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Phytochemicals are natural, non nutritive chemicals rich in pharmacological activities. They show a very potent antioxidant activity and this activity is closely linked to various beneficial actions, including anti-aging, prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, etc. Medicinal plants play a vital role in drug discovery that can be used to cure various ailments in humans. A safe new phytochemical compound as drugs is one of the major searches worldwide. Rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic compound is generally available in the wide species of the Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae family (Nepetoideae subfamily). The phytochemical has two phenolic rings with ortho positioned hydroxyl groups. A carboxylic acid, carbonyl group and an unsaturated double bond is present between the two phenolic rings. The compound is thus an ester linked caffeic acid and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It has a broad range of biological activity that includes antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antihepatitis, anti-inflammation and inhibiting blood clots. Inflammation, a localized protective response elicited by injury or destructions of tissues, is mediated by various proinflammatory cytokines, is associated with every health condition. Inflammation is also important cause for many allergic diseases. Rosmarinic acid, being one of the promising active principles, can be developed for various pharmacological activities through clinical trials and applications further. This review aimed to describe the antiinflammatory properties of rosmarinic acid in various diseased conditions and to understand its basic mechanisms.
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