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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 capsid protein can prevent genital HPV infection and associated complications after three intramuscular injections. The currently available vaccines for HPV infection are based on capsid protein L1 virus like particles (VLPs) and they are formulated using aluminium adjuvants. The aluminium based vaccines always posses some constrains as they cannot induce the cell mediated immune response and the complete protection is based on the humoral antibodies. Here we have experimented subcutaneous and intranasal immunization of HPV L1 antigen formulated in Niosomes in order to induce both Humoral and Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) response. The Niosomes were formulated with the HPV antigen, with or without Cholera Toxin- B (CTB) and immunized in mice. The immune response was studied in both systemic and as well as in mucosal surfaces. The subcutaneous injection elicited an acceptable level of systemic immune response, but failed to produce significant response in mucosal surfaces. The intranasal immunization was effective in eliciting both systemic and mucosal immune responses as tested from serum and vaginal fluids respectively when compared with subcutaneous injection.


HPV L1 Intranasal & Subcutaneous immunization Niosomes Serum vaginal fluid

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Muruganandham S, Michael A1, Balasubramaniam V, & Jaganathan S. (2013). Novel carrier based vaccine delivery systems for mucosal immune responses for HPV L1 capsid protein administered subcutaneously and intra nasally . International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(4), 543-549. Retrieved from