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Antidesma venosum is an evergreen to semi-deciduous tree used traditionally to treat various human and animal diseases. This review aims to provide an overview and critically analyze the ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of A. venosum. The results of the current study are based on literature survey conducted using various search engines such as Elsevier, Pubmed, Google Scholar, PubMed, Springer, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, and pre-electronic sources such as books, book chapters, scientific journals and other grey literature. The bark, fruit, leaf, root and stem bark decoction or infusion of A. venosum are mainly used for magical rituals, as anthelmintic and ethnoveterinary medicine, and traditional cure for epilepsy, hernia, malaria, skin infections, oral candidiasis, snakebites, sexually transmitted infections, abdominal pains, menstrual problems, respiratory infections, infertility, and gastrointestinal infections. The chemical constituents identified from A. venosum include essential oils, isoquinoline alkaloids, triterpenoids, lactones, phytosterols, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The species possesses a wide range of biological activities which include antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antischistosomal, mutagenic and cytotoxicity activities. Antidesma venosum is a valuable medicinal plant species, and future research should focus on animal experiments aimed at assessing toxicity and clinical efficacy of species extracts.
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