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Hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of free radicals causes the development of diabetic neuropathy (DNP), leading to peripheral nerve degeneration. The current study reports the neuroprotective effects of Phyllanthus amarus extract (PAE) and Esculetin (ESC) on Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Injection of STZ (60mg/kg/b.w, i.p) significantly induced diabetes mellitus (DM), verified by having a blood glucose level of more than 250 mg/dl. Randal-Selitto assessed neuropathic analgesia was assessed by randal-selitto and hot-plate methods and the sciatic nerves were collected and assessed for biochemical parameters at different interval of 7,14 and 21 days. Histopathological changes were also evaluated at the end of the experiment. Treatments with Phyllanthus amarus extract (400mg/kg/b.w/d) and esculetin (45mg/kg/b.w/d), Significantly ameliorated the STZ induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy by attenuating, such as decrease in blood glucose level, water intake level, aldose reductase activity (AR), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH, GPx along with body weight. Treatment with Phyllanthus amarus and esculetin significantly reversed the pain sensitivity and myelination, degenerative changes of sciatic nerve fibre in both the groups compared to the diabetic control group. Thus, Phyllanthus amarus and esculetin possess potential neuroprotective effect in a rat model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in respect of neuropathic behaviour, improved morphological changes and significant antioxidant activity.
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