Appraisal on preparation and characterization of nanoparticles for parenteral and ophthalmic administration
PAS71 document developed in the UK is: "A particle having one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less". Various polymers have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles for drug delivery to increase the therapeutic benefits, while minimizing side effect. The polymeric nanoparticles can carry drugs, which are entrapped in the polymer matrix as particulates or may be bound to the particle surface by physical adsorption or chemically. This appraisal addresses how drug is dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated to a nanoparticles matrix and delivers a drug to specific targets by a physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-dynamic properties of various types of drug molecules and to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation and to study the biodistribution of nanoparticles through the ocular and parenteral rout. Nanoparticles not only deliver drug(s) to specific organs but also delivery rate in addition could be controlled as being by standers, burst, and controlled, pulsatile or modulated. However, special attention has been paid to its biopharmaceutical aspects, drug kinetics and its application in various areas. The major goals in designing nanoparticles as a delivery system are to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate and dose regime. This review discussed about various methods of preparation, their characterization techniques, such as drug loading, release and the applications of Nanoparticles along with some marketed products and focusing on its properties and biological transport.
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