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Mandibular first molars are amongst the most common teeth requiring endodontic treatment due to their early emergence in the oral cavity and subsequent caries. Proper knowledge and understanding of the root canal morphology and anatomy of mandibular first molars, will help the clinician in developing a proper and standard treatment protocol by predicting possible variations that potentially challenge the treatment outcome. The main objective of the present study was to know the prevalence of canal variations in mandibular 1st molar among the South Indian population and its association with age and gender. All the patients who reported during June 2019 to March 2020 for mandibular 1st molar endodontic therapy were chosen for the study. Information was collected from the dental hospital record system and the resulting data was tabulated in excel and imported to SPSS for correlation and association. Within the limits of the study, the results obtained are: prevalence of canal variations is 7.6% and 2.2% in single and multi visit root canal treatment respectively with a higher incidence among the male patients and it is primarily seen in the age group of 21 to 40 years. This knowledge about the canal variations in the South Indian population will be helpful to the clinician to look for any unusual anatomy while performing endodontic therapy which will prevent any unwanted procedural errors. It necessitates the careful negotiation and cleaning of all accessible canal spaces.
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