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It is advantageous to deliver some drugs with short half-life, and which are to be given frequently for chronic ailments, in the form of controlled-release (CR) formulations. The orally administered drugs, in the form of conventional matrix or reservoir type formulations, pose problems of bioavailability fluctuations due to gastric pH variations. Moreover, the release of drug(s) from these systems is affected by the hydrodynamic conditions of the body. Osmotically controlled drug delivery systems utilize the principles of osmotic pressure for the controlled delivery of active agent(s). The release rate of drug(s) from these systems is independent of the physiological factors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to a large extent. The main clinical benefits of ODDS are their ability to improve treatment tolerability and patient compliance. The release of drug(s) from osmotic systems is governed by various formulation factors such as solubility and osmotic pressure of the core component(s), size of the delivery orifice, and nature of the rate-controlling membrane. By optimizing formulation and processing factors, it is possible to develop osmotic systems to deliver drugs of diverse nature at a pre-programmed rate. In the present review article deals with history, development, general considerations and key aspects for the formulation of oral osmotic drug delivery systems.
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