Prevalence of periodontitis among smokers and non-smokers
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation, recession, or both. Although the dental plaque causes periodontal diseases, certain risk factors can modify the host response to microbial aggression like diabetes, tobacco usage, pathogenic bacteria and microbial tooth deposits. The study aims to find out the difference in the periodontitis between the smokers and non-smokers in the local population of Chennai.50 subjects of the age group 20-50 were selected. Out of 50, 25 were smokers who have a history of smoking for the past 3 years, and 25 were non-smokers who had no history of smoking in the local population. The subjects have no history of systemic disease. The subjects had normal oral habits with a normal diet. The periodontal status of the participants was taken into count. The patient’s probing depth and loss of attachment was assessed using William's probe, and Naber's probe assessed furcation. Our study confirmed the differences in the prevalence of periodontitis in smokers and non-smokers. The percentage of subjects with the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher among chronic smokers than non-smokers. Current smokers, mainly occasional smokers, consumed sweetened drinks more frequently in comparison with non-smokers or ex-smokers. In case of consumption of fruits and vegetables, the trend was opposite when compared to smokers and non-smokers. Cigarette smoking exerts a strong and chronic effect on the tooth and periodontium. The current understanding of the importance of tobacco smoking as the most potent risk factor for periodontitis now has to be applied to the clinical management of the disease.
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