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This study was designed to evaluate the role of local Onopordum acanthium L. (cotton thistle) seed extracts (200mg/kg) in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats with the histopathological examination of liver, kidney and spleen tissues. Ninety adult male rats were randomly divided into nine equal groups. The first group was used as a control fed on a standard diet; the second group was treated with water extract and the third group was treated with the ethanolic extract. The fourth group was injected with streptozotocin (40mg/kg) as a diabetic group, while in the fifth group, diabetic rats were treated with water extract and in the sixth group, diabetic rats were treated with the alcoholic extract. The seventh group was fed on high cholesterol diet (hyperlipidemic group). In the eighth and ninth groups, hyperlipidemic rats were treated with water extract and alcoholic extracts, respectively. The fasting blood glucose (FBS), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), lipid profile, liver and renal function parameters, CRP, WBCs, hematological parameters and body weight were almost improved when diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats were treated with water extract and ethanol extract. Histopathological changes in the liver, kidney and spleen in diabetic groups were improved in groups treated with both extracts. Conclusion: from the results of this study, it can be reported that extracts of local cotton thistle seeds (mostly water extract) were effective in controlling abnormal parameters and histopathological changes in diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats.
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