International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences <p>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) is quarterly publishing online peer reviewed scientific journal sponsored by Pharmascope Publications. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, short communications, case studies and reports in&nbsp;Pharmaceutical Sciences.</p> Pharmascope Publications, Sponsored by JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation en-US International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 0975-7538 Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble Etravirine by solid dispersion technique for antiretroviral therapy <p>Solid dispersions (SDs) technique represents a promising approach to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Etravirine is a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) of human immune deficiency (HIV) virus 1 and it belongs to class IV in Biopharmaceutics classifications system (BCS). The major problem with this drug is its poor solubility in biological fluids, which results in poor bioavailability after oral administration. In the present study, five formulations of etravirine solid dispersion were formulated by solvent evaporation technique using Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) as hydrophilic carriers with the ratio of 1:1 and 1:2. The dissolution result shown that there was a significant increase in the solubility of etravirine from all formulations. It was observed that formulation (SD2) comprising Etravirine: HPMC (1:2) ratio has shown enhanced solubility and faster dissolution rate. This may due to the conversion of crystalline to an amorphous form of etravirine in solid dispersion consists of a hydrophilic carrier and also increase in wettability. Hence the study was concluded that etravirine SDs could be beneficial for the treatment of HIV/AIDS with enhanced dissolution rate and bioavailability.</p> Subashini Rajaram Sivaranjani S Soundammal S Sowmitha S Sowmiya B Copyright (c) 2019 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 1 7 Synthesis and characterization poly (5-indanyl methacrylate-co-ethyl methacrylate) <p>The copolymer (5-IndanylMethacrylate-co-Ethylmethacrylate) is synthesised by the reaction of free radical Solution polymerisation at 70°C using Benzoyl Peroxide. The copolymer is characterised by NMR and IR Spectroscopy. The solubility of the polymers was tested in various polar and non-polar solvents. The Thermal Properties of the copolymer has been determined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thus, the thermal stability of copolymer increases with a decrease of Ethylmethacrylate content in the copolymer.</p> Senthilnathan G Mohammed Bilal I Anver Basha K Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 10 13 Succimer modulates the effects of arsenic exposure on oxidative stress, behavioural and histological alterations in the brain of a rat <p>Arsenic is an environmental pollutant with potent neurotoxicity debilitating the individuals with other ailments. The succimer is a chelating agent used in therapeutic effects of heavy metal toxicity. This study reports the modulatory effect of succimer on oxidative stress, behavioural and histological impairments in the rat treated with arsenic. Adults rats were divided into four groups: control, arsenic (100ppm/kg BW), arsenic (100ppm/kg BW)+Succimer (50mg/kg BW) and Succimer (50mg/kg BW). The treatments were delivered for 15 days. After the treatment period, behavioural studies were conducted, and the brain was used for biochemical and histological evaluation. Arsenic-treated rats showed a significantly decreased motor coordination (Rotarod test), increased paw withdrawal latency period (Hotplate test), lipid peroxidation content (LPO) as well as a significantly declined superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. The histological changes such as neural cells with irregular shape and axon, cyton, and dendrite degenerated in the cerebral cortex region of the brain. In Arsenic + Succimer group, succimer significantly reversed the adverse effects of arsenic on the oxidative stress, behavioural and histological alterations compared to the arsenic group. Succimer alone treatment has not shown any adverse effect. Thus succimer showed protective effects against arsenic generated oxidative stress, behavioural deficits and inhibiting neuronal alterations. Thus, succimer prove to be a useful therapeutic component against arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.</p> Mesram Nageshwar Kherda Takhelmayum Karnati Pratap Reddy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 14 20 Biogenic synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles from bacteria isolated from garden soil and its antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis <p>Silver is a nontoxic, safe inorganic antimicrobial agent used from decades, which has a diverse perspective in the number of biological applications, predominantly in form of nanoparticles. The present study includes synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) from the bacterium isolated from garden soil samples. The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) solution by the bacterium after incubation for 2 days at room temperature. The synthesis of AgNps was initially indicated by the colour change from pale yellow to brown. Further characterization of AgNps was done using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape and size in the range of 20 nm as demonstrated by TEM. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of proteins bound to AgNPs act as reducing and stabilizing agent. Antibacterial assay of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was done against MDR (Multidrug resistant) bacteria <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> by standard NCCLS disc diffusion test. AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> at 100µg/ml concentration of AgNps. Therefore, the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles proves the application potential of green synthesis in the area of nano-medicine.</p> Manish Kumar Saini Satyajeet Das Harpreet Singh Moti Lakhawat SS Anupam Jyoti Vijay Kumar Srivastava Sanket Kaushik Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 21 26 Treatment of cystic echinococcosis of femur by autogenous bone graft combined with albendazole and cimetidine <p>Hydatid disease in long bones is rarely seen and symptoms are always missed. Diagnosis is made only at a late stage because the parasites grow very slowly in bones. We present a case of hydatid cyst in the right femur with a pathological fracture. The condition was treated by resection of the cyst surgically, internal fixation and filling the cavity with autogenous bone graft taken from the ipsilateral iliac crest followed by treatment with albendazole and cimetidine. Periodic follow-up of the patient for one year revealed no abnormalities on radiology and the patient was improved.</p> Nagla Ahmed El-Nabarawy Ahmed Kholeif Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 27 30 Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets of nizatidine <p>Controlled release gastro-retentive drug delivery systems offer many advantages for drugs having local action in the stomach or upper part of the gastrointestinal tract and control their release in the proximal part of GIT and improve their bioavailability. The objective of this study was to formulate mucoadhesive tablets to enhance the gastric residence time of the drug Nizatidine for the management of peptic ulcer. Nine prototypes, controlled release mucoadhesive tablet formulations were designed using the mucoadhesive polymer Carbopol 934P in combination with swellable polymers HPMC K4M, Polyox WSR303 and Xanthan Gum in different concentrations. The tablets were prepared by a direct compression method. The formulated tablets were evaluated for different quality parameters including in-vitro dissolution and diffusion study, in-vitro bioadhesion strength, drug content. The cumulative percentage drug release data revealed that formulations F2, F4 and F9 were highly effective in retarding drug release up to 12 hrs with 99.863%, 99.657%, 99.384% release respectively. The release mechanism explained with 5 models viz: zero order, first order, Higuchi and Peppa’s. The overall drug release was observed to follow zero order kinetics and data obtained fitted well with the Higuchi’s equation following non-fickian diffusion mechanism. The bioadhesive strength was found to be the function of nature and concentration of polymer used. Stability study performed for a month (40°C±2°C/75%±5%RH) exhibited no variations. The mucoadhesive gastro-retentive formulation could be a promising delivery system for Nizatidine with the controlled release and promote local delivery of the drug to its site of action in the upper GIT.</p> Akshata Shirodker Rajashree Gude Shreya Acharya Shraddha Bhangle Steffi Parab Nidhi Gadi Ankita Verekar Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 31 39 Effect of caloric vestibular stimulation on brain neurotransmitters in an MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease <p>The Parkinson disease is a slowly progressive, degenerative disease of the nervous system associated with damage of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Though PD was mainly due to damage of damage of dopaminergic system, other neurotransmitters also effected during PD and contribute to non-motor symptoms of PD. The current study was undertaken to observe the effect of caloric vestibular stimulation on brain neurotransmitters in an MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease. 24 healthy, adult male Swiss albino mice with body weight ranging between 25 - 40g were used in the study. The middle ear cavity of the mice was irrigated with hot (40°C) water. 0.5 ml of water was taken in 5 ml syringe with the needle removed. The ear was irrigated with water drop by drop, using the syringe. After 30 days of the experimental period, the animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical decapitation and neurotransmitter levels were estimated. The present study provides evidence for beneficial effects of caloric vestibular stimulation in limiting the changes in neurotransmitter levels in Parkinson's disease. We recommend further detailed studies in this area to understand the mechanism of action and to recommend vestibular stimulation as adjunctive therapy in the management of Parkinson's disease.</p> Kumar Sai Sailesh Archana R Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 40 44 Fabrication and characterization of a matrix-type transdermal patch containing microspheres of risperidone <p>One of the important problems in the case of psychotic patients is that of compliance with the therapy. Since the routes of administration are invasive, patients resist adhering to the treatment which reduces the efficacy. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a non-invasive dosage form for the treatment of psychosis. Hence, microspheres of an atypical antipsychotic drug, Risperidone were prepared using HPMC as the polymer by ionic gelation method. Out of the 4 batches of microspheres prepared, Batch F2 (Drug: Polymer ratio 1:2) was found to give better release (about 81%) for 12 hours. SEM studies revealed that the particles were spherical with a smooth surface. Also, it showed satisfactory results for other tests like particle size, micromeritic properties, percentage yield. Hence this batch was further selected to be dispersed in the EC matrix. The matrix was prepared using EC by solvent evaporation method after incorporating the calculated amount of microspheres. Films were evaluated for physicochemical parameters such as thickness, % moisture loss, % moisture absorption, % water vapour transmission and such other tests. Drug content and weight uniformity analysis indicated that the films had relatively uniform weights and Risperidone content with minimum intra-batch variability. The films were stable during the stability studies carried out for one month. Formulation T3 (Drug: Polymer ratio 1:18) gave the highest release, i.e. up to 84% for a duration of up to 24hrs. And hence it was selected to be the best amongst all.</p> Akshata Shirodker Rajashree Gude Sneha Vaidya Shraddha Bhangle Steffi Parab Nidhi Gadi Ankita Verekar Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 45 49 Status of serum 25- Hydroxyvitamin D and Leptin in Iraqi diabetic men: Obesity-related study <p>Several works had suggested the high occurrence of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D in type 2 diabetics and found links with central obesity and insulin resistance. Leptin has an important role in natural and acquired immunity. The present study design was aimed to evaluate leptin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a population of Iraqi diabetic men and to identify any correlations that may exist between these parameters and the glycemic indices. This case-control study was achieved at Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, University of Baghdad, and at El-Imam Ali Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from July 2017 to January 2018. It consisted of 160 men; 80 types 2 diabetics and 80 aged- and BMI matched healthy men. The patients and controls were also subdivided according to their obesity into subgroups. Investigations included serum measurements of fasting serum glucose (FSG) and lipid profile parameters by using Abbott c4000 automatic biochemical analyzer, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, leptin and insulin by using ELISA technique in patients and healthy controls. The results revealed that the mean values of FSG of diabetic obese, diabetic overweight, and diabetic normal-BMI patients were significantly increased compared to that of healthy controls (for all; P&lt;0.0001). The mean values of serum leptin of diabetic obese, diabetic overweight and diabetic normal-BMI were lower than those of healthy obese, overweight and normal-BMI, but did not reach the significant level. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D did not observe any significant change between diabetics and healthy individuals. The findings also revealed the presence of a significant direct relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the HOMA values in the diabetic obese group (r= 0.402, P&lt;0.021). This study concluded that obesity has a significant relation with serum levels of leptin, while the association of diabetes and vitamin D still need further investigations.</p> Gumar O Zamil Halla Ghazi Basil O Saleh Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 50 55 Polysaccharide fraction of the hemi-parasitic mistletoe, Dendrophthoe falcata (L) Ettingsh leaves enhances innate immune responses and disease resistance in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) <p>In aquaculture, diseases and disease-outbreak are a major factor limiting its sustainability. Immunostimulants are an effective alternative to antibiotics, chemotherapeutics and perhaps even vaccines. Immunostimulants are a promising and safe prophylactic measure against infectious diseases. In this study, the immunostimulatory effect of the neutral water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (PF) isolated from the leaves of the hemi-parasitic mistletoe<em>, Dendrophthoe falcata</em> (DF) was assessed in Nile tilapia, <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>. Fish weighing 40±5 g were injected intraperitoneally with <em>Dendrophthoe falcata</em> polysaccharide fraction (DFPF) at a dose of 2, 20 or 200 mgkg<sup>-1</sup>. An untreated control group and a positive control group (MacroGard™, 20 mgkg<sup>-1</sup>) were also maintained. The serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, antiprotease and bactericidal activities were significantly enhanced on post-treatment days when compared with that of the untreated control. In the challenge studies, after 7 and 21 days’ administration of DFPF, the high dose of 200 mgkg<sup>-1 </sup>caused a significant reduction in percent mortality against <em>Aeromonas hydrophila </em>infection. By semi-quantitative gene expression analysis, it was found that there was also a significant upregulation of IL-1β and lysozyme genes. After field trials, DFPF can be applied as an immunostimulant to finfish in aquaculture.</p> Konda Subramanian Shalini Omita Yengkhom Parasuraman Aiya Subramani Dinakaran Michael R Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 56 64 Effects of resistance training and aerobic exercise on the fitness of old adults <p>The study aims to determine the effects of resistance training and aerobic exercise in old adults. The methodology of the study is, 30 individuals will be selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The detailed procedure will be explained in the patient's words, and informed consent will be obtained from all the participants. Effects of resistance training and aerobic exercise will be evaluated in the subjects. The post-test value will be taken after four weeks. The results we determined from the statistical analysis, it has been revealed that there is a significant improvement in the physical fitness of the Aerobic Group than the Resistance Group. In the Six-Minute Walk test for the Aerobic Group, the pre-test mean is 394.73, with the standard deviation being 13.94 and the post-test mean being 460.33 with a standard deviation of 20.87, p-value less than 0.001. In the TUG test for the Aerobic Group, the pre-test mean is 18.73 with a standard deviation of 1.79 and the post-test mean is 14.87 with a standard deviation of 2.50 with a p-value less than 0.001. In the Six-Minute Walk test for the Resistance Group, the pre-test mean is 395.27 with a standard deviation of 13.65 and the post-test value is 427.73 with a standard deviation of 14.07 with the p-value being less than 0.0001. In the TUG test for the Resistance Group, the pre-test mean is 18.73 with a standard deviation of 1.79 and the post-test mean is 16.87 with a standard deviation of 1.92 and the p-value being less than 0.0001. Hence, we conclude that It has been proved statistically that although improvements have been observed in both groups, the improvement is much more significant in the Aerobic Group than it is in the Resistance Group.</p> Sujatha B Ramesh Deepak Ethiraj Brite Saghaya Rayna A Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 65 69 The possible protective effect of trimetazidine on imiquimod-induced psoriasis like skin inflammation in an animal model <p>The main objective of our study was to investigate the effects of topical application of trimetazidine on imiquimod induce psoriasis-like skin lesion. 18 mice had the back shaved for topical application and were grouped as follow. In the control group, mice were daily treated with vaseline base only for six <em>‎</em>days.<em>‎</em> The induction group included the mice daily<em>‎</em> treated with 62.5 mg of commercially available 5% IMQ cream (Aldara, MEDA) for 7 days<em>‎</em>.<em>‎</em> Trimetazidine group were daily treated with both 62.5 mg of commercially available 5% IMQ cream (Aldara, MEDA) and 2.5% trimetazidine cream for 7 days. Based on the psoriasis area and severity <em>‎</em>index (PASI), visual inspection of scaling and erythema <em>‎</em>were <em>‎</em> independently scored on a scale from 0 to 4 (0, none; 1, slight; <em>‎‎</em>2, moderate; 3, marked; 4, very marked). Hematoxyline-Eosin was used for the histopathological study. In addition, IL-8 was compared across groups by an Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test. There was a significant reduction of both epidermal thickness, scaling and erythema in the trimetazidine treated group compared to imiquimod treated group (p &lt;0.05). IL-8, as a marker of inflammation, was decline significantly in trimetazidine treated group compared to the imiquimod group (p &lt;0.05). The histopathological study showed trimetazidine treated group has a marked regression of the proliferation and thickness of the epidermal cell that has been induced by imiquimod.</p> Mohammed R. Al-Notazy Mukhallad A. Al-Rubye Munaf S. Aal-Aaboda Haider F. Al-Saedi Ban J. Qasim Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 70 76 Ritonavir loaded surface modified stealth solid lipid nanoparticles: Full factorial design and pharmacokinetic studies <p>This work aims at developing and optimizing the ritonavir loaded stealth solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral delivery using full factorial design to improve the systemic circulation. The ritonavir loaded stealth solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were developed by hot melt homogenization method using tristearin, HSPC and poloxamer 188. The SLNs were evaluated for various physicochemical evaluation parameters such as percent drug content, particle size, zeta potential, % entrapment efficacy and <em>in-vitro </em>drug release studies. The composition of the formulation was finalized by applying constraints (goals) on independent variables (factors) and dependent (response) and. The Optimization was done based on the criteria of minimum particle size (nm), maximum %EE and maximum zeta potential. The optimized SLN converted into a stealth form using different concentrations of 1,2-distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine-methyl-polyethene glycol conjugate 2000(sodium salt). The drug encapsulation range of stealth solid lipid nanoparticles (SSLN) is between 94.12% and 98.12%. The mean size of particles was found between 126.6 to 146.2 nm. This indicates particles are in uniform distribution. The zeta potential was found in the range of -38.9 to -54.6 mV for stealth solid nanoparticles. The <em>in vivo</em> studies revealed that the drug-loaded SSLN has prolonged circulation time compared to pure ritonavir (PR) when administered to rats through intravenous route. The optimized SSLNs were further evaluated for drug-excipients compatibility, stability and pharmacokinetic studies by Wistar rats. The PEGylation technique improved pharmacokinetic parameters of ritonavir from stealth solid lipid nanoparticles when compared to pure ritonavir. The Paired t-test was used for comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters. All the statistical assessments have done at a significant level p &lt; 0.05.</p> Pavan Rudhrabatla VSA Beeravelli Sudhakar Suresh Reddy KVN Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 77 89 Investigation serum uric acid in cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality men and women in AL-Muthanna province-Iraq <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The aim of the study was to investigate whether a serum uric acid increase or decrease in cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in Iraqi populations women and men. Once this was accomplished, the objective was to diagnose pertinent in both CVand AC mortality. The study has been included 235 patients who underwent were divided into groups ACM and CVM that distributed 135 and 100 respectively between June 2016 to June 2018. The primary funding was a composite accident ACM that included type2diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CVM. This investigation has been carried out by using SPSS version22. The investigation developing a uric acid in ACM was higher more than CVD mortality. Elevated uric acid was p-value 0.145 in ACM and 0.74 in CVM. In males have been recorded more than in females in ACM and CVM, also increased uric acid value when progressing age in both genders and groups. In this study shows to present increase cardiovascular in male more than female mortality and noted elevated uric acid to increase age patients in both CVM and All-cause mortality<strong>.</strong> Uric acid was linked with an increase risk ACM and CVM in women and men. Uric acid was found as a significant influence in ACM and CVM.