Prevalence of CD36 Deficiency on Platelet among Malay, Chinese and Indian Blood Donor in National Blood Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
CD36 is an isoantigens found on blood’s platelet and monocyte. The gene for this protein is located on chromosome 7 q11.2. The frequency of CD36 negative individual is reported to occur mostly among Asians and Africans. Thus, an anti-CD36 antibody which is responsible for platelet immune-mediated thrombocytopenia could develop in CD36 negative individual among Asians. As to date, there is no prevalence data on CD36 negative individuals among Malay, Chinese and Indian population in Malaysia. Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of CD36 negative platelet among Malay, Chinese and Indian population in Malaysia. In addition, the objective of this study also to emphasize the inclusion of anti-CD36 human platelet antibody into existing laboratory test of monoclonal antibody immobilize platelet antigen (MAIPA). Blood samples were collected in EDTA tube, then platelet-rich plasma was isolated followed by platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT) using standard laboratory procedure. Platelet was prepared by washing with phosphate buffered saline and then incubated with CD36-FITC conjugated antibody clone FA6.152 for the detection of CD36 antigen. Flow cytometry technique was performed to measure CD36 antigen on the platelet membrane via FACS calibur™ analyzer, and the results were analyzed via BD CellQuest™ Pro software. Findings of this study observed that CD36 negative platelet are present among Malaysians, with the frequencies of 2.5% (5/200) among Malays (p-value<0.001), 3% (3/100) among Chinese (p-value<0.001) and 2% (2/100) among Indians (p-value<0.001). Overall, this preliminary study revealed the prevalence of 2.5% (p-value<0.001) of CD36 negative individuals among Malaysians. Anti-CD36 could be one of the causes of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia among Malaysians. Therefore, further investigation using a larger number of participants will improve the validity of this study.