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Preterm birth & and low birth weight are a major health care problem and are significant contributors to perinatal morbidity, mortality, and long-term disability and ascending genital tract infection is a major cause of preterm labor. This study was aimed to examine the association between vaginal colonisation by genital Mycoplasma bacteria species of (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum) of a pregnant patient with subsequent development of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor (PTL), preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) and chorioamnionitis. A prospective cohort study included 75 pregnant patients with gestational age of (24-34) weeks attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in Al-Diwaniyah Maternity and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Iraq, from (February 2018- December 2018) who will exhibit obstetrical symptoms and signs of abdominal pain, uterine contractions, or cervical length shortening on transvaginal ultrasound (<25 mm), vaginal samples collected from those pregnant patients and all samples were tested for the presence Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticm bacteria by using molecular diagnosis method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and follow up of the patients for the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes as preterm labor, premature rupture of membrane and chorioamnionitis. The results of the current study revealed that the rate of Mycoplasma hominis infection was 18.2 %, whereas that of Ureaplasma was 7.6 %. It has been concluded there is an association between genital Mycoplasma in initiating adverse pregnancy outcome.
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