</p> Mohammed Qasim Waheeb Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 90 97 The effect of sodium benzoate as a preservative on the reproductive system of male rats <p>In order to investigate the effect of sodium benzoate dosage on reproductive efficiency in mature male rats, the current study was conducted at the Faculty of Science, Qadisiyah University for the period from 15\10\2016 to 15\4\2017. Sixty adult male rats (aged 56 days and weighted 138±8.8 g) have been used in the present study. The rats have been divided randomly into three equal groups (20 rats to each group). The first group included the control (C) group and was injected with physiological saline solution daily. The second group was injected with sodium benzoate at a concentration of (50 mg\kg). The third group was injected with sodium benzoate at a concentration of (100 mg\kg). Each group was divided into two subgroups, each containing 10 rats, depending on the duration of the dosage, 2-3 weeks. After 24 hours on the last day of the experiment, animals were sacrificed, and testicular samples were taken for histopathological study. The result of the histological study on the testis showed a significant decrease in the composition of the sperm in the two groups (T1, T2) where the spermatozoa showed a small number of primary and secondary sperm cells as well as a decrease in the number of sperm and Leydig cells. This decrease increases with increasing concentration and duration compared to the control group. It is concluded from the results of the current experiment that the dosage of animals with sodium benzoate at a concentration of (50,100 mg\kg) body weight has a clear effect on the reproductive efficiency of male rats.</p> Manar M. Hadi Wijdan Thamer Mahdi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 98 105 Modified cavity surface preparation for composite restoration <p>A composite restoration is placed in a cavity after removing dental caries. Composite restorations are very common today because of the growing prevalence of dental erosion and other dental problems. The objective of this study was evaluating the retention of composite material in conventional and modified cavity surface. A survey of practicing dentists and dental students was undertaken. The sample population was selected using stratified random sampling, which involves stratifying the target population into specific groups then using random selection to pick participants from each group. The target population will be stratified into two strata including the practicing dentists' stratum and the dental students' stratum. From the practicing dentists' stratum, three participants will be selected randomly while 20 dentists 80 students' participants will be selected from the dental students' stratum. Therefore, the sample population for the survey research will be 100participants. The participants will be issued with survey questionnaires and will be required to fill them and return them for analysis. The analysis will involve quantitative and qualitative processes. About 73% of the participants are aware of were aware of the composite restoration and effectiveness of composite restoration whereas 54.8% of the participants were aware about modified cavity surface preparation for composite restoration. Thus, modified cavity surface preparation is hypotheses to provide greater bond structure. This study has strong support for the use of modified cavity preparation in composite restoration as an effective strategy in restorative dentistry.</p> Anirudha Kabilan James D. Raj Revathi Duraisamy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 106 110 Ion-associative complex formation for estimation of piperacillin <p>A simple, validated and affordable visible spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of piperacillin present in bulk and tablet formulation. The proposed method involves the development of a coloured ion-association complex between piperacillin cation and tropaeolin-ooo anion, which can be further extracted in chloroform. In the formation of cation from piperacillin, site of protonation is oxygen of amide group. Two secondary amides of piperacillin are protonated to form a doubly charged cation. Maximum absorption was observed at 529 nm for the coloured complex. Regression analysis (r = 0.9999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (4.0–24.0 μg mL<sup>-1</sup>). As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters (interday precision, intraday precision, accuracy, ruggedness, LOD, LOQ) of the method were tested for validation. Low values of relative standard deviation (&lt; 2 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method was extended to assay piperacillin powder for injection formulation.</p> Giri Prasad G Venkata Nadh R Kiran Kumar K Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 117 124 Cognitive enhancement effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and learning impairments induced by fluoride neurotoxicity <p>The present work evaluated the neuroprotective functions of G<em>inkgo </em>biloba<em> extract </em>(GBE) on cognitive and behavioural functions in fluoride intoxicated rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 Groups (n=6 in each Group). Group 1 was Control that received water, Groups2 to 5 were treated with 100 ppm of sodium fluoride for 30 days while the Groups 3, 4, and 5 were drug treated at 50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight of GBE for 15 days. After 45 days of treatment protocol various behavioural tests (Spatial learning (Y maze, T maze and Passive avoidance test) performed. The data were compared between the groups. The fluoride administered rats that received the only fluoride showed significant impairment in spatial learning and memory as assessed by behavioural tests; the GBE treated animals showed significantly improved learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. The present study concludes the dose-dependent protective role of GBE in sodium fluoride toxicity induced learning and memory deficits.</p> Sugavasi Raju Senthil Kumar Sivanesan Kanchanalatha Gudemalla Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 129 134 A retrospective observational study on drug-related problems in patients with rheumatic heart disease <p>Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD is one of the leading cause of public health degradation among children and adults since the twentieth century. Rheumatic fever mostly affects the population of developing countries, especially where poverty is widespread. About 2% of deaths worldwide due to cardiac failure is associated with RHD. Although pharmacotherapy in RHD is beneficial in its management, its outcomes may often be compromised due to the associated drug therapy problems (DTP). Data containing their demographic details, clinical presentation and drug chart was obtained and noted in a structured case report form. The data was compiled, and the drug-related problems associated with commonly prescribed drugs were evaluated. The prescription was critically analysed as per WHO guidelines for its appropriateness. The most commonly occurring DTP was potential drug interactions, sub-therapeutic dose, adverse drug reaction and drug duplication. Majority of the prescriptions were compliant to the recommendations of WHO guidelines. The study highlights the potential drug-related problems in the management of RHD and hence indicates that there is still room to improve rational prescribing for patients with RHD. Rheumatic Heart Disease, drug-related problems, drug interactions, adverse drug reactions, drug duplication, overdosage, Rheumatic fever.</p> Saranya Punniyakotti Nimisha Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 135 139 Current trends in the pharmacological treatment of diabetic complications in a tertiary care settin <p>Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a condition primarily defined by the level of hyperglycemia giving rise to the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. It is associated with reduced life expectancy, significant morbidity and diminished quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and prescribing pattern in Type 2 DM and its complications in a tertiary care hospital. It was a prospective observational study carried out among 200 patients for 6 months in a tertiary care hospital. Patient's details were collected from case sheets and entered into data collection form. Hyperglycemia was managed with insulin (75.5%) due to its proven effectiveness; oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) (24.5%) were prescribed to a limited extent. For diabetic nephropathy, beta-blockers (43%) were the highest prescribed. Pregabalin was mostly prescribed (35.8%) in diabetic neuropathy. The diabetic foot was commonly managed with clindamycin (61.5%), but treatment differed based on cultural sensitivity. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) was found to be the most prevalent complication in our study setting (41.5%). Macrovascular complications were managed with antihypertensives, diuretics, antianginals, anticoagulants, antiplatelets and antihyperlipidemics<strong>. </strong>The association of risk factors with diabetic retinopathy and IHD with duration of DM and HbA1c was statistically significant (p=0.007, p=0.05; p=0.007,p=0.004 respectively) Prescribing trend of drugs was based on the severity of complication, associated comorbid conditions and presently existing evidence to promote the rational use of drugs.</p> Benita Lisa Baji Tasmiya K Saraswathy GR Ann Mary Swaroop Maheswari Eswaran Viswam Subeesh Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 140 145 Clinical findings of Sydenham's chorea and comparison of the efficacy of sodium valproate and carbamazepine drug use <p>To estimate the incidence of rheumatoid fever in children. To investigate the clinical finding of Sydenham's chorea in children diagnosed with rheumatoid fever. To measure the efficacy of sodium valproate and carbamazepine from the therapeutic outcomes. To measure the incidence of adverse effects in children administered with sodium valproate and carbamazepine. The present study is a prospective study designed to compare the therapeutic outcomes and side effects of chorea groups administered with sodium valproate and carbamazepine. The study was conducted in Chittoor Government hospital, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh. The present study was conducted in Chittoor Government Hospital, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh. The study is a prospective design was conducted in the departments of paediatrics of respective tertiary care hospital which included the patients admitted to children's ward with provisional/ final diagnostic rheumatoid fever. The study conducted after getting the informed consent forms from all the patients included in the study. The patients recruited into the study were divided into 2 chorea groups, and each group were administered with one different drug. From the study, it was concluded that the rate of incidence of rheumatoid fever was relatively decreased from years. However, the initial dose of both the drugs should be tapered slowly for minimizing the dose-related side effects especially like aggressive reaction, weight gain, somnolence and insomnia.</p> Shaheedha SM Vijaya Vara Prasad M Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 146 149 Investigation for assessing dengue in children with their clinical presentations <p>To identify the cases of Dengue fever in children admitted to the pediatric ward with clinical presentations of febrile illness. To elaborate on the knowledge of dengue management with respect to its clinical manifestations. Methodology: The present study is a prospective observational study which has been conducted in RVS hospitals and Chittoor Government Hospital of Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was conducted between January 2017 and January 2018 in the department of paediatrics. The study population included the children admitted in the pediatric ward with presenting symptoms of febrile illness and other conditions like lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, shock features and haemorrhage, falling under the age of 1-14 years of age. No subjects of non-severe dengue have been subjected for platelet transfusion, whole fresh blood transfusion, dopamine and adrenaline. Whereas 9 subjects of severe dengue have been treated with platelet transfusion, 7 were treated with whole fresh blood transfusion, 3 have been given with dopamine and 6 were managed with adrenaline. Dengue is an acute febrile illness, can be better managed with prior investigation and confirmation of dengue serology. Raised SGOT investigation is the major laboratory parameter for differentiating non-severe and severe dengue. Thus, the study will improve and elaborates the knowledge for better management of dengue, which results in improved outcome.</p> Shaheedha SM Vijaya Vara Prasad M Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 150 154 A study to find the effect of weight-bearing exercise on the bone mineral density in the osteoporotic femur in postmenopausal women <p>Osteoporosis is the systemic bone disease in which there is a slow decline in the mass of bone and there is the destruction of the microarchitecture of the tissue in the bone. In the world, this disease has today affected more than 2,000 million people. This study intends to find the effect of weight-bearing exercise to improve the functional mobility in the osteoporotic postmenopausal women. This study will take the post-treatment and pretreatment DEXA to find the role of weight-bearing exercise in increasing the bone mineral density. The study was done in OPD of saveetha medical college and hospital. The total number of sample in the study were 80 women's. The study design is a quasi-experimental study design. The convenient sampling was used. The inclusion and the exclusion criteria were fixed for the selection of the sample. The selected sample was allocated into two groups in which one group was an experimental group which received weight-bearing exercise, and the control group received the non-weight bearing exercise. The DEXA was done before and after treatment to find BMD. The outcomes were statistically analysed. The weight bearing exercise showed a better result in the experimental group than the control group. Post-treatment we could find there was a rise in the BMD. The study clearly shows that there is an increase in mobility after weight-bearing exercise. We strongly recommend the weight-bearing exercise in post-menopausal women to increase the bone mineral density.</p> Keerthana B Jenifer Augustina S Manoj Abraham Senthil Kumar R Kamalakannan M Rahul Dev Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 155 157 Comparison of topical 1% diclofenac sodium gel and its performance with Marketed gel (Rofenac) <p>Diclofenac sodium is an effective NSAID used in the long treatment of acute and chronic arthritic conditions and ankylosing spondylitis. Diclofenac sodium when administered orally produces severe gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation of the stomach or the intestines which could be fatal especially on long-term use. Diclofenac sodium gel was prepared using Carbopol P934, and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (K4M) as gelling agents and physicochemical characterization such as homogeneity, pH evaluation, spreadability, drug content and <em>in vitro</em> drug diffusion were evaluated. The prepared gel was compared with marketed gel, i.e. Rofenac gel, and similarity factor (F2) was determined. The diclofenac sodium gel 1% using Carbopol P 934 was found to be optimum with appearance, pH, consistency and spreadability. Thus, this was chosen for the comparative evaluation with Rofenac gel. The drug content of the gel was found to be 97.54% ± 0.41% when compared to 96.83% ± 0.73% of Rofenac gel. Skin irritation studies revealed that there was no sign of erythema or edema for both prepared gel containing drug and placebo gel. <em>In vitro</em> drug diffusion was found to be 99.25% ± 0.12% in an hour when compared to 98.09 % ± 0.12% of marketed gel. The similarity factor (F2) was found to be 93.50 proving prepared gel is pharmaceutically equivalent with marketed gel. The flux (J) of the optimum gel was found to be 52.55 µg/cm<sup>2</sup>/min with the permeability coefficient of 5.255 (cm/min) 10<sup>-3</sup><strong>.</strong></p> Yasmin Begum Mohammed Sharaf Ali Meaad Ali Mohammed Dareni Rawiyah Mari Alshehri Rawan Ayed Aljarallah Waheedah Jaber Alshahrani Rajalakshmi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 158 164 Evaluation of in vitro anticancer potential in Punica granatum, Psidium guajava, and Vitis vinifera seed extracts <p>The anticancer potentials of the seed extracts of edible fruits pomegranate (<em>Punica</em> <em>granatum </em>L.), guava <em>(Psidium guajava </em>L.) and grapes (<em>Vitis vinifera </em>L.) were evaluated. Doxorubicin was used as a reference drug. MTT assay was used to determine the anticancer potential of the selected seed extracts. Among the selected edible fruit seeds and their different organic solvent extracts, the ethyl acetate extract of <em>Punica granatum</em> possessed a higher inhibitory effect against lung cancer cell line, compared to other solvent extracts of <em>Psidium</em> <em>guajava</em> and<em> Vitis vinifera</em> fruit seeds, and the IC<sub>50</sub> value was 51.25 ± 1.25 μg/ml, 60.21 ± 1.35 μg/ml and 61.21±1.45μg/ml, respectively. The IC<sub>50</sub> of doxorubicin was 49.25 ± 1.85 μg/ml. The inhibitory effects of fruit seeds against lung cancer cell line (A549) could be ranked as <em>P. granatum</em> <em>&gt;</em> <em>P. guajava</em>. &gt;<em>V. Vinifera.</em> In the overall observations of the study, the <em>P. granatum</em> seed extract showed the highest inhibitory effect on lung cancer cell line among the other seeds.</p> Samba S. Nelson Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav Lakshmi K. Surendren Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 165 169 A study to compare the effect of ACL versus ACL and all rehabilitation protocol in subjects with post-surgical ACL reconstruction <p>The knee joint is a hinge variety of modified type of joint. The anatomical structure of the knee joint is formed by the upper part of the tibia and the lower end of the femur through the femoral condyles. The knee joint is supported by many ligaments for the stability of the joint and the ACL serves the most for the stability of the knee joint. ALL ligament which was found that this is structure also plays an important role in the stability of the knee joint, and hence this will, in turn, improve the recovery in the ACL rehabilitation. The study was done in Saveetha medical college and hospital. The sample size was 10 samples undergoing ACL rehabilitation. The duration of the study was 3 months. Inclusion and the exclusion criteria were postulated, and hence the sample was selected based on that for the study. The sample was divided into two groups. The control group received the conventional ACL rehabilitation, and the experimental group received the exercise for the ALL along with conventional ACL rehabilitation.&nbsp; The data were collected and statistically analyzed. The outcome of the treatment depicted that the experimental group has better ROM and Muscle power than the control group. The study concludes that we have both the ACL and ALL management during the ACL rehabilitation then Muscle power and the ROM will increase and improve the stability. Hence this study suggests that we need to have ALL management during the ACL rehabilitation.</p> Sowmya MV Rahul Dev Manoj Abraham Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 170 173 The relationship between the level of albuminuria and severity of impairment in pulmonary function in type II diabetic patients <p>Diabetes mellitus type II can lead to acute and chronic complications. The progression of many complications might be explained via modification of connective tissue and microangiopathy. The major microvascular structure in the body is the pulmonary alveolar- capillary network, which might be influenced by diabetic microangiopathy. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a major end-organ complication in diabetes. Complications of diabetes including pulmonary dysfunction and diabetic nephropathy have an analogous microangiopathic origin. There are numerous studies cover the relationship between albuminuria and lung impairment in type I diabetic patients, but few studies about this relationship in type II diabetic patients, so current study aimed To assess the relationship between the levels of albuminuria and pulmonary function in diabetic patients type II. The design of the study is a cross-sectional study included 245 types II diabetic patients (119 male and 126 female), aged 41-80 years with mean ± SEM (57.43±0.54 years). Spirometry was done for all patients. Albumin/creatinine ratio and HbA1c were measured. There was a significant statistical negative relationship between ACR with FEV1 (% predicted) and FVC (% predicted). The progression of diabetic nephropathy to further advanced stages is associated with further changes in pulmonary function.</p> Zahraa A. Al-Mudhafer Nibras H. Abdulsada Al-Ghuraibawi Salam J. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 174 178 Curative role of modified Arjunarishta on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats <p>World health organization estimates 16.7 million people globally die every year due to cardiovascular diseases. Huge attention is required towards CVD as it is causing quick health impact and lacking a better therapeutic solution. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of modified arjunarishta on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. In the experiment, animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 rats per group). Group 1 served as normal control. Group 2 (Induced group) received Isoproterenol 85mg/kg body weight subcutaneously for the first two days (24 hrs interval) to induce myocardial infarction. Group 3 (Therapeutic model) received Isoproterenol as per group 2 followed by the administration of Modified Arjunarishta orally from 3<sup>rd</sup> day to end of the experiment (16<sup>th</sup> day). The effective dose of 400mg/kg body weight was fixed by dose fixation study. Group 4 (Arjunarishta model) received Isoproterenol as per group 2 followed by the administration of Standard Arjunarishta orally 2ml/kg body weight daily from 3<sup>rd</sup> day to rest of the experiment period. At the end of the two-week experiment, Isoproterenol induced rats showed a significant increase in the levels of LDH, CPK, CK-MB, Troponin, SGOT, SGPT, Cholesterol, TGL, LDL and a significant decrease in the levels of HDL. The therapeutic activity estimated through biochemical parameters, cardiac markers and lipid profile.</p> Santhosh Kumar B Manickam Diwakar Sri kamatchi priya R Shyama Subramaniam Samu Subramaniam Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 179 185 Bicosome: A versatile technology in biomedicine and dermopharmacy <p>Bicosomes opened a new chapter in vesicular drug delivery system which immensely contributed to the development of pharmaceutical research. They are defined as bicelles encapsulated in liposomal vesicular structure. One of the peculiar characteristics of bicosomes lies in its distinctive ability to maintain the morphology without any structural changes. They preserve and isolate bicelles from environments with high water contents. This drug delivery system has remarkable stability over temperature changes, in highly diluted media and also an effective permeability modulator for an effective transdermal drug delivery system. This vesicular system becomes a new application for the delivery of the drug through the skin. They are prepared by thin film hydration technique. Unique structures of bicosomes are small enough to pass through stratum corneum of the skin without any damage to tissues and cause structural transformation. This helps to hold the bicosomes between the skin layers and allows slow drug delivery. The capacity of these systems to regenerate skin barrier function and target specific action on skin layers finds its usefulness in the dermatological field. Thus bicosome technology is a versatile platform that can be applied in different skin disorders and appear to be smart nanosystems with great potential in biomedicine and dermopharmacy.