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Safety pharmacology is a study of unfavorable, pharmacodynamic effects of a drug on physiological functions with therapeutic range by using International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) S7A guidelines. The cardiovascular, central nervous, and respiratory systems are most affected by pharmacological side effects, resulting withdrawal of multiple medications from the market. Kalyanaka ghrita (KG) is an Ayurvedic formulation with ghee as a major basic component, though a promising candidate in treatment of AD, KG has not been documented for its safety profile, which prompted the study. In this study we evaluated safety pharmacology of KG oral (4, 2, 1g/kg), and nasal (100, 50, 25 µl/rat), in Wistar rats for 28 days subjected to CNS, CVS and the respiratory safety profile was evaluated on day 0, 14 and 28. At the end of the study the nasal turbinate was evaluated histopathologically. In the present study KG did not cause any significant change in CNS profile. However KG treatment had increased the grooming and rearing behaviors, which were not significant compared to vehicle control and did not cause change in CVS and respiratory profile upon treatment with KG for 28 days. The epithelium of nasal turbinate of animals was found intact after 28 days of nasal administration. After sustained dosing, the KG oral and intranasal treated groups showed no harmful events, which illustrates the CNS, CVS and respiratory safety profile of Kalyanaka ghrita.
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