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Anthrax remains a serious problem for many countries in the world. Containment of major outbreaks of this disease is possible only with the help of specific preventive measures as vaccinating all susceptible livestock. Immunization of animals should create solid immunity in the organism, which should resist the development of the infection process when introducing field strains of an agent. Currently, the specific immunity of the organism to anthrax is studied in detail by Russian and foreign scientists. However, there are no data on the dynamics of the development of immunity in the literature. The purpose of this work is to study the cellular component of adaptive post-vaccinal immunity in animals at different stages after immunization against anthrax. The authors have studied the dynamics of the quantitative composition of T- and B-lymphocytes in cattle during a year. Isolation of T- and B-cells causes spontaneous rosetting of lymphocytes with erythrocytes of heterologous species of animals: sheep and mouse respectively. Recording of the reaction was carried out under a light microscope. 200 lymphocytes were counted, and the percentage of rosette-forming cells was calculated. It was found that immunization leads to an increase in the number of lymphoid cells and epiphylaixis. The increase of lymphocytes gives reason to talk about the enhanced immunity level of animals against this agent. The number of T- and B-lymphocytes in the blood of vaccinated animals has been observed for 35 days after immunization and has been maintained at the same level for two months; 3 months later the number of cells decreased, which shows weakening of the immune system and immune memory by the 6th month after immunization of animals.
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