</p> Archana J Nair Jeni Raju Arya GK Anjaly A Kumar Sreeja C Nair Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 186 195 Studies on e-pharmacophore based virtual screening and evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of leucocyanidin in hyperlipidemic induced rats <p>The present study was designed to analyse energy-optimised structure primarily based pharmacophore virtual screening and high score compound was elect and used for hypolipidemic activity in rat fed with high-fat diet. Supported the e-pharmacophore virtual screening analysis discovered that the one in every of the compound particularly leucocyanidin has been elect for the hypolipidemic activities. In the treatment of Leucocyanidin group of animals fed with HFD was considerable reduction within the body weight compared to HFD fed cluster of animals. The enlarged the levels of TC, TG, phospholipids, LDL-C and VLDL-C were noticed in group 2 animals (HFD). When the activity of leucocyanidin (15mg per weight unit body weight per day) showed a major (p&lt;0.001) decrement in plasma and TC, TG, phospholipids, LDL-C and VLDL-C in conjunction with an increment within the High-density lipoprotein-C compared with group 2 animals(HFD). Taking under consideration the outcomes, we tend to over that leucocyanidin may be a considerably hypolipidemic agent having preventive and curative activity against lipidemia.</p> Dhivya Jensi V Ananda Gopu P Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 196 203 Formulation development and in vitro – in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of gliclazide colon targeted matrix tablet <p>The colonic drug delivery system (CDDS) of Gliclazide was formulated and <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> pharmacokinetics studies were conducted. The colonic delivery system consists of SR matrix tablets containing Gliclazide were developed by dissimilar grade of HPMC combinations with enteric coating polymers like EudrajitL100 and S100 as coating materials, as an outlet layer, insoluble and impermeable at acidic pH but easily soluble at a pH value higher than 5.5 (EudrajitL100 and S100 ). <em>In vitro</em> results showed the colonic drug delivery system is capable of avoiding drug release in acidic medium for 2 h but the gliclazide drug release in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, after 3 hrs stage of time and release was up to 24 hrs. The dissolution mechanism of drug release was more definite by Higuchi plots that showed good quality linearity (R<sup>2</sup> values between 0.90 and 0.93), with slope &gt; 0.5, representing that drug release mechanism from the formulations were non-fickian diffusion mechanism. Pharmacokinetic parameters like Cmax, Vd, Ke, t1/2, Cl, AUC0-∞ and MRT were designed for selected (GLZ6) formulations<strong>. </strong>Furthermore, the relative bioavailability (RB) was also found to be high, and therefore it indicates that gliclazide released extra amounts from the tablet formulation and absorbed for blood circulation with a satisfactory plasma concentration. X‑ray pictures exhibit that the selected formulation GLZ 6 could be targeted particularly to the colon, without any early drug release in the stomach and small intestine. Therefore, from this study, it had been concluded that Gliclazide matrix tablets might persuade be additional efficient in the management of diabetic patients through CDDS.</p> Sivakumar Kalidoss Kailasam Koumaravelou Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 204 210 Design, development and optimization of self-nanoemulsified drug delivery system for poorly water-soluble drug by QbD approach <p>The objective of the present study was to develop SNEDDS containing a poorly water-soluble drug by application of QbD principles. Two statistical designs were used to systematically understand the effect of various formulation variables in the development of SNEDDS. Initially, PB design was used as a screening design to identify the significant effect of six independent variables on the characteristics (globule size (nm), self-emulsification time (sec) and percent dissolution efficiency at 15min) of SNEDDS. Statistical results suggested oleic acid as a type of oil, Cremophor EL as a surfactant and Trancutol HP as co-surfactant but their respective amount in the isotropic mixture was found to in wider range. This allowed us to utility CCD to identify the optimal design space between the amount of oleic acid (X<sub>1</sub>), surfactant (X<sub>2</sub>) and co-surfactant (X<sub>3</sub>). The dependent variables studied were globule size (Y<sub>1</sub>) and self-emulsification time (Y<sub>2</sub>) and were fitted to the second-order quadratic model. A numerical optimization technique by desirability function was used to identify the optimal design space. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the model in the development of SNEDDS and the same can be extrapolated to other poorly water-soluble drugs.</p> Narendra Chikkanna Ramesh Chandrashekar Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 211 219 A comparative study on mussaenda erythrophylla leaves extract for larvicidal properties <p>Medicinal plants serve humankind with its wide diversity of applications in various areas of disease and disorders. <em>Mussaenda erythrophylla</em> Schumach. &amp; Thonn. (rubiaceae), is largely known plant for its ornamental properties throughout the southern parts of India. Mosquitoes, are found to be the major source for diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, malaria, etc., The present study aims at evaluating the larvicidal potential of Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Mussaenda<em> erythrophylla</em> leaves at 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 µg/ml against third and fourth instar larvae (<em>Aedes aegypti</em>). The larvicidal potential was assessed for 24hrs at the various interval, and percentage mortality was noted. All four extracts found to possess poor larvicidal properties. <em>Mussaenda erythrophylla</em> Schumach. &amp; Thonn. leaves extract is not a suitable crude drug of choice for larvicidal properties.</p> Astalakshmi N Sundara Ganapathy R Surendra Kumar M Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 220 222 Antioxidant and immunomodulatory assay of Boerhavia diffusa Linn <p>Botanical and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds; the focus of the study is on the analytical methodologies, which includes the extraction, isolation, and characterisation of alkaloid fractions from <em>Boerhavia diffusa Linn.</em> The analysis of bioactive compound present in the <em>Boerhavia diffusa Linn </em>involving the procedure includes column chromatography, TLC, Immunoassay by PMN &amp; Antioxidant assay by DPPH &amp; FRAP method. Dietary supplementation with antioxidant properties may greatly help in the healthy metabolism of our body. A natural alkaloid which is isolated from a herbal plant <em>B.diffusa</em> <em>Linn</em> has antioxidant &amp; Immunomodulatory effect &amp; also <em>B.diffusa Linn </em>has anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-bacterial, anti-ageing &amp; diuretic activities as well<strong>.</strong></p> Carlin Premakumari C Kanagavalli U Mohamed Sadiq A Hemalatha S Kalaimagal Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 223 226 Drug use evaluation of antibiotics in paediatrics in a tertiary care teaching hospital <p>The rational antibiotic prescription is very important to prevent antimicrobial resistance. Widespread use of antibiotics has facilitated the development of resistance. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the use of antibiotics in pediatric patients in a tertiary care hospital. A prospective observational analysis of 283 case sheets of pediatric patients was done using medical records for six months. Data was collected on data collection forms from the patients who satisfy the inclusion criteria. Data were analyzed for Age distribution, Gender distribution, No. of antibiotics prescribed, Combinational drugs, Route of administration, Drug Interactions. Data were analyzed by using suitable statistical methods and expressed as pie charts, bar diagrams &amp; tabular columns. In our study, we found that means the age of the pediatric patient was 2.72, average no of antibiotics per prescription was 1.1, Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is frequently used, β- lactam class of antibiotics are commonly used. Antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem worldwide which can be controlled by rational prescribing, restricting the no of antibiotics per prescription and appropriate selection of drug. Here our study follows rational use of antibiotics.</p> Rajeswari G Rupa G Dishanth A Haripriya M Sowjanya P Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 227 232 Evaluation of the effect of Mirena® contraceptive device in controlling abnormal uterine bleeding <p>Adequate treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding is mandatory because it affects the quality of women’s life adversely, as it is responsible for medical, sexual, social and psychological problems. The mode of treatment is either medical or surgical, and a lot of cases end with hysterectomy due to either failure of medical treatment or severe side effects. Mirena<strong><em>®</em></strong> contraceptive device has been tested as a form of medical treatment to control abnormal uterine bleeding. The current study was aimed to investigate the role of Mirena<strong><em>®</em></strong> contraceptive device among Iraqi women with abnormal uterine bleeding after being followed up in comparison with another mode of conventional treatment. The first group included 45 women who were treated using the IUCD Mirena<strong><em>®</em></strong> and served as a study group, whereas the second group included 45 age-matched women who were treated with medical treatment other than Mirena<strong><em>®</em></strong> IUCD and served as a control group. Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. The study lasted for four years; it started in January 2014 and ended in January 2018. The results of this study revealed that the control of bleeding was successful in 32 (71.1%), 42 (93.3%), 42 (93.3%) and 42 (93.3%) of patients following first, second, third and fourth year of follow up in study group compared to 23 (51.1%), 27 (60.0%), 27 (60.0%) and 27 (60.0%) of patients in the control groups. The rate of hysterectomy was significantly lower in the study group than in control group, 8.9% versus 46.7%, respectively (P&lt;0.001). The use of Mirena<strong><em>®</em></strong> was able to reduce the rate of hysterectomy by 0.89 % (Odds ratio of 0.11; 95% confidence interval of 0.03-0.36).</p> Nabaa Abdul Al-Jabbar Lateef Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 233 236 Awareness of radiation exposure among the patients and dental students <p>Dental radiographs are routinely advocated by health care professional in order to aid in diagnosis and treatment planning. Though there has been growing concerns with respect to radiation exposure among health professional, awareness about the risk and the effects among health professionals using radiological procedures is still low. The aim of this study was to determine the Awareness of Radiation Exposure among the Patients and Dental Students. The present survey was conducted to determine the level of awareness of radiation exposure among patients and dental students of radiology. The study hypothesizes that there is low level of awareness of radiation exposure. Based on survey research, the study sampled a total of 100 participants comprising of 68 dental students and 32 patients. Based on the analysis of the returned questionnaires, the findings confirm the study hypothesis showing that level of awareness of radiation exposure was low. Moreover, the level of awareness among patients was lower than among the dental students group. This research paper provides details of the survey and the implications of the findings. The low level of awareness of radiation exposure among dental students and patients alike has been confirmed through the findings from this survey. This finding should be cause for alarm considering that radiation exposure continues to be a growing risk to health professionals and patients using radiological procedures and technologies. With such low awareness levels, many health professionals and1 patients would be exposed to the risk of cancer and other long-term effects of radiation exposure.</p> Anirudha Kabilan Revathi Duraisamy Dhanraj Ganapathy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 237 240 The comparative preliminary phytochemical investigation, TLC analysis and antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of Boerhavia diffusa Linn <p>The Plant <em>Boerhaavia diffusa </em>Linn. is a herbaceous member of the family Nyctaginaceae which is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The present study is aimed to investigate the phytochemicals present in ethanol, methanol, chloroform, aqueous, hexane and petroleum ether extracts obtained from <em>Boerhaavia diffusa </em>Linn. and TLC profiling. The plant material was extracted with various solvents based on their polarity by the process of soxhlet extraction method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed by different qualitative methods. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and phenolic compounds. The solvent system selected for the best results of TLC was chloroform and methanol of the ratio of 9:1 and 8:2. The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the bioactive compounds and a suitable solvent system for separation of those compounds from the boerhavia diffusa Linn. The different solvent extracts were further screened for <em>in-vitro</em> antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Nitric oxide, superoxide free radical scavenging, FRAP and hydrogen peroxide methods. Taken together, our results suggested that methanolic extract of <em>Boerhaavia diffusa </em>Linn. might contain potential antioxidant compounds.</p> Kanagavalli U Mohamed Sadiq A Lakshmi Priya MD Shobana R Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 245 256 Pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus and affinity to produce staphylokinase <p>This research investigates S<em>taphylococcus aureus</em> pneumonia in mice by oral injection<strong>. </strong>Infection rate (65%) of histopathological testing reveals a number of changes like the inflammation that is expressed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This bacterium is typically responsible for a lung infection. Inflammatory reactions resulted from this infection may cause catching the infection of the lungs like increased neutrophilic inflammation and vascular leakage of serum proteins into the lung to name a few. This study suggests that Staphylokinase production may be a typical virulence factor by means of S<em>taphylococcus aureus</em> that inhabit and lead to fibrinolysis and invasive infections.</p> Reem Zuhair Shinashal Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 257 260 Gene expression and histological evaluation of the effect of local exogenous application of Morin /Moringa oleifera on wound healing in rats <p>This study aimed to study the effect of local application of Moran and Moringa Oliveira on wound healing in rats, 60 rats of white male rats, and surgical skin (width 2 cm and depth 0.5-0.6 cm) on the skin. From the cheek of the animal and divided into four groups, the control group, Morin group, Moringa group oleifera and Morin (Moringa oleifera) group, animal scratching was performed for healing periods (2,4 and 7 days), histological cells were found inflammatory, Skin, and contracted wound healing in all animal samples for all healing periods. The gene profile was analyzed in biopsies of previously injured skin and treated murine compared with the molecular-treated molybdenum skin by Mygene Bioneer Korea. Upregulation of IL-6, IL-1β1, CYP1B1 and CXCL1 gene expression and downregulation of psoriasin mRNA identified in samples treated topically with Morin.</p> Zahraa Raheem Abed Alzamily Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 261 268 Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of blaCTX-M ESBL gene in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary care <p>Members of the family cause mild to life-threatening infectious diseases in Enterobacteriaceae the recent past all the overworld. ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae poses a threat to both community and hospital settings, which leads to empirical treatment failure, increasing the rate of morbidity and mortality. A cross-sectional convenient sampling study was done to detect and characterise CTX-M genes among extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing Enterobacteriaceae from clinical isolates in a tertiary care centre A total of 200 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected from various clinical samples. ESBLs production was phenotypically detected by screening with ceftazidime, cefotaxime and cefepime, and then confirmed by disk combination method and multiplex PCR. <em>Escherichia coli</em>&nbsp;was the most predominant 87 (43.5%) isolate, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 72 (36%), Klebsiella oxytoca 15(7.5%), <em>Proteus species 10</em>&nbsp;(5%),<em> Enterobacter species</em>&nbsp;5 (2.5%) and <em>Citrobacter species </em>1 (2.5%). ESBLs were detected by phenotypic confirmatory combination method in 144 (72%) isolates 197/200 (98.5%) were ESBLs producers were positive for bla<sub>CTX-M</sub>&nbsp;genes by PCR. The study highlights the high prevalence of bla<sub>CTX-M</sub> genes among the Enterobacteriaceae. CTX-M group 1 was the most commonly encountered CTX-M group in our study.</p> Bindu D Chitralekha Saikumar Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 269 273 Colonoscopic and histopathological finding among adults attendant to Al Hussein teaching hospital colonoscopic centre <p>Colonoscopy is a preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic safe procedure. Its results influence a patient's life and outcome. To estimate the extent and main determinants of abnormal colonoscopic finding among adults attended to colonoscopic centre and assessed the validity of colonoscopy of clinical and pathological findings of colonoscopy. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 was used for data analysis. Chi-Square test, and binary logistic regression analysis P value (0.05) was a cut-off point for measuring statistical association where less than (0.05) had a significant statistical association<strong>.</strong> the colonoscopic findings were as follow the normal (42.7%), internal hemorrhoid (27.5%), nonspecific inflammation (12.9%), polyp (11.2%), inflammatory bowel disease (3.9%), colorectal cancer (3.4%), and other diseases (3.9%) Some patients had more than one abnormality. The histopathological result of colonoscopic biopsies which were as follow non- specific inflammation (64.2%), colorectal cancer (15.4%), and inflammatory bowel disease and polyp the same percent (10.2%). There was a significant statistical association between age groups and specific diseases. Bleeding per-rectum is a pig predictor sign of lower gastrointestinal problems, and it is the mean cause of referral. According to site of the lesion: colonic polyp (45%), sigmoid polyp (30%), and rectal polyp (25%). While the distribution of carcinoma according to the site of location. Carcinoma of sigmoid (50%), carcinoma of colon (33.3%), and carcinoma of rectal (16%). Sigmoid represent the most common site of occurrence of carcinoma. The sensitivity of colonoscopy 100% while the specificity was 50%. Colonoscopy is 100% sensitive in diagnosis lower GIT problems. The most common cause of referral was bleeding per-rectum, and the most abnormal finding was an internal haemorrhoid</p> Wejdan Ajeel Hassan Ali A Saadoon Al-Ghuzi Faez k Abdulmuhsen Sadiq Jarallah Yassin Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 274 281 A glance preface and novel approaches for the efficient treatment of a migraine <p>The reviewing of a migraine mainly aimed to analyze the incessant paroxysmal neurological ailment characterized by moderate to severe head throbbing. The review points out the basic pathophysiology and different types of migraine as well as some of the promising newer antimigraine therapeutic options. The various biomarkers in CSF, as well as blood, are used as standards to diagnose the condition. The triptans released during the 1990s were the initial class of drugs used for acute treatment of migraine. The other conventional therapies offer especially as oral formulations are not exquisitely appropriate for migraineurs having severe nausea and vomiting with reduced gastric absorption. The unmet clinical needs were rapidly advanced, and development of novel drug delivery system ensured better kinetic and dynamic characteristics. The newer drug regimens were more based and targeted on the neurotransmitters directly in involved in the pathophysiology of migraine by utilizing exceptionally confined delivery systems. These include a breath activated the system, transdermal patch, oral inhalers where lower and safer doses of the drug were utilized. Such systems were having improved patient compliance and offered non- invasive route of drug administration that could be suitably substituted by oral medications. The disease disabled the quality of life of patients and also had an abundant effect in the daily activities especially for women. Thus the various nanotechnical approaches are used as novel treatment methods for better and enhanced profiling of drug molecules.</p> Shefrin S Sreelaxmi CS Sharon Joseph Sreeja C Nair Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 282 297 Antibacterial susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a private hospital, India <p><em>P. aeruginosa&nbsp;</em>is a cosmopolitan gram-negative aerobic bacillus isolated from soil, water, plants, and animals, including humans. It is occasionally pathogenic for plants as well as animals. <em>P. aeruginosa&nbsp;</em>is an opportunistic pathogen with innate resistance to many antibiotics and disinfectants. It rarely causes disease in healthy persons, although it is a common human saprophyte.&nbsp;<em>P. aeruginosa&nbsp;</em>is physiologically versatile and flourishes as a saprophyte in multiple environments, including sinks, drains, respirators, humidifiers and disinfectant solutions. Prevalence of <em>Pseudomonas Aeruginosa(PA) </em>among the positive cultures is found to be 11.5%, 10.1% and 11% in 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively. The number of isolates reduced in the consecutive years and saw an increase in the last year. The number of isolates was found to be more in the ICU than in the wards. In the current study, there were no resistant strains identified neither in the wards nor ICU. The susceptibility of isolates of PA to antibiotics remains slightly higher in all the three years. Susceptibility of PA has decreased substantially to Gentamycin, Amikacin, Meropenem respectively in the second year but showed a gradual increase in the susceptibility in the final year. Results from a larger, well-monitored surveillance network, can provide useful information by detecting signs of emerging pathogen populations/resistance patterns as well as trends in antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.</p> Chandrasekaran K Gandhiraj D Guru Prasad Mohanta Rajasekaran A Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 298 302 Molecular docking approach of potent natural inhibitors against 3D4Z, 4TRO and 5ACS receptors for anti-tubercular activity <p>Phthisis is an airborne infectious disease that may sound pompous any part of the human body, especially occurs in the pulmonary region. The purpose and goal of the current study are to carry out Receptor-Ligand docking analysis on 5 active phytoconstituents from three various medicinal plants, namely <em>Swertia chirata</em> (swertiamarine, mangiferin), <em>Ocimum sanctum </em>(Eugenol, Linalool) and <em>Andrographis paniculata</em> (Andrographolide) on protein or receptor for anti-tuberculosis action. GOLGI MANNOSIDASE II complex with gluco-imidazole (PDB 3D4Z), Enoyl-ACP reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA (PDB 4TRO) and Y233A- Investigation of the impact from residues W228 and Y233 in the metallo-beta-lactamase GIM-1 (PDB 5ACS) are 3 targets, acquired from PDB (Protein data bank) in .pdb. Mol structure, preferred for docking studies. From PubChem chemical database the active constituents of selected three medicinal plants were retrieved in. Mol structure. Utilising Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD) receptor-ligand docking analysis was executed. MolDock score, Rerank score and hydrogen bonding interactions are the parameters used for docking studies. It was established that the active constituents such as linalool, eugenol, and andrographolide demonstrated efficient preventing activity as compared to that of the standard drugs Isoniazid, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide. Based upon these docking studies the above active compounds may be utilised in future as anti-tuberculosis agents.