Clinico-etiological profile of childhood seizures at a tertiary care hospital in southern India – An observational study
Pediatric seizures are a common neurological problem and occur in children of all ages. Most of the prior studies reported in the literature had paid attention to epilepsy and clinical seizure types. There is limited data on the causes of an episode of childhood seizure in developing countries like India especially Tamil Nadu. Hence, this study was aimed to find the common aetiology of seizure and clinical characteristics of seizure types in different age groups presenting to tertiary centre in Southern India. A retrospective hospital-based observational study was conducted in a teaching hospital, Southern India. All children who presented with seizures to the pediatric emergency department in the period between January-June 2017 were included in the study. Clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, brain imaging studies, and follow up EEG screening were analyzed. Seizures were most common from 2 months to 5 years (58%). Febrile seizures (40%) followed by epilepsy (30%) were common etiologies in the present study. GTCS (50%) was the most type of presentation, of which tonic-clonic type was highest (32%). Status epilepticus was also seen (4%). Fever was the predominant trigger (25%). Leukocytosis (45%), CRP (14%). Hypocalcaemia (30%), and Hyponatremia (9%) were present. The children who had EEG abnormalities underwent neuroimaging of which only 10% of children had radiological findings. Seizures are more common below 5 years of age. Febrile Seizures is the most common aetiology. Regular EEG Screening on follow up may be useful in early detection of epileptiform activity even in children previously diagnosed to have simple febrile seizures.