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Diseases of the nervous system are always associated with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The fragile nature of the neurons and their inability to replicate means that neurological disorders are associated with a permanent disability. Pharmacotherapy of neurological diseases requires understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease pathology. In most of the cases a faulty cellular biochemical pathway is involved, resulting from a defective enzyme. This article focusses on role of enzymes in various neurological disorders. To review pertinent literature and summarise the role of enzymes in the underlying pathology of various neurological disorders. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, SCOPUS, J-GATE and Google Scholar and relevant papers were collected using the keywords enzymes, Alzheimer's disease, redox, thiamine, depression, neurotransmitters, epileptogenesis. The literature review highlighted the role of enzymes in major neurological disorders and their potential to be used as drug targets and biomarkers. Identifying defective enzymes gives us new molecular targets to focus on for developing more effective pharmacotherapeutic options. They can be also considered as potential biomarkers. An abnormal enzyme is most often a direct result of an underlying genetic abnormality. Identifying and screening for these genetic abnormalities can be used in early identification and prevention of disease in individuals who have a genetic predisposition. The modern advances in genetic engineering shows a lot of promise in correcting these abnormalities and development of revolutionary cures although ethical concerns remain.
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