</p> Malarkodi Velraj Prakash Chand Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 303 312 Efficacy of mobilization techniques and range of motion in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder pain <p>Adhesive capsulitis is a condition of uncertain aetiology characterised by significant restriction of both active and passive shoulder motion that occurs in the absence of another known intrinsic shoulder disorder. Maitland's concepts involve the application of passive and accessory oscillatory movements to spinal and peripheral joints Principle of Mulligan's mobilization with movement is, the limited, painful physiological movement is performed actively while the therapist applies a sustained accessory glide at right angle or parallel to a joint. Both the treatment can be valuable additions to existing treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of mobilization techniques and range of motion in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder pain. reduce the pain and restore the kinetic range of shoulder movements as soon as possible so that we can avoid the shoulder inanimate that happens when most patients are not using muscle for the full movement of the hinge, and this is done by promoting manual therapy with free exercises for the patient. The majority of the patient in the sample was female. Results show a significant improvement in all the outcome measures in both groups as compared to baseline. In addition, end range mobilization and mobilization with the movement was found to be significantly equally effective than compared to a control group for pain, ROM and SPADI. So, effect size was calculated which shows that the effect size of group A was significantly more than that of group A and B.</p> Zainab Ali Hussein Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 313 317 Multidrug-resistant Salmonella: A raising calamity <p>Multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms become a foremost health concern in both developing and developed countries. These infectious agents show a wide spectrum of resistance against different antimicrobial drugs which causes a major public health threat all over the world. In recent years bacteria, fungi, virus, and parasites started to show prominent levels of multidrug-resistance with superior morbidity and mortality. MDR Salmonellosis requires costly drugs for effective treatment, and this is an added burden to the health-care segment in developing countries. Immunization in common areas with typhoid vaccine, rational use of antibiotic, improvement in public sanitation facilities, secure food handling and communal health instruction were considered to be as vital in the prevention of salmonellosis. These health and environmental issues require collective actions from governments, consumers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and health-care providers. Two methods were followed to congregate the information in this article. Firstly, we collected a list of relevant articles published through PubMed search, which includes original as well review articles. Secondly, book chapters on typhoid fever from standard textbooks on infectious diseases and social remedy were also reviewed.</p> Balasubramani Gangathraprabhu Santhanam Geethanjali Nagarethinam Baskaran Marudhamuthu Murugan Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 318 327 Comparative study of in-vitro stability for the enteric coat of pellets of capsules of three different brands of omeprazole <p>Omeprazole which is one of the most prescribed PPIs was commonly use as a treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophagitis, and in the treatment of H.Pylori infections. Then these granules either envelop within a capsule or compressed into tablets that differ in their efficiency of the coating. As our market was containing many brands of omeprazole brands that differ in their quality and efficiency of their coating, that to be investigated through this work by investigating their in-vitro stability within acidic media that equal to the acidity of the stomach measuring the in-vitro stability of the coating of omeprazole through placing the pellets of omeprazole in contact with an acidic solution having pH similar to that of the stomach and by using different brands of omeprazole that available at pharmacies from different origins. Out of 3 brands of omeprazole was used in this work the 3 brands show good stability when the pellets become in contact with the acidic solution there was no release of active ingredient while in alkaline media the active ingredients were starting to release. Availability of different brands of omeprazole in the Iraqi pharmaceutical market needs to be investigated in term of the stability of their enteric coating against acidic solution because most of this pharmaceutics exposed sometimes to extreme storage conditions in term of temperature and humidity that may inversely affect the in-vitro stability and then the therapeutic efficacy of these medications.</p> Layth Jabbar Afrah Thiab Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 328 330 Protective role of morin on some parameters related to oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome induced by acrylamide in male rats <p>The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of <em>morin</em> on some physiological parameter including lipid profile, antioxidant status, and pro-inflammatory biomarkers in Acrylamide (ACR) treated rats. Forty adult male rats were selected randomly and equally allocated into four bunches that were G1, G2, G3 and G4, which were treated daily for 45 days with an oral manner as follows: G1: (control group received distilled water). G2: rats in this group were received (25 mg/kg/B. W) of morin. G3: rats of this group were received (1 mg/kg/B. W) of acrylamide in drinking water G4: rats in this group were received (25 mg/kg <em>/</em>B. W) of morin and Acrylamide (1 mg/kg <em>/</em>B. W). Fasting blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture technique at the end of the experiment. Blood was drawn by cardiac puncture technique for measuring the following parameters: total serum cholesterol (TC), (TAG) HDL-C, uric acid, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Sections of the liver were taken for histopathological study. The results of the current study revealed the beneficial effect of morin against deleterious effects of ACR illustrated by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effect. In conclusion, morin alleviates the determined effect of ACR correlated with their pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects.</p> Neeran F. Hassan Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 331 338 Free radicals scavenging and antiproliferative activity of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves in PA-1 cell line <p>A comparative antioxidant and anticancer potential of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of leaves of <em>Carica papaya</em> were investigated. Both the plant extracts were prepared separately, and their anti-oxidant scavenging potential was investigated for the scavenging of superoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals using standard protocols. The anticancer property of these plant extracts was evaluated in PA-1 cell lines using tryptan blue assay. The total phenols and flavonoids contents responsible for the above said activities were estimated quantitatively. Among the two extracts, the ethanolic extract scavenged the free radicals to a greater extent when compared to the methanolic extract. Similarly, in the tryptan blue exclusion assay, the percentage of cell death was more for ethanolic extract. At high concentrations such as 50, 75 and 100 μg concentrations, the ethanolic extract showed higher cell death which was comparable to the positive drug doxrubicidin used in the present study. Both the extracts possessed considerable quantities of phenols and flavonoids. It may be concluded that the presence phytochemicals along with the phenols and flavonoids may be the reason for the antioxidant and anticancer activity observed in the present study.</p> Priyadurairaj Palagati Rohith Kumar Reddy Palaniyandi Thiruvanavukkarasu Rajeswary Hari Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 339 345 Bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mechanistic approach on antimicrobials using C. dactylon <p>In recent years' nanoparticle have attracted interest because of their wide application in biomedicine. Nanotechnology has acquired interest because of their eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of the silver nanoparticle. This work demonstrates the efficacy of biologically synthesised Ag nanoparticle by means of <em>Cynodon</em> <em>dactylon</em>. Phytochemical analysis of <em>C</em>. <em>dactylon</em> suggests the presence of active constituents in polar solvents. Agnps were optimized using different parameters, and in general, the effect for temperature was 75°C within 1 hr, in a neutral condition, the concentration was found to be 1mM. Uv- vis analysis of synthesized silver nanoparticle indicates that the absorption peak was observed at 240nm. Absorbance peak at 2917<sup>cm-1</sup>, 1648<sup>cm-1 </sup>indicate the presence of capping agent responsible for synthesis. A broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity was reported in 400µl of synthesised silver nanoparticle (23.3 mm) against P. <em>aeuroginosa</em>, followed by <em>Bacillus</em> <em>sp</em>. (22.8 mm) and <em>F</em>. <em>oxysporum</em> (22.1 mm). HPLC analysis indicates the presence of active constituents in the sample. This study reveals that <em>C</em>. <em>dactylon</em> acts as a potential source for nanoparticle synthesis.</p> Rajeswari Anburaj Vinoth Jothiprakasam Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 346 354 Innovations in containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes: A prospective patent analysis <p>Packaging pharmaceutical products is a wide, encompassing, and multi-faceted assignment. Packaging preserves the quality and stability of the pharmaceutical products and protects them beside all forms of tampering and spoilage. The quality of the packaging for pharmaceutical products plays a very significant role in the quality of such products. There is an ever increasing need to provide individual, tailored packaging solutions, which guarantees the effectiveness of pharmaceutical products administered as medicines. The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly upgrading. Distribution of products and goods is now more global than ever before. Mass customisation of packaging to allow its use in multiple markets is a subject that needs explanation and discussion. Packaging is an evolving science, a developing engineering branch, and a successful contributor to pharmaceutical industries. The present research paper has analysed several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging innovation trends with the help of patent data, which are impacting the packaging industry.</p> Amitkumar Patel Kinjalben Patel Kalp Bhatt Jignesh Patel Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 355 366 Evaluation of the gastroprotective effect of lee macrophylla <p>The gastroprotective effect of <em>Lee macrophylla</em> was evaluated by inducing gastric ulcer by using ethanol and pylorus ligation methods, and the effect of this plant was evaluated at three doses as 100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight. Due to the presence of phytoconstituents like Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Glycosides and Phenols, it was estimated that the extract could exhibit the proposed activity. The percentage of ulcer protection was 83% for <em>Lee macrophylla</em> and 92% for the standard. Omeprazole, the positive control included for the study also offered significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. The <em>Lee macrophylla</em> of the higher dose has shown, the higher percentage of inhibition than that of the lower dose. Hence, the gastroprotective effect observed in the present study which might have been due to phytochemical such as a flavonoid, glycoside and also it is a dose-dependent activity.</p> Swarnalatha G Poojitha M Bhaskar Reddy K Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 367 371 Epidemiological study of Trichomoniasis with the effect of estrogen hormones LH and FSH among married women in Samarra city, Iraq <p>The study included the collection of 50 female vaginal specimens for the detection of vaginal trichomonas parasite infection by direct microscopy of the sample obtained by the female specialist doctor in primary health care centers in Al-Moalemeen neighborhood, Al-Jubairia first district and Samarra General Hospital in Samarra city, November 2017 Until January 2018, the samples were a group of women married to different age groups and different residential areas with symptoms ranging from lower abdominal pain to vaginal Secretions of various colors with heartburn and redness in the vaginal area The highest rate of infection according to the age recorded was from 26-35 to 52.6%, while the highest rate according to the residential area was in the city 39.5% and the highest rate of women who had previously had pregnancy was 61.9%. There was a relationship between the number of Abortion and parasite infection, and the highest rate was within 1-2 abortion by 58.3%. The symptoms of itching with abdominal pain and vaginal Secretions showed the highest rate of 77.7%. The results showed a high estrogen hormone and a low hormone LH, FSH compared to negative control.</p> Ehoud Mzahim Shaker Asifa Matrood Yassin Almaeahi Khaled Thamer Matar Al-Shaibani Copyright (c) 2019 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 372 377 Effect of ochratoxin a on reproductive system efficiency in male rats <p>The contamination of food with ochratoxin A (OTA) represents a real risk to the safety of food and animal health as it transfers through food chain for the human. This study was conducted to determine the toxicological effects of oral administration of OTA on the male reproductive efficiency. Forty-eight adult <em>Wistar albino </em>male rats (aged 65-75 days), average of body weight 145±1.85g), they were randomly assigned into three equal groups, sixteen rats per group: control group, did not received any treatment, and two treated groups were administered with OTA via gavage at dose levels (1 mg and 2 mg /kg/ Bodyweight) daily. Eight male rats from each group were sacrificed at the 14th and 28th day from the first day of treatment. Body weight, sex hormones included (testosterone, FSH and LH) were measured and histological changes in testicular and epididymal sections were investigated. The results registered significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in body weight gain and hormonal assay of (testosterone, FSH and LH) of two treated groups with OTA when compared with the control group. Histological investigation of the present study showed to effect of OTA on reproductive organ tissue through an expansion seminiferous lining, spermatogenesis suppression and degeneration of Leydig cells in testis tissue, as well as noted tubules lumen of epididymis, were empty from sperm in addition to damage in epithelial lining cells of epididymal tubules with presence of edematous in epididymal lumen.</p> Alaa Mohammad Hasson Al-Husseini Saba Abdul Ameer kadhim Ennas Mohamad Majhwol Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 378 387 Comparison between the effect of metronidazole and some plant extracts on parasite Cryptosporidium parvium in vivo <p>The current study included the test of the efficiency of water extract for pomegranate peel and water extract from pumpkin seeds in the treatment of parasite <em>Cryptosporidium parivum</em> within the body of the organism and compared its effectiveness with metronidazole in the treatment to eliminate the same parasite within the body of the organism, was relied on (50) mouse mosquito moss age (8-10 weeks) and weight (25-30 g), the mice were first examined as soon as they were obtained to confirm their safety and the absence of previous intestinal parasites, then they were injected with parasite bags that collapsed to cause the disease, and the mice remained under observation until they were confirmed to obtain the infection, the mice were treated the first group was given the dose 392.0 mg/1.0 ml/mouse of metronidazole, the second group with a dose of 657.14 mg/1.0 ml of water extracts for pomegranate solutions, the third group took 1000 mg/1.0ml /g of pumpkin extract from Pumpkin seeds, plus a positive control group of 2x10 cysts/2.0 ml of bag suspension and 1.0 ml of normal saline solution, the results showed to absence of cysts of parasites completely on the sixth day of the group that took metronidazole and on the seventh and eighth days of the two groups that used water extracts to peel the pomegranate and seeds of the pumpkin respectively for the positive control group, and that both the drug and the plant extracts achieved results of 100% in the treatment of infected mice and the elimination of parasite, and it seems clear that the highest efficiency was the share of the drug metronidazole followed by plant extracts.</p> Hiba Riyadh Jameel Al-abodi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 388 393 Analysis of sequence and structure for beta-2-microglobulin in patients with thyroid cancer using bioinformatics tools <p>Bioinformatics tools used to employ the technology that utilizes computers to manage biological data, to analysis the sequence and structure of the protein. The current study aimed to compute the physio-chemical properties and predicting structures of Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) in patients with thyroid cancer, 14 patients with thyroid carcinoma included in this study. The DNA was extracted and B2M gene was amplified by using specific primers for three exons of this gene. Thirty-two mutations found in the patients for first and second exons while in third exon no mutations detected. In the first exon, a point mutation at the site 44,711,557 observed in all patients except one patient. In the second exon a point mutation at the site 44,715,448 observed in all patients except two patients, these mutations recorded in the GenBank at NCBI, ENA and DDBJ databases with the number LC424501 and LC424502, respectively. The results of the ProtParam program showed that the mutations affected the physio-chemical properties of B2M protein for patients compared to B2M protein retrieved from NCBI. Also, results of secondary structure prediction of B2M protein by SOPMA tool showed that the mutations affected the percentages of alpha helix, extended strand, beta turn and a random coil of B2M protein for patients compared to B2M protein retrieved from NCBI. The results of the RaptorX server showed that the impact of mutations was clear on the tertiary structure of B2M protein for patients compared to B2M protein retrieved from NCBI.</p> Ammar Adil Jasim Abbas Abdullah Mohammed Ali Abdulhafidh Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 394 401 A serological and histological study of Passer domesticus infected with Toxoplasma gondii parasite <p><em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> parasite has three contagious stages: the oocytes, which is introduced into the external environment with the faeces of the infected cats, which later form the spores. The current study depended on detection of antibodies by using the serological tests such as latex, and rapid cassette testing are widely used to diagnose toxoplasmosis due to their ease of use and low cost, as well as the lack of time and effort required to perform them, the result of the test is shown after 3-5 minutes and depends mainly on efficiency and accuracy is one of the tests used in the epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis in birds, in particular, local chickens and pigeons, the results of the rapid cassette test used to examine 80 samples of a serum taken from bird <em>Passer domesticus</em> showed that the total infection rate in this species of <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> parasite was 71.25% with 57 positive samples out of a total of 80 samples. It was also observed that the presence of IgG antibody was (7.01%) with 4 positive samples while IgM antibody (5.26%) was positive (3 positive samples), the highest IgG + IgM antibody was 62.5% (50) , In the study of histopathological changes in <em>Passer domesticus</em> members, the presence of Lesions lesions associated with infection in both the liver and the small intestine was characterized by the presence of congestion in the blood vessels, as well as the expansion of the jibaniat with the loss of the engineering structure of the liver. In the tissue with a degenerative degeneration.</p> Adel Jabbar Hussein Hiba Riyadh Jameel Al-abodi Rana Imad Al_Mashhadany Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 402 406 Kinetic study on the herbal synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant and antibacterial effect against gastrointestinal pathogens <p>Rhizome extract of <em>Acorus calamus</em> was used for silver nanoparticles synthesis and examine the effect of physical and chemical parameters like time, pH, temperature and silver nitrate concentration in the process. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer shows the SPR band at 420-430 nm. It concluded that the optimum time, pH, temperature and silver nitrate concentration are 120 min, 6 or 7, 45°C and 1 mM silver nitrate concentration, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope showed well dispersed spherical shaped nanoparticles with aggregation. EDAX confirmed that the presence of elemental silver in the reaction mixture observed at 3keV binding energy. TEM images confirmed that spherical shape nanoparticles with the size range of 2 – 40 nm. AFM image shows that the topography profile of synthesized silver nanoparticles and the observed size of nanoparticles is 30-55 nm. Antimicrobial activity of the rhizome mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles was performed by agar well diffusion method against gastrointestinal pathogens are bacteria <em>Vibrio sp, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas sp </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The highest zone formation was observed against <em>E. coli </em>and <em>Vibrio sp</em>.</p> Chellakannu M Panneerselvam T Rajeshkumar S Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 407 414 The cellular genetics effect of pyrethroid on lab rabbits <p>The mutagenicity and genotoxicity of sumicidin insecticide 30 EC, which is classified as a synthetic pyrethroid w 30 studied using mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberration (CA) in somatic cells (bone marrow and spleen) and male germ cells of rabbits. Sumicidin was administered orally at dose level (2 X 10<sup>-5</sup>, 2.5 X 10<sup>-5</sup>, 3 X 10<sup>-5</sup>M) and control dose level of mitomycin C. Result show that high doses of sumicidin cause a significant reduction in MI and a significant increase in CA for all tissues. Reduction in MI level was significantly higher (p&lt;0.01) in bone marrow and male germ cells than spleen while there is a significant increase in CA level in male germ cells, compared with somatic cells. These results indicate that sumicidin 30 EC is potentially genotoxic in rabbits.</p> Eqbal Dohan Chalap Farah Safaa Abdulhussein Dhuha Salman Asker Aljuboory Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 415 418 Proximate composition, phenolic content and antioxidant potential of the leaves of four Jatropha species <p><em>Jatropha</em> is a large euphorbiaceous genus of tropical and subtropical distribution. Several species are used as traditional remedies for mouth sores, diarrhoea and skin diseases. This study aimed to estimate the amount of phenolic components in correlation to the antioxidant potential of the leaves of four <em>Jatropha</em> species acclimatised in Egypt. The plant material was subjected to determination of pharmacopoeial standards (ash values, moisture and crude fibre contents) and macronutrients (fat, protein and carbohydrates) for the establishment of reliable quality control criteria. Quantitation of phenolic compounds was performed spectrophotometrically and DPPH radical scavenging assay applied for<em> in-vitro</em> assessment of anti-oxidant activity. Quality control parameters differed among the analysed samples; total and water-soluble ash values were distinctly higher in <em>Jatropha curcas</em> and crude fibres in <em>J. gossypifolia </em>and <em>J. multifida</em>. