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Kyasanur Forest Disease was first evolved in the Kyasanur forest, Karnataka. The transmission of the virus has occurred from the monkey to the human by the tick vector. On the early day of viral spread, the disease was restricted to the surrounded region of Kyasanur forest, Shimoga district. But in the present days, the disease has been spreading to neighboring districts and states as well. So, this study involves estimation of codon bias among the gene C, gene E, gene prM, and gene NS5 of the KFD virus and rate of evolution with phylogenetic analysis. The codon usage analysis has revealed the moderate codon bias among all the selected genes and the role of mutation pressure in genes- C and E and natural selection in genes- prM and NS5. Also, the tMRCA age was 1942, 1982, 1975, and 1931 of genes- C, E, prM, and NS5, respectively, of the KFD virus. The integrated analysis of codon usage bias and evolutionary rate analysis signifies that both mutational pressure and natural selection among the selected genes of the KFD virus.


KFD virus Codon usage bias Evolutionary characteristics Analysis Positive Selection tMRCA

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Mallikarjun S Beelagi, Uma Bharathi Indrabalan, Sharanagouda S Patil, Suresh K P, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Ashwini Prasad, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, & Chandan Shivamallu. (2021). Insight of Codon usage bias and Evolutionary rate among the genes C, E, prM and NS5 of the Kyasanur Forest Disease virus. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12(3), 2028-2046.