Studies on phytochemistry and bioefficacy of cultivars of Piper betle Linn.
The plant, Piper betle. Linn is a creeper belonging to the Piperaceae family. The leaves are found to possess different medicinal properties and function as a stimulant. The taste is found to differ with different types of cultivars and the present study is conducted to know whether they differ in their phytochemical constitution and biological efficacies. Four different cultivars, i.e. Banarasi, Calcutta, Kammar and Kumbakonam of Piper betle were selected for this study and the methanolic extracts of the leaves were evaluated for antibacterial, anticandidal, antioxidant and larvicidal activities. Antibacterial and anticandidal efficacy was studied using Disc diffusion test. DPPH was used to detect antioxidant ability and the larvicidal potency was studied using the larvae of Artemia salina. Further, the aqueous extract of the leaves was screened for the presence of phytoconstituents. Tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids were detected in all the four cultivars however; Steroids are found to be absent. Among the cultivars, Kumbakonam variety has shown better antibacterial and anticandidal activity, Kammar has shown better antioxidant potency and the variety Calcutta has shown better larvicidal potency. The study aptly demonstrates the existence of difference in biopotency among the cultivars of Piper betle and proper selection of cultivar for specific usage in pharmaceutical industry is recommended.
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