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were present in significant amounts in <em>J. curcas, J. gossypifolia</em> and <em>J. multifida </em>leaves; this could be partially correlated to their relatively moderate to appreciable anti-oxidant activities (IC<sub>50</sub>s 1.03, 1.7 and 1.26mg/mL, respectively). Meanwhile, the least amounts of phenolic compounds and lowest anti-oxidant potential were recorded for those of <em>Jatropha integerrima</em>. Results of proximate and macronutrient analyses could serve as suitable criteria for quality control of the investigated <em>Jatropha</em> species. The appreciable amounts of polyphenols detected in the leaves recommend intensive chemical and biological investigation of their component metabolites for further implementation in pharmaceutical products.</p> Ahmed Hanafy Elosaily Engy Abdelhamid Mahrous Ahmed Mohamed Salama Soheir Mohamed El Zalabani Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 419 424 Anti-carcinogenic and cytotoxic effect of Carthamus oxycantha Safflower seed oil extract on RD cell lines <p>The search for the story of anticancer drugs continues. The Agent that can kill cancer cells should don't kill the normal cells. This study includes the effect of active substances in <em>Carthamus oxyacantha</em> on RD malignant cell lines. RD malignant cell lines are Rhabdomyosarcoma cancer cell line which taken from Caucasian girl infected by cancer in pelvic at seven-year-old. Many of solvents used to extraction active compounds from <em>Carthamus oxycantha</em>, where prepared oily, aqueous solutions for compartment between them. Cytotoxicity assay, for evaluating the activity of these extracts is done on human cancer cell lines RD, by using eight concentrations (7.81, 15.62, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000) µg /ml for each extract, and 24, 48, and 72 hours of exposure time. The Results show a gradually cellular toxic effect of extracts on cell lines growth, with dose and time-dependent manner for all types of these cell lines. There are some differences in the effect of these extracts based on the extracts and cancer cell. Through the estimation of cytotoxic concentration that kills 50% of cells (CC50) for each extract and cell type, we found that aqueous extract was the most potent cytotoxic extracts for these cancer cell lines, followed by crude, crude oily extract respectively. RD cells were the most sensitive type of cell lines to these. Active compound Triterpene concreted in the flower and oil extracted oleic acid and linoleic acid will role antitumor activity.</p> Muhammad Khamees AL-Sarhan Laith Mohammed Jawad AL-Shamaa Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 429 435 A comparative study among effects of treatment with nifedipine, verapamil, diazepam or alpha-methyldopa on platelets count and behavior in women with preeclampsia <p>This study was conducted to investigate the role of platelets -count and -behavior in the pathogenesis of mild and moderate preeclampsia (PE). Also, the effects of the specific treatment regimen in both cases of preeclampsia investigated. In mild PE only nifedipine had significantly higher platelet count compared to those without treatment, while in moderate PE both verapamil and nifedipine had significantly higher platelet count compared to those without treatment. Concerning platelet response to ADP; in mild PE all drugs show an increase in response compared to those without treatment, a similar finding reported in moderate. While platelet response to collagen, in mild PE both diazepam and verapamil show increased response compared to those without treatment, in moderate PE methyldopa and verapamil show increased response compared to those without treatment. In conclusion, platelets may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Nifedipine and verapamil produced effective enhancement of <em>ex vivo</em> platelets aggregation-induced by ADP or collagen and may evolve as antiplatelet agents that able to prevent the <em>in vivo</em> activation of platelets and exhaustion cycle, an action which could explain the observed effectiveness of calcium channel blockers for the prevention and treatment of preeclampsia other than diazepam or alpha-methyldopa used in this study.</p> Atyaf Hasan Mohammed Nawfal A.M. Numan Ghazi F. Al-Temimi Nada N. Al-Shawi Hayder Adnan Fawzi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 444 452 Effects of methandienone on some hematological parameters, kidney and liver functions tests in male mice <p>Methandienone is widely used to treat many health problems such as aplastic anemia, wounds, burns, delayed puberty, early men climacterium, and has non-medical uses in fitness centres to increase physical activity and muscle volume. Abuse of methandienone was reported to impair its medical benefits and possibly to hepatic toxicity — the present study aimed at detecting the cytotoxic effects of methandienone in albino mice <em>Mus musculus</em>. For this purpose, 55 adult male mice were used and divided into 5 groups: negative control and positive control (cyclophosphamide) consisting of 5 mice and 3 other treated groups each consisting of 15 mice, methandienone was orally administered for 35 days to the mice in low, intermediate, and high doses with concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/Kg body weight, respectively. Effects of treatment were measured using blood tests, including total white blood cell (WBC) count, total red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level and blood platelets count. Effects on kidney and liver functions were also tested by measuring serum levels of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Results show an abnormal change in blood parameters and increase in liver-kidney functions tests, and the effect was dose and time-dependent. From these results, we conclude that methandienone displayed a change in blood parameters and an increase in the activities of diagnostic marker enzymes in liver and kidney which may reflect significant damage in the structural integrity of liver and kidney. So we may also suggest that the use of methandienone should be given to the patient or young men in gymnasiums in the proper pharmacological dose to avoid its toxic effects.</p> Abbas A. Mohammed Ghassan M. Sulaiman Marwah Y. Falih Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 453 459 Knowledge, attitude, and practice on brushing habits among transgenders residing in Chennai City: Cross-sectional questionnaire Study <p>Proper home care brushing practices, regular visits to the dentist and routine dental check-ups will reduce the risk of having gingival and periodontal diseases. Various studies on oral hygiene suggest that when there is good oral health, the chances of having overall body health is more. In contrary, transgenders do not bother about their physical and oral health because of their lower socioeconomic status and inferior quality of life. To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices on brushing habits among transgenders in Chennai city. The study was designed as a questionnaire survey, in the native languages of respective transgenders, which was answered by 96 transgenders of Chennai city. All the obtained data was entered on Microsoft excel sheet and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, IBM, USA) version 20. From the statistics, it can be well seen that 80% of the transgender Community brush only once per day. 36.7% of them brush 2 to 3 minutes, 56.7% of them brush according to the times they have. Nearly 83.3% of them never shows regular visit to the dentist and 16.7 % of them at least visit dentist only when they experience oral related problems.53.3% of the study group never use a tongue scraper. None of them was aware of any sorts of brushing practices like scrub method, roll techniques and smith methods. Also people weren't aware of electronic brushes too. The awareness towards brushing habits and care towards oral hygiene among transgenders is inadequate. Hence more oral health awareness programmes must be initiated to impart comprehensive oral care for transgenders.</p> Akshaya K Revathi Duraisamy Dhanraj Ganapathy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 460 466 Detection the distribution of Ureaplasma parvum in women with recurrent miscarriage by polymerase chain reaction assay <p>One hundred Seventyample were collected, including vaginal bleeding, vaginal swabs and urine. One hundred and thirty samples of women were collected with repeated miscarriage and forty samples of control. Two types of media (middle IH broth) and IH agar medium were used. A positive isolate of Mirablasma spp. In culture, the PCR probe was investigated to determine Ureaplasma parapum and subtyping to (SV1, SV3, SV6, SV14). Results showed that Ureaplasma was determined in 29.6% of the patient and 11% of control. The serovar3 isolate were isolated by the use of the PCR test, and results revealed that serovar3 was more isolated in the rate (42.8%), while serovar1 (28.5%), serovar6 (14.2%) and serovar14 (14.2%) in the patient but Only serovar1 control was isolated at rate (11%). Thee findings suggest that the Ureaplasma parvum infection may be an important archaeological factor for repeated miscarriage and serovar3 was the most frequent serovar detected in the current study.</p> Laila Jasim Shaebth Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 467 471 Evaluation of the gastroprotective potential of Chloris paraguaiensis steud <p>A peptic ulcer is one of the most common and aggressive disorders in human beings recently. Excessive use of proton pump inhibitors has lead to many other complications including bone weakness and cardiac conditions. In view of this, herbal extracts are found to be the best alternatives so far and thus serve us as sources of new drugs and lead molecules. Due to the presence of phytoconstituents like flavonoids, Glycosides and phenols, it was estimated that the ethanol extracts of <em>Chloris paraguaiensis steud</em> exhibit the proposed activity. The gastroprotective efficacy of an ethanolic extract of <em>Chloris paraguaiensis steud</em> was evaluated by inducing gastric ulcer using ethanol and pylorus ligation methods at two doses as 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weight. The percentage of ulcer protection was 82% for <em>Chloris paraguaiensis </em>and 89% for standard, Lansoprazole. The dose at 500mg/kg showed significant and promising activity in comparison with the standard drug. Hence, the gastroprotective effect observed in the present study might be due to phytochemicals such as a flavonoid, glycoside and also it is a dose-dependent activity.</p> Poojitha M Saravana Kumar A Satyanarayana SV Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 472 478 Positive therapeutic effects of Risperidone drug on autistic children (Trial Study) in Nassiriya city, Iraq <p>Autism is one of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), mentioned to a significant disturbance in communication and social interaction, with a poor interest in normal behaviours. Risperidone is frequently the medication used that is licensed by (FDA), it revealed encouraging and favorable initial relief of both communication skill and social interaction through family, teacher impression and clinical interview at scoring levels of severity by downward fluctuation of its drug administration started with low dose from 0.5 mg per day with gradual increase according to tolerability and body weight until reaching 3 mg per day in divided dose that shows no extrapyramidal side effects. They were 5 years ago and above examined in a private clinic in Nassiriya city in Iraq, all cases were presented by their families for odd, aggressive behaviours and communication problems, they were exposed for two scales in first and second session to diagnose autism by ASD assessment scale and severity of the disorder by ASD assessment scale grading and scoring, all patients were treated with Risperidone for one month duration exposed to the same steps in the second interview to reveal the improvement rate, comorbid and probable risk also re-evaluated. Descriptive tables were used to reveal all percentages before and after the treatment. All participating children families gave oral and written consent. All steps, diagnosis and drug side effects were discussed to parents with hotline connection with them. Typical antipsychotic Risperidone has magic and dramatic effects on controlling children overactivity, relatively verbal improvement and improves his acceptance to settle in the centre of autism and schools.</p> Hussain Hlail Wda'a Al-Sayyad Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 484 488 Molecular study of bacterial infection from hemodialysis patients in Wasit centre, Iraq <p>This study was conducted at the College of Medicine – Wasit University in Cooperation with the Wasit centre for dialysis from the period of October -2017 to February -2018. It has been carried out on 100 urine samples and 100 blood samples from 100 hemodialysis patients referred to the Wasit centre of dialysis from both sex[male and female]<strong>. </strong>This study showed that from both 100 urine samples, and 100 blood samples, 40% UTIs, and 36% bacteremia. The main bacterial isolates from urine samples represented <em>Escherichia coli</em> (40%), and <em>Proteus merabilis</em>(11.1), <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (12.5%), <em>Entero cloacae</em> (12.5%), <em>Pantoea spp</em> (2.5)<em> Klebsiella pneumonia</em> (11.1), while bacterial isolates from blood samples are <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (33.33%), and<em> Staphylococcus aureus </em>(30%), <em>Pasteurella mulocida </em>(19.44%), <em>Entero cloacae</em> (11.11%), and, <em>Streptococcus spp </em>(2.55%). Antimicrobial sensitivity for <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> appeared sensitivity for Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime, and imipenem while<em> Pasteurella mulocida</em> showed sensitivity with Ciprofloxacin, Imipenem, aztreonam, and nalidixic acid. <em>Escherichia coli</em> observed sensitivity with Imipenem, Amikacin, Cefepime, Ciprofloxacin, and Nitrofurantoin. Bacteremia can be seen in a significant number of hemodialysis patients, and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>is the most universal organism isolated which is resistant to commonly used antibiotics, a significant number of patients had asymptomatic urinary tract infection in which<em> E.coli </em>is the most frequent microorganism isolate by using culture and, bacterial isolates detected 100% by PCR technique.</p> Haethem Qassim Mohammed Anwer Theab Shehab Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 489 499 The depression among cancer patients during chemotherapy and its relation to demographic and social data <p>Depression considers one of the most common symptoms associated with malignancy that is difficult to detect and therefore treat. It consists of a significant psychological disorder, which worsens during chemotherapy and can continue after the end of chemotherapy or in the recurrence of treatment and adversely affect the quality of life. Depression often accompanies many symptoms, such as fatigue, weight loss and food disorders widely accepted as a result of cancer. The current study was to designed investigate depression symptoms among cancer patients during chemotherapy and its association with socio-demographic data. However, the difficult economic conditions and financial problems were the most obvious reasons and the unrecognised social problems of people who lost a partner or living alone who contributed to depression in the cancer patient. The treatment of patients with another type of cancer in another organ of the body or originally infected with Chronic diseases condition increases the patient's ill-being, lack of medication, supplies and frequent visits of the hospital, especially for visitors from villages outside cities, number of chemotherapy cycle Especially when the patient is responsible for the family. Patients during chemotherapy usually have symptoms as a result of their cancer or treatment side effect. These symptoms have been affected by the physical and emotional conditions of the patients and also have a negative effect on treatment. Cancer patients may be subject to psychological disorder during the clinical course of their illness.</p> Alaa Abdulrazzaq Alanbagi Rabab Hajwal Al-Zamily Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 500 505 Morphometric measurements of the placenta in low-risk singleton pregnancies among Kerala population and its clinical relevance <p>The present study was undertaken to observe the morphometric measurements of the placenta in low-risk singleton pregnancies among Kerala population and its clinical relevance. The current study included Placentas from 46 singleton low-risk pregnancies on normal deliveries. Placental parameters were collected by standard methods in the literature. Out of 46 placentae, the shape of the placenta is round in 60.8%, oval in 34.78% and irregular in 4.34% cases. The cord insertion is central in 47.82%, eccentric in 39.13%, marginal in 4.34%, velamentous in 4.34%andfurcate in 4.34% cases. The mean birth weight of the neonate in this study Mean, and standard deviation of baby weight is 2.87 ± 0.47kg ranging from 1.42 – 3.85kg. The placental birth weight ratio (PBWR) was 16% and FP ratio 6:1. The mean birth weight of male babies are 460.81<u>+</u> 66.77g. The mean birth weight of male babies is 478<u>+</u> 65.66 g. The present study was in accordance with the studies conducted in other parts of India. Ethnic differences were reported between the Asian and European population. The study recommends more detailed study in more samples in different population groups. Examination of the placenta is very important and should be examined properly before discarding even though the baby is healthy because it can be a predictive tool for future health risks.</p> Akshara VR Ramakrishnan PK Seema Valsalan E Chitra S Kumar Sai Sailesh Sruthi M V Benjamin W Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 506 510 In vivo evaluation of speek coated titanium implants for dental applications <p>Titanium is the metal of choice for dental implants because of its biocompatibility and excellent osteointegration. In this study, the effect of the coating of titanium implants with sulphonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) was evaluated by in-vivo studies. The Ti implant samples were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 5 Ti implants were coated with SPEEK while the second group was comprised of uncoated Ti implants which acted as the control group. These implants were implanted into rat tibia and were observed for 3 weeks. The rats were euthanised after 3 weeks, and the implants along with the attached bone were harvested and studied under a microscope. The histologic studies showed evidence of higher inflammatory response in the bone samples of coated implants when compared with the uncoated implants. The higher inflammatory response could be due to the presence of a solvent or a high percentage of sulphonation. Although the results of the study do not support the coating of SPEEK over the implants, further studies are warranted using varying degrees of sulphonation and different solvents.</p> Aravind Kalambettu Thiyaneswaran Nesappan Dhanraj Ganapathy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 511 514 Comparing the effectiveness of the antibiotics and medicinal plants to influence the bacteria Propionibacterium acne which causing acne <p>The effect a group of plants was tested like<em>.</em> <em>&nbsp;</em>Ocimum<em> basilicum</em> oil<em> Lavandula,</em> <em>&nbsp;Azadirachata indica </em>against <em>Propionibacterium acne</em> acne-causing. The results showed the effect of aquatic extracts of plant leaves under study starting from the lowest user concentration of 100 mg/ml down to the largest inhibiting zone with a concentration of 500 mg/ml. Antibiotic, bacterial allergy testing was performed with the same concentration used for medicinal plants for comparison and demonstration of the synergistic effect of both species. It is believed that the differential effect on pathogenic bacteria is caused by both types of use due to the characteristic chemical composition of the plants under study and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria as a result of excessive use of antibiotics or the abandonment of treatment<em>.</em> From this study, we recommend the introduction of medicinal plants in the pharmaceutical industry to reduce the effects of antibiotics on the human body.</p> Hind Hamzah Abdulhussein Ghaidaa Raheem Lateef Al-Awsi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 515 518 A study of some physiological and hormonal criterion in males infected thalassemia <p>The current study was conducted in the Department of Biological Sciences / Faculty of Science / University of Al- Qadisiyah and in collaboration with the Genetic Diseases of the blood center in the city of Diwaniya for the period from (1/12/2017) until 1/6/2018, 30 male samples were taken and aged between 20 and 45 years were divided into two groups The first included 20 samples of males with thalassemia the second group consisted of (10) samples non-infected male representing the control group. (5ml) was withdrawn for the purpose of examining blood parameters and level (Ferritin) as well as measuring the level of male sex hormones Lh and Fsh for both the patient group and control. The results showed a significant decrease of p &lt;0.05 for all blood and hormone parameters for the group of patients compared with the control group, with a significant increase in the level of iron stock for patients compared to control group.</p> Wijdan Thamer Mahdi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 519 522 Screening of antioxidant activity of Mucuna pruriens by in vivo model <p>The present study was anticipated for reviewing the <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant influence of methanolic extract of <em>Mucuna pruriens</em>. Methanolic extract of the plant was given to rats separately at dissimilar binary amounts of 250 and 500 mg/kg for 21 days to estimate oxidative stress factors such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, ferric reducing ability of plasma &amp; reduced glutathione and to evaluate antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase &amp; superoxide dismutase. The <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> extracts of methanol deliberately (p&lt;0.05) raised the ferric reducing ability of plasma on seven, fourteen and twenty-one days of treatment. Significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels beside with an upturn in the superoxide dismutase level in the liver and kidney at two dissimilar doses of the plant was witnessed. Management with a dose of 500 mg/kg b.wt of <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> produced a significant progression in catalase levels. However, there was no major effect of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, superoxide dismutase &amp; catalase in the heart and reduced glutathione level at two different doses of <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> was noticed. These outcomes recommend that the leaves of <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> have potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological actions.</p> Rakam Gopi Krishna Raja Sundararajan Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 523 530 Synthesis and biological evaluation of some amides compound derivative of oxazole carboxylic acids <p>In this present a new series of amides from 4, 5 di benzoic acid oxazole, 4-benzoic acid -5- phenyl oxazole, 2-methyl 4,5 – di benzoic acid oxazole, 2-methyl-4 benzoic acid- 5-phenyl oxazole, 2-benzyl – 4.5 – di benzoic acid oxazole with aniline. The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined by their infra-red, H- nuclear magnetic resonance and analysis elemental analysis spectral data and were tested for their antibacterial activity. The newly amides characterized by spectral IR table (2) spectral shown disappearance pf – COOH at 3500 cm and NH2 3320-3410 cm Absorption band in the other new derivative at (1770-1760) cm-1 to –C-NH) group of new amides because of mesomeric effect and characterized by C-H-N and H NMR. In this study of the effect of the prepared compound in the two types of bacteria isolated from a medical condition (human) and it has studied and diagnosed and proved their attributes. It has identified its resistance of different antibiotic that is also carried out the development operations and increased the numbers of these bacteria in temperature (37°C).