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The LBW infants as weighting less than 2.5kg at birth. Infants with low birth weight are probable to suffer medical troubles and delay development from the time of delivery to adult life. This study was planned to discover the prevalence of LBW infants in Ad-Diwaniyah city (Iraq) and the maternal risk factors, which contribute to the occurrence of low birth weight, and it is rated and what the suitable recommendations can be made to prevent this problem. Unfortunately, in Iraq, several studies reveal an increase in the delivery of LBW infants in the last years. The present study was aimed to identify the prevalence of LBW and possible maternal factors in children, teaching hospital in Al-Diwaniyah city during the period of the beginning of February 2017 to February 2018. This is a cross-sectional survey held out in Pediatric, teaching hospital through 1012 pregnant mothers giving a live LBW. Whole children weight on a weighing machine. Data was collected through the interview of mothers. Maternal age and education level, socioeconomic condition, number of prenatal visits, interpregnancy interval and maternal diseases, and infant gender were registered in questionnaire format. The result of the current study detects that the rate of LBW was 20.2%. The highest percentage of them (LBW) was preterm 67.4% and full, term (IUGR) 32.5%. 61.5% of the children in the LBW group were male, and 38.4% were female. Besides the outcome indicates that there are many important risk factors contributed to the incidence of LBW, these are; multiple pregnancies were found to be 66.8% of LBW infants, maternal age 21 – 35 years (39.7%), lack of Prenatal Care (60.3%), delivery by cesarean section (70.6%), mothers who illiterate (64.8%), a large number of mothers from the rural area (68.6%), the presence of maternal diseases (63.5%), all these are considered a risk factor. The current study demonstrates the essential elements give rise to low birth weight in neonates are gestational age (preterm delivery), maternal education and age, multiple births, regular prenatal care, cesarean section, and bad obstetric history.
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