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Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease that is characterized by low bone mineral density. It also disrupts the microarchitectural of the bone. In leads to increased bone fragility and risk of fractures. Even while it occurs in persons of various ages and ethnicities (including Caucasians and whites), it is more common among Caucasians (whites), elderly people, and women. Osteoporosis is becoming a global epidemic as the world's population ages and lives longer. Osteoporosis affects an estimated 200 million individuals worldwide. It affects a 3rd of women and one in every 12 men. This increases morbidity as well as mortality due to several complications. Moreover, It also reduces the patient's quality of life, lengthens their life expectancy when they are disabled, and places a heavy financial load on the health insurance systems of countries that are responsible for their care. Thus, it is essential to improve diagnostic methods and to introduce early intervention to prevent this disease. Lifestyle modification is an important recommendation for the population at risk. There are several pharmacological interventions that could be taken to prevent osteoporosis as vitamin D and calcium supplements and to treat osteoporosis as bisphosphonates and anabolic drugs. The most important step in the treatment is tailored to the individual patients and to optimize the treatment according to each case individually. Therefore, increasing doctor awareness, which promotes improved awareness among the general public, will be useful in averting this epidemic. 


Osteoporosis osteoporosis management bone mineral density fracture risk management

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Mohsin Aijaz Soomro, Raheel Akbar Baloch, Najeeb ur Rehman, Niaz Hussain Keerio, Muhammad Faraz Jokhio, Ajmal Khan Silro, & Syed Shahid Noor. (2021). A Review on The Complications and Management of Osteoporosis. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12(4), 2345-2349.