</p> Moayd N. Mohammed Teeba Ibraheem Mohammed Abbas A. Shalan Al-Saidi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 537 539 Colorectal carcinoma: Surgical management, risk and prognostic factors: A retrospective study <p>Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), the most common malignant disease in industrialized societies; 875, 000 new cases being reported every year and approximately 500, 000 are dying to the CRC, and it is the commonest gastrointestinal tract cancer worldwide. The current study as aimed to address the patterns of clinical preSsentations, age, and gender distribution, methods of investigations and surgical management of colorectal cancer patients as well as identification of certain risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer and predictors of recurrence. This study was involving 45 patients with the new diagnosis of colorectal cancer admitted and treated at Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq in the period between January 2016 and January 2018. The most common postoperative morbidity was wound complications (5/45, 11%). Prognostic factors of recurrence included Clinical presentation: emergency cases had a risk of recurrence that it's twice the elective cases, Stage: patients with Duke's stage ³ C1 had a risk of recurrence that is 3 times more than those with stage &lt; C1. Grade: patients with poorly differentiated tumours had a risk of recurrence that is six times more than those with well and moderately tumours. Adjuvant chemoradiation: patients who did not receive and or complete adjuvant chemoradiation were 30 times riskier for recurrence than those who received and completed their courses. There is an increase in the incidence of colorectal carcinoma in young age patients with about equal gender distribution, as well as bleeding per rectum and change in the bowel habit are the common presenting features with the rectum being the most common site.</p> Ahmed Kh. Alsagban Ali Raheem Almussawy Hussein Abdulzahra Aljanabi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 540 547 Effect of immature yellow melon seeds in inhibition of growth of cucumber and celery plant <p>Cucumis sativus is a vegetable crop belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family and originates from temperate, subtropical sub-humid areas. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of water extract of immature melon seeds in inhibition of seed germination of cucumber and celery plant. This study was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of Science, Faculty of Basic Education, Diyala University, Iraq. The seeds of these vegetables were selected and diagnosed in the herbaceous plant in the Department of Life Sciences. During the washing of immature seeds that were isolated from other melon residues. The results showed that the concentration of (0.1, 0.3, 0.7) and compared to the comparison models had the same effect in germination in seeds for cucumber. For celery plant only (0.7) gave the highest percentage of inhibition of celery seed plant and reached 20% Which was 80%. As for the length of the root only, the concentration of (0.7) gave the lowest rate for the cucumber and celery which amounted to 2.132 and 0.866 respectively, compared to the comparison treatment amounted to 5.932 and 1.399 respectively, in addition to other transactions. In addition, the concentration (0.7) gave the lowest length of the cucumber and celery time of 8.799 and 2.566 respectively, compared with the comparison treatment given to both plants 13.232 and 3.066 respectively, in addition to other treatments. As for the soft and dry weight of the cucumber plant, the concentration was given (0.7) the highest rate of soft weight at 0.2920, while the concentration (0.1, 0.3) gave 0.2057 and 0.0599 respectively, while dry weight gave the concentration (0.7).</p> Ammar Adnan Tuama Intesar Kareem Abdul Hassan Khamael Ali Kareem Rehab Ismail Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 548 554 Effect of abscisic acid and superabsorbent polymer on tolerance of Abelmoschus esculentus to drought <p>The experiment was conducted during the agricultural season (2016-2017) to study the effect of paper spraying with Abyssic acid and mixing polymers with soil to grow the <em>Abelmoschus esculentus</em> under different irrigation periods. The experiment developed with the design of complete random sections as a global experiment with three replicates. The first factor included irrigating factors (irrigations 3, 6, 9) day and spray agent with Abyssic acid at concentrations (0, 3, 6) mg / L and the third agent mixing polymers with soil, Soil mixed with polymers (0.5 kg / m2) with a depth of 20 cm. The results showed that the increase in the duration of the irrigation period to 9 days resulted in a decrease in the characteristics of the study (dry weight, chlorophyll content, relative water content in leaves) and a clear increase in the percentage of water deficit in the soil while irrigation every 3 days significantly exceeded the studied traits. The results showed that spraying plants with Abyssic acid and its different concentrations, especially 6 mg / L, led to a clear increase in the traits studied. Mixing the soil with polymers has led to a marked improvement in the studied indicators and increased plant resistance to water scarcity. Interaction factors between the duration of irrigation with alfalfa and the addition of soil polymers showed a significant effect on most studied traits.</p> Intedhar Abbas Marhoon Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 555 560 Used of nano silica particles to elimination larvae and virgins of mosquitoes Anopheles spp <p>The present study aimed to clarify the effect of nano silica particles on the larval and the virgin activity of Anopheles spp. The results of this study showed that the highest mortality rate for the larvae was the larvae of the first stage where it reached 100% at 30 mg/ml concentration, while the second, third and fourth stages were 79.30, 71.98 and 68.21 respectively at the same concentration while the less mortality rate was (52.07) for the fourth stage larvae at 5 mg /ml concentration. For the virgins, the lowest loss was 5 mg/ml (57.34). The highest mortality rate was 100% at 30 mg/ml.</p> Ikhlas Abbas Marhoon Esraa Fadel Wathah Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 561 563 Antioxidant properties and metabolites profiling of polyphenol-rich fraction from a folk mushroom, Macrocybe lobayensis, using different extractant <p>Antioxidant property of natural substances especially polyphenols is of current concern as it can protect human health from various chronic diseases. In this context, mushrooms have repeatedly been informed as a reservoir of several bioactive substances; although they still represent an almost untapped group. One such less explored fungus is <em>Macrocybe lobayensis</em> that has indigenously been accepted as gastronomic delicacy along different states of India. Thus, the present work was designed for the determination of free radical scavenging activity of polyphenol-rich fraction isolated from the taxon and for this purpose, a quite different extraction process has been followed to maximize yield. Initially, the formulation was characterized quantitatively and qualitatively to estimate therapeutic substances. Further, the extract was subjected to seven <em>in vitro</em> model systems to visualize the magnitude of antioxidant property. The fraction was found to be an assemblage of various components like phenol (pyrogallol&gt;cinnamic acid&gt; ferulic acid), flavonoid, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene with high recovery percentage. Besides, the formulation was detected to be extremely powerful for scavenging hydroxyl radical, followed by DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radicals. The fraction was also able to chelate metal ion efficiently while the reducing power was found to be moderate in action. Overall, the present study implies that <em>M. lobayensis</em> could be used in food; cosmetics, as well as pharmaceutical industry and in that note, the extracting method described herein, can be followed to prepare a fraction with high yield and strong antioxidant property.</p> Somanjana Khatua Sandipta Ghosh Krishnendu Acharya Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 564 571 Conventional lectures vs the flipped classroom: Comparison of teaching models in undergraduate curriculum <p>Education has been in the forefront of a catalyzing change due to the advent of technology and newer ideologies that has revolutionized today’s classrooms. The educators are looking in to newer teaching models to produce successful graduates in the current era. Primary research on a new pedagogy technique known as ‘The flipped classroom’ has been positive and its implementation in the undergraduate dental curriculum has been the least explored in educational research. The aim of this study was to compare the academic performance of undergraduate dental students using conventional lectures and ‘The Flipped Classroom’ for the subject of Periodontics. This retrospective study was conducted in two groups of undergraduate students who belonged to two academic years: Group I 2016 (n=75); Group II 2017 (n=75). Group I students learned the subject of Periodontology with conventional lectures whereas, Group II students were taught with ‘The Flipped Classroom’ where subject videos were viewed prior to the class session and interactive in-class activities were employed. The academic performance (summative assessment) of the students was evaluated using a written examination conducted at the end of final year of their undergraduate course. The comparison of the summative assessment was performed using independent t-test. The academic performance of Group II students (140.03 ± 7.14) was better than Group I students (129.21 ± 11.43) and statistically significant with p-value 0.000. Our implementation of the flipped classroom for Periodontology topics showed a promising platform for technology in education and with a significant improvement in the student’s academic performance when compared to traditional lectures.</p> Deepak Nallaswamy V Subha M Asha R Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 572 576 Knowledge attitude and practices of smoking habits among transgender living in Chennai city <p><span lang="EN-IN">Smoking is highly prevalent among transgender persons and contributes to health disparities. Many studies in the past 20 years have documented that transgender individuals smoke at rates that exceed the general population; yet, there have been few reports of smoking cessation interventions targeting this population. Stress, patronage of bars and clubs, and higher instances of alcohol use among the transgender community contribute to higher smoking rates. This study aimed to determine the knowledge attitude and practices of smoking habits among transgender living in Chennai city. Cross-sectional questionnaire study involving 100 transgender of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu to assess the smoking habits for an extended period of 20 days in November 2017. The study involved smoking habits, using of pan and Hukkah, oral hygiene and dental visits. All the obtained data was entered on Microsoft excel sheet and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, IBM, USA) version 20. From these results, it shows that 45% were not interested in controlling smoking, 44% were agreed that tobacco companies were using them to use the tobacco products , 65.1% did not care about the health warnings in the cigarette packets, 71% have not visited doctors to quit smoking , 69.4% were not aware of oral gum and bone problems because of smoking. Smoking habit among transgenders is more compared to others in Chennai city. Based on the results, transgenders have a high prevalence of Smoking habits, and it is recommended to conduct Smoking cessation programs must frequently be conducted to improve the health of a vulnerable subpopulation and to reduce the health illness by creating awareness on Smoking habit and its consequences.</span></p> Mathivadani V Revathi Duraisamy Dhanraj Ganapathy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 577 582 Awareness on interocclusal record materials among dental interns in private dental colleges in Chennai <p>To assess awareness among dental interns about interocclusal record material used in prosthodontics. The interocclusal registration material records the three-dimensional relationship between the Maxilla and mandible. The material to be used should have appropriate properties as it plays a vital role in establishing and recording this relationship. A clear understanding of various materials and their properties helps in making a choice that satisfies all the required characteristics. A self-administered questionnaire with ten questions was prepared and circulated among 100 dental interns from private dental colleges. The data were extracted, and the level of awareness was analysed. The results of the present study concluded the knowledge and awareness with regards to interocclusal record materials were only moderate among the dental students. Hence, more treatment awareness and education programs needs to be initiated to improve this situation.</p> Sharanya H Vinothkumar Sengottaiyan Dhanraj Ganapathy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 583 589 Antimicrobial activity of Cuminumcyminum extract against avian cholera in chicken embryo <p>Avian cholera outbreaks are a serious threat to the health of poultry and overall stock viability resulting in terrible economic losses. Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of avian cholera. This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the seed extracts of <em>Cuminumcyminum</em>, an aromatic plant within the Apiaceae family, against avian cholera in broiler chickens. Five hundred fertilised chicken eggs were divided into three groups, control (C; n=300), second group (O; n=100) and the third group (O+U; n=100) and were injected with distilled water, P. multocida and P. multocida + <em>Cuminumcyminum</em> seed extract respectively. After 14 days of incubation, the embryos were extracted and the tissues processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining to study the histopathological changes in the stomach, intestine and spleen tissues. The tissues of P. multocida infected embryos demonstrated lesions, degeneration, atrophy, hemorrhage, necrosis, karyolysis, congestion and desquamation whereas the control groups exhibited normal tissue histology. Interestingly, in spite of being infected by P. multocida, the tissues treated with <em>Cuminumcyminum</em> seed extract also demonstrated normal histology. The present study thus showed that <em>Cuminumcyminum</em> had an antibacterial role and protected the tissues from the damage induced by the avian cholera infection.</p> Fawiziah Khalaf Al-Harbi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 596 602 Malocclusion due to early surgical management of newborn cleft lip and palate <p>The early surgically repaired cleft L/P patients specially bilateral most of them will complain at future from malocclusion, velopharyngeal incompetence and speech problems due to displacement and deficiency of premaxilla and maxillary segments, while the early treatment by the use of orthodontic prosthesis and continuous separation of oral and nasal cavities to restore the anatomical and function is necessary for each cleft palate patients to create normal pattern of feeding, speech, hearing and facial growth. In this study, we focus on the problems resulting from early surgical treatment which lead to different premaxilla and maxillary segment movements which lead to different type of malocclusion and classified them according to these types of movements. 60 Iraqi patients were surgically repaired their cleft L/P during the first year of life was chosen randomly as a study group and a set of study casts were taken for each patient and classified them into four groups according to the development and direction of the segment. Group I: The collapse of maxillary segments bilaterally, medially with protrusion of premaxilla. Group II: The collapse only one lateral segment medially. Group III: Bilateral maxillary segments separated laterally with Regression of premaxilla backwards. Group IV: Normal lateral segments and very little protruded premaxilla. The percentage of each group was 32% G4, 30% G1, 25% G2 and the least was group3, ITS' percentage 13%. It was concluded from this study that the cooperative intervention between the orthodontist and maxillofacial surgeon and the early treatment of Cleft L/P infant by orthodontic prosthesis is the most versatile treatment, and the severity of collapse during early surgical treatment depends on the size and site of the cleft L/P.</p> Ebtisam A. Kadhim Adnan R-Al Assal Galib Masudi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 603 606 Peer assisted team-based learning in undergraduate dental education <p>The teaching system has seen an evolution in the same regard, from blackboard teaching to whiteboard teaching to smart board teaching. We now step foot into a new era of teaching with fresher minds to influence and shape. The present study mainly focuses on a rather new method of teaching called ‘Peer lead Team-based learning'. The method focuses mainly on the students and their active participation in the involved topic. To conduct the study, a batch of dental students were taught and were later assessed. The students thus specified are undergraduate students who were pursuing their 2<sup>nd</sup> year BDS at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The total number of students that were considered was about thirty-three students. The students were of the age group of about 19-23 years. The subject that was imparted to these students in this method is Dental Materials which was initially perceived to be difficult by the 2<sup>nd</sup> year candidates. On completion of the period of study, the students were asked to take up an exam in the usual pattern prescribed by the University. The marks thus obtained were analysed with the previous tests and a questionnaire was filled by each student to obtain their perception towards this teaching system. On the analysis of the test scores, it was obtained that there was a significant difference in the average class score. There was a mean difference of about 8-11 marks on analysis of various tests. Thus this proves that the teaching system is immensely efficient. The responses from the questionnaire were assessed and it proved that the teaching system is welcomed by the student community. The teaching system is successful in a dental curriculum and under ideal conditions the system would be successful in other courses but has to be tested to confirm the same.</p> Deepak Nallaswamy V Sri Rangalakshmi Subha M Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 607 611 Antioxidant effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) root on testis and spinal cord tissues of avian influenza virus-infected chicken embryo <p>This paper focuses on the antioxidant effect of powder extracts from Maca on the testis and spinal cord tissues of chicken embryo infected with the avian influenza virus. An experiment was conducted on 500 embryos; 300 eggs were used as a control, and each of the remaining 100 eggs was infected with the avian influenza virus. One of the powder extracts was also injected. After an incubation period of 19 days, the embryos were studied through histopathology, and different histopathological changes recorded. The paper then discusses the various morphological patterns seen in the specimens. The avian influenza virus causes cytopathic effects in the cells of the embryo that manifest as edema, necrosis, and fibrosis. The antioxidant effects of the Maca plant extract protect the cells from these changes in the group of embryos injected with powder. We found that Maca plant can inhibit avian influenza from in vitro replication. It also protects body cells from the oxidative effects of resulting inflammation.</p> Fawiziah Khalaf Al-Harbi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 612 618 A survey on various jaw relation methods used for complete denture fabrication among private dental practitioners in Kanyakumari district - A questionnaire-based study <p>Fabrication of complete denture includes various steps that include primary impression making, border moulding, final impression, jaw relation, teeth arrangement, try-in and denture insertion. Jaw relation is an essential step in complete denture construction. The techniques adopted varies from one practitioner to the other. The purpose of the study is to assess the most commonly used Jaw relation methods in Complete denture fabrication among private dental practitioners in Kanyakumari district, South Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 50 dental practitioners in Kanyakumari district, South India. This study was done with the help of a structured questionnaire consisting of 10 valid questions related to various techniques and the commonly used Jaw relation technique for the fabrication of complete denture. An appropriate statistical analysis was conducted. About 92% of the dental practitioners reported that they don't use face-bow to do an Orientation jaw relation. According to 89% of the dental practitioners, the vertical dimension at occlusion is best determined by the patient's perception of comfort. Swallowing method is the most commonly used method followed to establish Centric relation by 90% of the dentists. Jaw relation techniques adopted vary from one practitioner to other. 60% of the Dentists were confident in establishing accurate Jaw relations while some of the general practitioners (38%) looked forward to more training programmes on Jaw relation techniques for successful Complete denture fabrication while others (40%) believed that it was not very necessary.</p> Sandra Sagar Antonette Rhea M Dhanraj Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 619 622 Attitude of graduating dental students about children first dental visit <p>Dental fear leads to a lack of child cooperation. In general, without the patient's cooperation, success in the remedy is impossible. Fear can be considered as an inevitable thrilling, a response to a certain external threat and with an identified origin in which individual is afraid without no clear reasons. Dental fear leads to lack of cooperation of the children and generally without the cooperation, treatment will not succeed, and this is why the child's dental fear and anxiety from dentistry services is the main concern of children, parents and dentists. Behaviour guidance/management of the child is an integral component in pediatric dental practice. A considerable percentage of children do not cooperate in the dental chair, limiting the provision of quality dental care. The dentist must rely on behaviour guidance or management techniques as alternatives or adjuncts to communication in treating the uncooperative child. These techniques include tell-show-do (TSD), protective stabilization or physical restraints (both active and passive), hand-over-mouth exercise (HOME), though not recommended contemporarily, conscious sedation, and general anaesthesia. Behaviour guidance techniques (BGTs) are employed to establish communication, alleviate fear and anxiety, facilitate delivery of quality dental care, build a trusting relationship between dentist, child, and parent, and promote the child's positive attitude toward oral/dental health and to cope with dental treatment procedures undertaken. The aim of this study is to know about the Attitude of Graduating dental students about the children first dental visit. A questionnaire using the questions adapted from the several studies related to the attitude of graduating dental students about the children first dental visit was given to 50 students in our college.