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Methandienone is widely used to treat many health problems such as aplastic anemia, wounds, burns, delayed puberty, early men climacterium, and has non-medical uses in fitness centres to increase physical activity and muscle volume. Abuse of methandienone was reported to impair its medical benefits and possibly to hepatic toxicity — the present study aimed at detecting the cytotoxic effects of methandienone in albino mice Mus musculus. For this purpose, 55 adult male mice were used and divided into 5 groups: negative control and positive control (cyclophosphamide) consisting of 5 mice and 3 other treated groups each consisting of 15 mice, methandienone was orally administered for 35 days to the mice in low, intermediate, and high doses with concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/Kg body weight, respectively. Effects of treatment were measured using blood tests, including total white blood cell (WBC) count, total red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level and blood platelets count. Effects on kidney and liver functions were also tested by measuring serum levels of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Results show an abnormal change in blood parameters and increase in liver-kidney functions tests, and the effect was dose and time-dependent. From these results, we conclude that methandienone displayed a change in blood parameters and an increase in the activities of diagnostic marker enzymes in liver and kidney which may reflect significant damage in the structural integrity of liver and kidney. So we may also suggest that the use of methandienone should be given to the patient or young men in gymnasiums in the proper pharmacological dose to avoid its toxic effects.
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