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Several works had suggested the high occurrence of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D in type 2 diabetics and found links with central obesity and insulin resistance. Leptin has an important role in natural and acquired immunity. The present study design was aimed to evaluate leptin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a population of Iraqi diabetic men and to identify any correlations that may exist between these parameters and the glycemic indices. This case-control study was achieved at Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, University of Baghdad, and at El-Imam Ali Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from July 2017 to January 2018. It consisted of 160 men; 80 types 2 diabetics and 80 aged- and BMI matched healthy men. The patients and controls were also subdivided according to their obesity into subgroups. Investigations included serum measurements of fasting serum glucose (FSG) and lipid profile parameters by using Abbott c4000 automatic biochemical analyzer, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, leptin and insulin by using ELISA technique in patients and healthy controls. The results revealed that the mean values of FSG of diabetic obese, diabetic overweight, and diabetic normal-BMI patients were significantly increased compared to that of healthy controls (for all; P<0.0001). The mean values of serum leptin of diabetic obese, diabetic overweight and diabetic normal-BMI were lower than those of healthy obese, overweight and normal-BMI, but did not reach the significant level. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D did not observe any significant change between diabetics and healthy individuals. The findings also revealed the presence of a significant direct relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the HOMA values in the diabetic obese group (r= 0.402, P<0.021). This study concluded that obesity has a significant relation with serum levels of leptin, while the association of diabetes and vitamin D still need further investigations.