</p> Christopher Joel Simon M Revathi D Mahesh Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 623 626 Assessing the risk of hypertension and prehypertension; and its determinants among rural women <p>The increasing prevalence of hypertension in India as indicated by recent studies is a matter of public health concern, as it is one of the major risk factor for heart diseases, stroke, kidney failure and premature mortality. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 women between the ages 20 to 60 years residing in a rural area of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu. Statistical tests like Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were carried out to attain the study objective. Results showed that 20% of women were found to be hypertensive while another 21% were diagnosed with pre-hypertension. Among the total hypertensive 55% (22) were being diagnosed for the first time during the survey. Factors such as older age, personal history of diabetes mellitus, family history of hypertension, higher body fat percentage and habit of chewing betel nut were associated with elevated blood pressure. Higher odds of developing hypertension were found to be in older women and individuals with a maternal history of hypertension. Intervention strategies to detect individuals with hypertension and prehypertension are needed to prevent the spread of cardiovascular diseases.</p> Priyadarshini S Sheila John Madhanagopal R Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 627 632 Biochemical study of the association between serum level of Zinc, Copper and Selenium with hormone of thyroid in thyroid disorders <p>The current study has been performed in AL-Hussein General Hospital, Imam Zine ALabiden Hospital, and one clinic in Karbala to determine the value of thyroid hormone including T3 triiodothyronine, T4 tetraiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone and the concentration of Zinc, Copper and Selenium in patients with thyroid disorders of hyperthyroidism 31 and hypothyroidism 26 and their relation. All patients are females in the age of 20 to 55 years old beside the control groups including 50 healthy females selected from the medical staffs or patients' relatives carrying out no signs and symptoms of thyroid disorders. The results of the study have shown that the concentration of serum zinc and copper in females with hyperthyroidism is higher than the control group ( p &lt;0.001 ), also the concentration of serum selenium in patient with hyperthyroidism is lower than control group ( p &lt;0.001 ), subsequently, the concentration of serum zinc, copper and selenium in females with hyperthyroidism is lower than control group ( p &lt;0.001 ) and the concentration of serum zinc in females with hyperthyroidism is lower than control group ( p &lt;0.001 ).</p> Araa Ali Hadi Hamed Ibrahim Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 637 640 Interpretations of hematological findings among Iraqi children with celiac disease in Kerbala city <p>Celiac Disease is a common systemic disorder including immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. To describe the different haematological finding of Celiac Disease in Karbala city. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Children Teaching Hospital in Karbala city comprising data sheets of complete blood count (CBC) for 119 children, 70 males and 59 females (with the average age of 7). Tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA and IgG) are performed for all patients after recording their history and clinical examination. CBC results are divided into three categories as 1) red blood cells (RBC) showing iron deficiency or anaemia, 2) white blood cells (WBC) showing the status of disease if it's in the acute or chronic state serological obtained from tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA and IgG) and 3) clinical examination providing a new scientific explanation for the samples bordered to detect IgA and IgG. Celiac Disease is associated with a diversity of haematological findings especially Iron deficiency anaemia characterised by no response to iron supplement, leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia, as well as thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis. Due to the interaction between the clinical signs of food intolerance against gluten and celiac disease, few other studies have been suggested.</p> Lames H. Almanseekanaa Raed H. Ogaili Sameem S. M. Baker Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 641 644 Determination of enterotoxin genes in Bacillus cereus from raw milk using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique <p>A Gram-positive bacterium, which can usually be found in cultivating plants and soil, causing it commonly universal is regarded as <em>Bacillus cereus</em>. It is said that most strains present in <em>B. cereus</em> is specifically called the primary cause of food poisoning illnesses which is characterised by either emetic or diarrheal syndrome, the most essential purpose of the current research was, therefore, to isolate and identify the enterotoxin genes in <em>B. cereus </em>through using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR)technique. To achieve this aim, thus <em>B.cereus </em>was isolated from raw milk then cultured on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar and chromogenic <em>B. cereus</em> agar. The samples were then examined using biochemical investigation then established using partial sequencing of 16SrDNA. Among 40 samples, 20 of them were found to contain <em>hblC </em>and <em>hblD</em>, a hemolytic enterotoxin (HBL) complex encoding genes. The total mean of contamination samples in the <em>B. cereus </em>was proved to be higher (1.4×10<sup>5 </sup>– 3.2×10<sup>5 </sup>CFU/mL) than the acceptable detection level of <em>B. cereus </em>in dairy products ~10<sup>3 </sup>CFU/mL. The isolates (10%) were shown to express <em>hblC</em> gene whereas the isolates (20%) were shown to express <em>the hblD </em>gene. The findings suggested that the detected enterotoxin genes of <em>B. cereus </em>which were found in raw milk may create a potential danger to the health of the public.</p> Nisreen Jawad K WS Aqma Fathul K Heng Lee Y Asmat A Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 645 649 Advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the management of acute abdomen in Karbala governorate, Iraq <p>Acute abdomen is a common surgical problem that needs experience and medical efforts to save lives and decrease diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Laparoscopy is an excellent recent method to visualize the peritoneal cavity and give an accurate diagnosis of avoiding problems of management. The laparoscopic usage in the management of emergency help in - Early diagnosis as it considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic method. It has an important role in the avoidance of (negative) laparotomy. It also helps in shortening of the period of hospitalization and so decreases medical cost the role of laparoscopic approach in cosmetic and morbidity outcomes is very prominent. A prospective study was performed by following up of 60 patients of acute abdomen who admitted to the emergency unit of Al-Hussein teaching hospital. (All of the studied cases were investigated first by imaging investigations like (Ultrasonography and X-ray of chest and abdomen). The most frequent clinical features in this study were a pain- The most common local (abdominal) sign while the most common systemic sign was a fever. The most common condition is acute appendicitis (50%) sometimes accompanied by drainage of free fluids. Laparoscopic peptic perforation repair was done in 9% while 6% of cases were adhesive intestinal obstruction treated by freeing =adhesolysis. Enteric perforations constituted 6% of cases. 5% of cases were ended with laparoscopic-assisted surgeries when 2combined approaches were needed, but the main role was for laparoscopy.</p> Ali Hussein Abid Swailem Al-Tai Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 650 653 Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in orange mud crab (Scylla olivacea) from Sungai Merbok, Kedah <p><em>Scylla olivacea </em>is the most prevalent edible mud crab species in Peninsular Malaysia. However, mud crab can accumulate high contaminations from the surrounding environment resulting in health risk to consumers. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the selected heavy metal accumulative concentrations in <em>Scylla olivacea</em> from Sungai Merbok, Kedah. Adult crab samples were collected every three months for one year (August 2017, November 2017, February 2018 and May 2018) from selected areas in Sungai Merbok, Kedah. The heavy metal accumulation levels in the crab tissues were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of heavy metals ranged from 0 to 4.81 ppm for Chromium (Cr), 0 to 0.49 ppm for Manganese (Mn), 0 to 8.3 ppm for Iron (Fe), 0 to 0.33 ppm for Nickle (Ni), 3.2 to 66.07 ppm for Zinc (Zn), 0.33 to 2.55 ppm for Arsenic (As), 0.11 to 0.77 ppm for Lead (Pb), and below the detectable limit for cadmium (Cd). The mean concentration of Cr, Fe and as were 1.52 ± 2.26 ppm, 2.09 ± 4.14 ppm and 1.68 ± 0.95 ppm respectively, slightly higher than the maximum permissible limits set by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and Malaysian Food Regulation. This study indicated that the accumulation of Cr, Fe and as was high in the edible tissues of <em>Scylla olivacea</em> from Sungai Merbok, Kedah, which can trigger adverse effects on consumer's health. Hence, a detailed investigation needs to be addressed to determine the pollution status in crabs inhabiting along the Sungai Merbok waters.</p> Haidr Msahir Ateshan Rosmilah Misnan Som Cit Sinang Alsailawi HA Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 654 658 Treatment of chronic myofascial pain syndrome associated with parafunctions by use of botulinum toxin type A <p>Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) as a psychophysiological disorder has been developed due to the hyperactivity of mastication muscles. Stress has probably induced parafunction such as bruxism and clenching. The term generally applied for muscle pain and occurred with palpation is “myofascial pain.” Diagnosing and explaining the pathology in terms of muscle pain is under research. Few treatment methods have been attained including education, self-care, physical therapy, intraoral appliance therapy, short-term pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, and relaxation techniques such as Botox injections on the masseter and temporalis muscles. The purpose of the study is to define the efficacy of the botulinum toxin type A in the chronic masticatory muscle-spasm treatment of elevators muscles to relief the orofacial pain by Helkimo index criteria (a clinical dysfunction index type) usage. The current study has been conducted in a clinical examination with 18 patients including 17 females and one male in with age range of 17-48 with MPDS by using of Helkimo index criteria. The local injection of botulinum toxin type A has constituted an innovative and efficient treatment for chronic facial pain related to hyperactivity of the masticatory muscles. The painful symptoms might be improved in all samples with no reaction to conservative treatment methods and physical therapy. Also, Botox therapy has seemed beneficial in nocturnal bruxism treatment. Another study with more samples is recommended to confirm the outcome of this study.</p> Ali Abd Al-Hur Al-Ibrahemy Muhanned Salah Abdulsattar Ali S. Al-Haddad Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 659 667 Prescription analysis of statins in patients with cardiovascular diseases and other comorbidities in various tertiary care hospitals at Salem district, Tamil Nadu <p>The present study was conducted to analyse the prescription patterns of statins in patients with cardiovascular diseases and other comorbidities in various tertiary care hospitals at Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. This prospective observational study was carried out for a period of 6 months from November 2017 to April 2018 in which 200 prescriptions were selected for the study by considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 200 prescriptions were analysed. Patients of above 60 years’ age group were mostly diagnosed n=87 (43.5%) of cardiovascular diseases. Male patients n=142 (71%) were more prone to CVDs than female patients n=58 (29%). Most of the patients were diagnosed with CAD n=66 (33%) followed by dyslipidemia n=33 (16.5%) and hypertension n=27 (13.5%). Out of 165 patients diagnosed with comorbidities, most of the patients were found to have DM about 104 (63%). The results showed that among the various statins, Atorvastatin-10mg about 100 (50%) was the most commonly prescribed drug than Rosuvastatin (n=80; 40%) and Simvastatin (n=20; 10%).</p> Arul B Jitty Sara Mathew Lekshmi Mohan Krishna Prasad TK Kothai R Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 668 672 Antihyperglycemic effect of Portulaca pilosa Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats <p>The antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of <em>Portulaca pilosa</em> Linn. was evaluated against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were calculated at various time intervals of 0, 1, 2 and 3 h after the administration of ethanolic extract of <em>P.pilosa</em>. The ethanolic extract reduced the blood glucose levels significantly when it was administered at three doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. It reduces the blood glucose level from 334.67±5.27 to 134.57±6.49 at 3h after the administration of 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract. The antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated in comparison of the administration of an oral hypoglycemic agent, Tolbutamide.</p> Arul Balasubramanian Vijayarangan Sivasamy Manivannan Ekambaram Kothai Ramalingam Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 673 676 Flipped classes and its effects on teaching oral and maxillofacial surgery <p>The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of the traditional method of teaching to the flipped classes’ method of teaching in the subject of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery among undergraduate dental students. A total of 150 students pursuing their Bachelor in Dental Surgery were included in this study over a period of two years. 75 students were part of the traditional teaching group and 75 were part of the flipped class group. The final examination marks were collected and statistical analysis was done. The mean marks secured by the students in the traditional teaching group was 116.69±8.49 and for the flipped class group was 128.72±10.34. The results were statistically significant. (p≤0.05). The flipped class method of teaching improved the performance of the students in the exams. The usage of these flipped classes in medical education is advocated.</p> Deepak Nallaswamy V Abhinav Subha M Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 677 680 The ameliorating role of L-arginine and L-citrulline on gastric mucosal damage and lipid peroxidation in adult female rabbits with gastric ulceration induced by indomethacin <p>This study was designed to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic effect of L-Arginine and L-Citrulline and their combination on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in adult female rabbits. Thirty adult female rabbits 1.25-1.75 kg, 24-26 weeks old were randomly divided into five equal groups, 6 animals each as in following: Control group: received distilled water orally 5 ml/kg. First treated group (T1): received indomethacin orally 50 mg/kg/day for 48 hours. Second treated group (T2): received indomethacin for 48 hours and after 30 minutes received L-Arginine orally 2.5 mmol/kg/day for 7 days. Third treated group (T3): received indomethacin for 48 hours and after 30 minutes received L-Citrulline orally 2.5 mmol/kg/day for 7 days. Fourth treated group (T4): received indomethacin for 48 hours and after 30 minutes received a combination of half a dose of L-Arginine 1.25 mmol/kg/day and L-Citrulline 1.25 mmol/kg/day for 7 days. The animals were sacrificed after lasted 10 hours. The obtained results illustrated that female rabbits treated with L-Arginine and L-Citrulline significantly prevented gastric ulcer induction through significant (P&lt;0.05) reduced in gastric juice volume and ulcer area with 100% inhibition of ulceration, significant (P&lt; 0.05) increase in gastric pH and almost return to its normal level compared to control value. It has been concluded that combination of L-Arginine and L-Citrulline appeared the best protective effect against gastric ulcer better than each drug alone in the indomethacin-treated group with a normal histopathological structure related with normal glandular stomach, numerous number of parietal cells in lamina propria.</p> Bassim Khamess Kuoti Al-Rekabi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 681 688 Comparative study on conventional lecture classes versus flipped class in teaching conservative dentistry and endodontics <p>In the modern era every knowledge providers designs the class in such a way that students understand every possible concepts. In the Dental education system where the students have to conceptualize the lectures as it mandates for them to do day to day dental procedures. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate students performance university examination of conservative dentistry and endodontics subject. A total of 150 students enrolled in this study from two consecutive academic sessions. In Group I (2015-2016) final year graduate students of 75 students received conventional class room lectures; group II (2016-2017) final year graduate students of 75 students received flipped class room lectures. The curriculums for both the groups were approved from the department of conservative dentistry and endodontics, Saveetha dental college and committee members for education, Saveetha University. At the end of each academic year marks scored out of 200 marks were obtained and subjected to statistical analysis. All the students cleared the university examination held at respective academic years for both the groups. The mean marks obtained for CCR group was 130.93 ± 9.12 and for FCR group was 150.35 ± 10.93.). Independent samples test revealed there is highly significant difference seen (p &lt;0.01). Flipped class room showed promising results when compared to conventional class room groups in conservative dentistry and endodontics subject amongst final year graduate students. Designing the curriculum for flipped class room lectures takes some additional time than conventional classes. The number of distinctions obtained in flipped class room group was higher than conventional class room group.</p> Deepak Nallaswamy V Pradeep Solete Subha M Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 689 693 Prevalence, socio-demographic variables, symptoms profile, and comorbidity of premenstrual dysphoric disorder <p>The premenstrual dysphoric disorder is the severe form of premenstrual syndrome that consists of a cluster of somatic, effective, and behavioral symptoms triggered by the changes in the sex steroids levels which goes along with the ovulatory menstrual cycle. The disorder recurs each month and starting after the ovulation and ceases in a short time after the beginning of menses. The current study was aimed to study the prevalence, socio-demographic variables, symptoms profile and comorbidity of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Iraqi women. A cross-sectional study performed on 200 Iraqi women of age (15-50) years during the period between 2<sup>nd</sup> of September 2017-30<sup>th</sup> of September 2018. The study was done in the outpatient department of gynaecology and obstetrics of Maternity and Children Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniyah city, Iraq. Each patient was assessed individually using a structured interview that includes the demographic characteristics, and the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool. The study revealed that (9%) of women were suffering from a premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It was present in (39%) of the younger women (18-24years of age) in comparison to other age groups. The predominant symptom was severe anger or irritability (69.5%) and, (20%) of women with the premenstrual dysphoric disorder have comorbid depression. The premenstrual dysphoric disorder was more common in women of young age group, married, of moderate economic status, and of a higher educational level. The predominant symptom was severe anger or irritability. Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder reported high comorbid depression.</p> Shiren Ali Al-Hamzawi Balsam Kahtan Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 694 698 Evaluation of antioxidant potential in fresh and boiled juice of purslane leaves <p>Free radical scavenging potentials of fresh and cooked Purslane (<em>Portulaca oleracea</em> - Portulacaceae) was estimated by <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant assays. Antioxidant activity of fresh aqueous juice and cooked aqueous filtrate of purslane leaves were evaluated against synthetic free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS<sup>.+</sup> and the results were comparable with that of the reference antioxidant L-Ascorbic acid. The juices showed high antioxidant activity using DPPH and ABTS<sup>.+</sup> assays with increasing concentration of juice extracts. The total phenolic content was quantified and found to be 55.26±1.04 and 26.15 ±1.25 mg/g evaluated by the gallic acid corresponds to fresh and cooked filtrate respectively. The IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;values of fresh, cooked filtrate and L-ascorbic acid were 145.15 ± 1.85, 85.35 ± 2.17 µg/ml and 65. 40 ± 3.66 µg/ml respectively in DPPH antioxidant assay and likewise the IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;values of fresh, cooked filtrate and L-ascorbic acid found to be 227.35±1.45 µg/ml, 151.15±1.05 and 65.15±2.89 µg/ml, respectively in ABTS<sup>.+</sup> antioxidant assay. Comparatively the inhibitory concentration of purslane leaves was high in cooked filtrate juice than the fresh aqueous juice.</p> Balamurugan Pandiyan Ranjithkumar Dhanaraj Sumayya Rehaman Sakthipraba Sampath Malashree Lakshmanan Anitha Jebamalai Raj Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 699 703 Analytical method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of ceftolozane and tazobactam in pure and pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC <p>The purpose of the present study was to develop a simple, accurate and precise method for the simultaneous estimation of Ceftolozane and Tazobactum in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC. Chromatograms were run isocratic way through the synchronis C<sub>18</sub> column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5μm) using the mobile phase consists of methanol and 1% sodium perchlorate in the ratio of (80:20) and pumped through the column with pressure 10.5±5MPa at a flow rate of 1ml/min. The temperature was maintained at 30°C. The optimised wavelength for Ceftolozane and Tazobactum was 254 nm. Retention times of Ceftolozane and Tazobactum were found to be 4.65 min and 8.86 min respectively. % RSD of the Ceftolozane and Tazobactum were found to be 0.523 and 0.599 respectively. The % Recovery of Ceftolozane and Tazobactum at each level was found to be not less than 98.11 %, 98.03 and not more than 99.84%, 100.10% respectively. The percentage purity of Ceftolozane and Tazobactum in combined dosage form were found to be 98.13% and 98.67% respectively. The coefficient of variance for both the drug was more than 0.999. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection, limits of quantification, and robustness according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed method can be used for routine quality control analysis of Ceftolozane and Tazobactum in bulk and combined dosage forms.