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Insulin is a major hormone of polypeptides that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates. Diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, is associated with excessive levels of insulin. As a result, accurate insulin quantification is important for hyperglycemia diagnosis and care. Insulin's main purpose is to keep blood sugar levels in check. Insulin performs its functions by binding to nerve terminals on liver,fat, and striated muscle. In response to an increase in blood glucose levels, insulin facilitates the migration of the endothelial glycosyltransferases type iii (GLUT4) to a cellular membranes, increasing glucose absorption in insulin-sensitive periphery tissues such as fat and muscle. The activation of liver glycogenesis is then aided by insulin.Finally, insulin signals the liver to avoid processing glucose by preventing both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Where there is a low level of glucose in the blood, glycogens are converted to glucose and released into the bloodstream. The key instruments for detecting insulin have been immunochromatographic techniques. The current research focuses on the different analytical methods for assessing Insulin levels. This study looked at assay methods (AlphaLISA,ELISA,RIA,CLIA, HTRF, and on-chip motilal oswal financial), column chromatography immunoassay (LC-MS/MS andHPLC-UV, MECC,), but also novel science, industrial, and research biosensor assays. ELISA has long been a standard instrument in therapeutic immunoassays because of its high output. On the other hand, advanced computational methods, including such spectroscopy techniques, are incredibly specific but promising instruments that can differentiate between glucose and its analogues. The advantages and disadvantages of the most common methods were also discussed.
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