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The contamination of food with ochratoxin A (OTA) represents a real risk to the safety of food and animal health as it transfers through food chain for the human. This study was conducted to determine the toxicological effects of oral administration of OTA on the male reproductive efficiency. Forty-eight adult Wistar albino male rats (aged 65-75 days), average of body weight 145±1.85g), they were randomly assigned into three equal groups, sixteen rats per group: control group, did not received any treatment, and two treated groups were administered with OTA via gavage at dose levels (1 mg and 2 mg /kg/ Bodyweight) daily. Eight male rats from each group were sacrificed at the 14th and 28th day from the first day of treatment. Body weight, sex hormones included (testosterone, FSH and LH) were measured and histological changes in testicular and epididymal sections were investigated. The results registered significant decrease (P<0.05) in body weight gain and hormonal assay of (testosterone, FSH and LH) of two treated groups with OTA when compared with the control group. Histological investigation of the present study showed to effect of OTA on reproductive organ tissue through an expansion seminiferous lining, spermatogenesis suppression and degeneration of Leydig cells in testis tissue, as well as noted tubules lumen of epididymis, were empty from sperm in addition to damage in epithelial lining cells of epididymal tubules with presence of edematous in epididymal lumen.
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