</p> Subbareddy P Divakar TE Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 704 709 Insilco screening, and Synthesis of 5-hydroxy-2-phenyl-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one derivatives as novel potent leads as anti-cancer agents <p>Insilco technique in chemistry plays a major role in the development of new lead molecules. Computational tools docking, virtual screening, ADMET prediction are untilised in the identification of new lead molecules. A series of new benzofuranone derivatives IVA-F, containing a heterocyclic substituent linked to benzofuranone nucleus at C-2 were synthesized as potential antitumor agents. These products were synthesized starting with benzene 1.4 diol. The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. The synthesized compounds were tested against human skin carcinoma cell line (G361) and all were found to be more potent of which compound IV B and IV F was the most active.</p> Raghava Doonaboyina Abhilasha Mittal Sridhar Babu Gummadi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 710 720 In vitro antifungal study of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Acacia nilotica leaves extract against a plant and human pathogens <p>Comparing to other nanoparticles, Silver nanoparticles have attained a special place in the field of nanotechnology due to their wider applications. This study was about to evaluate the green synthesized AgNPs for their effective Antifungal potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Antifungal efficacy of AgNps by using in vitro studies. In this investigation, aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica leaves was used as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Bio-reduction and stabilization of formed AgNps were monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The surface Plasmon resonance of these particles was approximately 430 nm. The Structural, Optical and morphological properties of the synthesized AgNps were characterized by using SEM with EDAX and FTIR. The phytochemical analysis of Acacia nilotica leaves extract were also performed using various methods. The Anti-fungal activity of Plant extracts and synthesized AgNps were tested against five fungal pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporium, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, Candida albicans and Rhizopus stolonifer using well diffusion method.</p> Magesh R Sivakumar K Karthikeyan V Mohanasundaram S Subathra M Joseph J Venugopal K Sasikala R Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 721 729 Synthesis of 5.6-dihydroxy-2-phenyl-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one derivatives as new leads for anti-cancer activity <p>Benzofuranone derivatives are of great interest in medicinal chemistry and have drawn considerable attention due to their diverse pharmacological profiles including anticancer activity. Similarly, chalcones, which are common substructures of numerous natural products belonging to the flavonoid class, feature strong anticancer properties. A novel series of 5.6-dihydroxy-2-phenyl-1-benzofuran-3(2<em>H</em>)-one derivatives were designed, synthesized, and characterized.&nbsp;In vitro&nbsp;antitumor activities of the newly synthesized (VA-F) were determined by using human skin cancer cell lines. Antitumor properties of all compounds were determined by 5.6-dihydroxy-2-phenyl-1-benzofuran-3(2<em>H</em>)-one (MTT) assay. Cell viability assay for the tested flavone compounds was performed, and the&nbsp;values of the compounds were calculated after 24-hour treatment. Our results indicate that the tested benzofuranone compounds show antitumor activity against human skin cancer cell lines.</p> Raghava Doonaboyina Abhilasha Mittal Sridhar Babu Gummadi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 730 736 Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of some Enterobacteriaceae isolates from different clinical infectious sources <p>This study was con­ducted to isolate some bacteria from different clinical infectious sources and determine the antibiotics susceptibility pattern usually used for the treatment of these related bacteria. From the period March 2016 to August 2016, a total of 135 different clinical specimens such as urine (50) specimens, wound (45) specimens, blood (15) specimens, and sputum (25) specimens were collected from different hospitals at Baghdad City. Iraq. <em>K. pneumoniae</em> isolates showed the following percentage of resistance; Cotrimoxazole 100 %, ceftazidime 61.1 %, aztreonam 38.9 %, piperacillin 100 %, ciprofloxacin 66.7 %, amikacin 22.3 %, gentamycin 27.8 %, Also <em>K. pneumoniae</em> isolates showed no resistance to the antibiotics imipenem and meropenem. <em>P. aeruginosa</em> isolates showed frequency resistance profile; cotrimoxazole 100 %, ceftazidime 90 %, aztreonam 70 %, piperacillin 100 %, ciprofloxacin 30%, amikacin 80 %, gentamycin 80 %, while <em>P. aeruginosa</em> isolates<em> showed </em>low resistance to the antibiotics imipenem and meropenem 20 %, 10 % respectively. <em>P. mirabilis</em> isolates showed the following percentage of resistance; cotrimoxazole 83.3%, ceftazidime 66.7 %, aztreonam 66.7 %, piperacillin 100%, ciprofloxacin 16.7 %, gentamycin 30.8 %, while <em>P. mirabilis</em> isolates showed no resistance to the antibiotics amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The most recurrent pathogen isolated from different specimens in this study was<em> Escherichia coli</em> (31) (40.3%), followed by <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (18) (23.4%),<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (10) (13%), <em>P. mirabilis</em> (6) (7.8%). All the isolates showed high resistance rate of 100 % to piperacillin.</p> Abbas Atyia Hammoudi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 734 741 Evaluation of the outcome of Kala-Azar Control Program in Iraq <p>Visceral leishmaniasis has been recognized as an important public health problem in Iraq for the last 50 years, particularly in the southern governorates owing to its considerable impact on morbidity and its potential to spread in outbreaks and epidemics which impose a heavy burden on the national health services. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the national control measures in reducing the number of Kala-azar cases in Al-Diwaniyah governorate (which is a known endemic focus in Iraq), for the years 2007 and 2008. The results of this study at the district level for the years 2007 and 2008 regarding the number of Kala-azar cases and application of control measures revealed that the Kala-azar incidence rates in Al-Diwaniyah governorate for the years 2007and 2008 were 1.4 and 0.8 per 1000 in children less than five years, respectively. The number of Kala-azar cases recorded for the year 2007 was 399 cases, which constituted 12.2% of the total cases in Iraq, this included 216 cases (54.1%) from areas where active control measures (spraying, rodents control campaign and euthanization of jackals and stray dogs) were not applied, and 183 cases (45.9%) from areas were such measures were applied. In the year 2007, the differences in the number of cases between areas without and areas with control measures were highly obvious in all districts. In the year 2008, the differences in the number of cases between areas without and areas with control measures were highly obvious in all districts with the exception of Al-Hamza district. Comparison of the number of cases recorded during the year 2007 in areas before active intervention with the number of cases recorded in the same areas during the year 2008, after this intervention revealed that these active control measures were 58.8 % effective in reduction of Kala-azar cases.</p> Aqeel Meer Al-Zamily Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 742 747 Design, Synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-phenyl-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one derivatives as new leads for anti-cancer activity <p>Benzofuranone is a bicyclic ring where a benzene ring fused with a furanone. Computation chemistry plays a major role in the development of new lead molecules. The final compounds were obtained in multistep synthesis reactions using benzofuran-3-one derivatives as starting materials which were gained in various synthetic ways. Synthetic chemistry plays a major in developing a series of potent anti-cancer agents. Benzofuranone was synthesised by reacting benzene diols, and triols with bromo phenyl acetonitrile yielded an imine derivative are converted to a ketone with treatment with hydrochloric acid then cyclised with sodium acetate. Computational tools docking, virtual screening, ADMET prediction are utilised in the identification of new lead molecules. The compounds identity and purity were confirmed by spectral and analytical methods. Benzofuranone derivatives are screened antineoplastic activity was performed against human skin cancer cell line G361 at micro molecular concentrations. The compounds, IIB, IIC was found to be with potent activity.</p> Raghava Doonaboyina Abhilasha Mittal Sridhar Babu Gummadi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 748 760 Influence of tray type and different hardness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials on the dimensional accuracy of dental implant impression <p>Dimensional accuracy is essential for the accurate construction of a dental implant impression. Materials used for taking an impression to play a significant role in producing an accurate implant impression. The present study was an evaluation of the dimensional accuracy of master casts obtained using different hardness impression materials and different trays with a closed tray impression technique. An acrylic master model of the lower dental arch with four parallel implant analogues was fabricated, and 90 implant impressions were made. Three groups (<em>n</em>= 30) were experimented using three different Polyvinyl Siloxane impression materials. Three types of impression trays were used, the first one was (self-cure acrylic) custom tray, and the other two were (plastic and metal) stock trays. The inter implant distances were measured on master casts using a digital microscope. Different hardness results were found, Mean and SD for Panasil (heavy body) were 58.600 (5.0959), while for Salginate (medium body) they were 51.800 (0.8465) and 49.433 (1.0367) were the values of Panasil (light body). On the other hand, values obtained from the analysis of dimensional accuracy results showed no significant difference (p= 0.01) in the casts obtained, it has been concluded that although different types of PVS impression materials have been used, no difference in dimensional accuracy has resulted. However, the results suggested that the Panasil (light body) impression material showed less hardness. Furthermore, it has been found that accurate casts can be obtained by using different types of impression trays. The rigidity of different types of trays has not made a significant difference in the accuracy of implant impressions obtained.</p> Yagthan Mohammed Haider Abdul-Hadi NF Norehan Mokhtar Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 761 767 The association between vaginal colonization by mycoplasma and adverse pregnancy outcomes <p>Preterm birth &amp; and low birth weight are a major health care problem and are significant contributors to perinatal morbidity, mortality, and long-term disability and ascending genital tract infection is a major cause of preterm labor. This study was aimed to examine the association between vaginal colonisation by genital Mycoplasma bacteria species of (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum) of a pregnant patient with subsequent development of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor (PTL), preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) and chorioamnionitis. A prospective cohort study included 75 pregnant patients with gestational age of (24-34) weeks attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in Al-Diwaniyah Maternity and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Iraq, from (February 2018- December 2018) who will exhibit obstetrical symptoms and signs of abdominal pain, uterine contractions, or cervical length shortening on transvaginal ultrasound (&lt;25 mm), vaginal samples collected from those pregnant patients and all samples were tested for the presence Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticm bacteria by using molecular diagnosis method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and follow up of the patients for the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes as preterm labor, premature rupture of membrane and chorioamnionitis. The results of the current study revealed that the rate of Mycoplasma hominis infection was 18.2 %, whereas that of Ureaplasma was 7.6 %. It has been concluded there is an association between genital Mycoplasma in initiating adverse pregnancy outcome.</p> Duha A. Aziz Naji Yasamin Hamza Sharif Al-Shibany Copyright (c) 2019-01-10 2019-01-10 10 1 768 774 Role of the enzymes derived from isolated bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa <p>The study is included the effects of proteases enzymes producing by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which isolated from keratitis and wounds. two hundred samples were collected, 150 samples of them were keratitis, and fifty samples were wounds. Seventeen isolates (8.2 %) were obtained and diagnosed as P. aeruginosa.13 isolates (8.5%) from keratitis and 4 isolates (8%) from wound swabs. All bacterial isolates were diagnosed by biochemical tests. The production of elastase was tested by using elastin agar. Thirteen isolates (76.5%) had the ability to producing elastase (10 isolates (76.5%) from keratitis and 3 isolates (76%) from wounds). The isolates P7 and P11from keratitis and P2 from wounds had the larger hydrolysis zone (10, 10, 8 millimetres) respectively. The production of alkaline protease was tested by using solid cultures (skim milk agar), all of them (keratitis and wound swabs) had the ability to produce of the enzyme, the isolates P12 isolated from keratitis had the larger hydrolysis zone (22 millimetres). Also, the production of the enzyme was tested in liquid cultures (casein broth), all isolates from keratitis had the ability to the production of the enzyme, the isolates P12 had the specific activity 97.469 U / mg, while 50% of the wounds isolates had the ability to produce alkaline protease.</p> Reem Zuhair Shinashal Eman Mohammed Hussein Copyright (c) 2019-01-10 2019-01-10 10 1 775 781 Emergency contraception: A quick lesson <p>Unprotected sex is only the major cause of unexpected, unwanted pregnancy which is a serious problem for the female which can interfere in their personal life. To achieve their normal life, abortion is one of the general as well as common out-turn to them as a result increasing rate of abortion use to be an incident in Indian female of fertile age. Thus, this incidence is giving a prone to enter in an unsafe life to those females. To avoid this unsafe and uninterrupted personal life the knowledge about Emergency Contraception is necessary.</p> Reena Kulshrestha Sharit Shekhar Barman Soumita Bhattacharya Arnab Chakrabarty Koushik Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 8 9 A review on fate and remediation techniques of oil spills <p>In previous decades, the incidence of oil spills has become frequent throughout the world. The oil spills produce various detrimental effects on aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. The anthropogenic activities are quite responsive for the spillage of oil which has raised various serious threats to all the living beings. It occurs via land runoff, accidental discharge during storage, transportation and bilge discharge etc. The cleanup, recovery and remediation methods for the oil spill are very challenging and complex to execute. Therefore, in the present study main focus is given to some important past oil spills, their fate, and remediation methods.</p> Arpna Kumari Rajanbir Kaur Rajinder Kaur Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 111 116 Review of the effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections, benefits and harm <p>Blood plasma is a transparent liquid that tends to yellow. Blood plasma is the intravascular part of extracellular fluid. Blood plasma accounts for about 55% of the total blood volume in the human body. Blood plasma plays an important role in the transmission of water, salts and nutrients such as sugars, vitamins, hormones and others<em>.</em> Passing us age and time was running out for good and no matter how hard we try to keep ourselves and our bodies remain scars age in our faces and bodies we really unavoidable, no escape, one of the ladies afraid from the effects of age and scars on her face and feared that her skin is wrinkled and show traces of age with time for that decision GR LIPA. He was to quit laughing and smiling just for fifty years didn't laugh once lest it appear wrinkled Maybe succeeded with that plan barely, but you deserve to pay the price for happiness laughed and fear of wrinkles and skin youthfulness and lost their shape and slightly slicked and sagging occurs in some places such as swell and lose the whiteness of it and be pockets in our faces and science we find other ways Effective. It seems that the decision was made on this issue since the plasma facial cosmetic world needles to make it jump out to us the results weren't dreaming about her other start.</p> Wejdan Thamer Al-Timeme Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 125 128 A Review on Sulpha Drugs (One of The First Microbial Inhibitors) <p>Sulpha or sulphonamide is one of the first microbial inhibitors; a bacterial enzyme synthesises vitamin folic acid, discovered in 1930 by the German scientist Domagk. This discovery was made by the red dye known as prontosil. The latter was biologically inactive while proving the opposite in the body. Red dye was used to treat an infant (aged 10 months) with a deadly infection. The biological efficacy of the dye to reductive cleavage Azo-forming agent for sulfanilamide - the real responsible for biological activity. It should be noted that all sulfonamides are derived from sulfanilamide (Zubay and Parson, 1995). The latter is similar to aminobenzoic acid that bacteria need to build folic acid, so sulfa drugs are effective in inhibiting the action of bacteria (Talaro, 1996). Differences in the functional group (SO2NHR) R result in different physiological, chemical and pharmacological properties of these drugs (Lowe and Hirschrman, 1984). Compensation for the sulfuric nitrogen atom leads to the production of stronger sulfanilamide acid (Goth, 1981) and compensation with the -SO3H group instead of -SO2NH2 for sulfonamide leads to the elimination of biological efficacy (Wilson and Gisvold’s, 1989). The sulfonamides that possess the freep-amino group show only effective against bacteria, which have compensation in the free amino group become effective only as compensation is removed within the body and this is why Prontosil is ineffective outside the body.</p> Amal H. Mhemeed Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 241 244 A review on cutaneous leishmaniasis and its causes, diagnosis and treatment <p>The current review focused on the Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and its Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment. To avoid this infection, the stockholders should consider dissemination of health awareness among citizens, especially from the rural population, to report and treat any injury, especially children, before the infection. And other population groups are the first way in monitoring and follow-up of this disease, which gives the public health authorities a practical perception about the disease mentioned and can identify the places where the spread of the disease in addition to coordination with the concerned authorities in order to activate the control factor and address the special causes directly behind the spread, Specialized doctors confirm that primary prevention begins with personal hygiene and care is a key factor in prevention.</p> Hwaida Shakir Mustafa Al-Mahdawy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 425 428 A general overview of the genetic effects of extracellular polymers For Enterococcus faecium in cancer cells <p>Tumour cells continue to grow and multiply to form a mass or a tumour called tumour, which causes growth to develop pressure on neighbouring tissue and remove it, and can invade and destroy normal cells to pass through to other tissue and vital organs. Smoking is one of the most important chemical causes of cancer. Tobacco smoke causes lung and respiratory diseases. Cigarette smoke contains many types of Mutagenic substances, including Nitrogen oxides, which cause damage to DNA (DNA) Some epidemiological studies have also pointed to the relationship of alcohol to prostate cancer. Alcoholic beverages also play an important role in the incidence of breast cancer by altering the level of estrogen in the blood. Alcoholic beverages also play an important role in the incidence of breast cancer by altering the level of estrogen in the blood. The process of DNA repair and then breast cancer also found that benzene and its derivatives cause a mutation in the p53 gene, and it was noted that they damage the DNA of lymphocytes in the surrounding human blood.</p> Eqbal Dohan Chalap Ghaidaa Raheem Lateef Al-Awsi Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 436 443 A general review on the amoebiasis <p><em>Entamoeba histolytica </em>parasite causes amoebiasis or Amoebic dysentery, this parasite spreads all over the world, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions and spreads among the poor. This may be due to poor nutrition or unhealthy conditions. This disease is one of the most common parasitic diseases in the world. <em>E. histolytica</em> is responsible for the deaths of more than 100, 000 people annually, and this ranks third after malaria and Schistosoma in increasing the number of deaths caused by the infection of the primary parasite. <em>E.histolytica </em>has the ability to invade the intestinal mucus layer and spread to other organs especially the liver, causing the amoebic liver abscess.</p> Fatima Ibrahim Mohammad Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 479 483 A review on Salmonella bacteria in human and animal <p>Salmonella (Salmonella) is a bacterium (like sticks), which is very common in nature and in many organisms. There are more than 2, 000 different species, and over 200 of them cause diseases in humans. Secondary infections are therefore possible. In general, the enemies of this virus are orally (through the mouth), through ingestion of contaminated food and / or water. This germ can contaminate food and poison it in a way that affects thousands of patients. Salmonella infections in poultry are responsible for many acute or chronic disease cases. Three forms of the disease are taken. The first is the salmonella pullorum and salmonella gallinarum. Salmonella gallinarum causes chicken typhoid, but it rarely causes inflammation of the bowel in humans. Absolutely a systemic infection of experimental lab animals.</p> Reem Zuhair Shinashal Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 531 536 A review on the prevalence of marginal discrepancy between lithium disilicate and zirconia crowns manufactured using dental cad cam <p>Dental CAD/CAM technology is gaining popularity because of its benefits in terms of manufacturing time, material savings, standardization of the fabrication process, and predictability of the restorations. When the CAD/CAM manufacturing process is employed, the number of steps required for the fabrication of restoration is less compared to traditional methods. One more benefit of CAD/CAM dentistry includes the use of materials and data acquisition instruments, that shows a non-destructive method of saving impressions, restorations and information that are saved on a computer and constitute an extraordinary communication tool for evaluation.</p> Shamit Thaper Vinothkumar Sengottaiyan Dhanraj Ganapathy Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 590 595 Recurrent sailoblastoma in female child after a 12-month course of chemotherapy <p>Sailoblastoma is a very rare salivary gland neoplasm, often congenital or discovered after birth during the infancy period. The parotid gland is the favourite's site of sialoblastoma and has a significant variable histological appearance and clinical course. Sialoblastoma responds well to complete surgical excision, so we should start in the management of such neoplasms with a surgical option at first with or without a course of chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and the patient should follow up to prevent recurrence or metastasis.</p> Muamer Alshalah Sameem SM Baker Nazar J. Metib Copyright (c) 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 10 1 633 636