alter signalling pathway in host cell. Organosulfur compounds like allicin, diallyl trisulfide and ajoene are main chemicals which impart antiviral property to garlic. It is known that allicin can pass through phospholipid membrane of cell and can further contribute in inhibiting viral multiplication. Considering numerous studies which corroborate antiviral effect of onion and garlic, this paper recommends consumption of these plants as a safe alternative to prevent virus infection.</p> Neha Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 2019-11-13 2019-11-13 10 4 3578 3586 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1738