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PD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder with features such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and dementia. Neuropathologically, selective loss or death of dopaminergic neurons is the hallmark of PD. In PD, elevated oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation were reported. Rotenone (an isoflavone obtained from Fabaceae associated vegetation such as the jicama vine plant) induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis in cell line and animal models. It was useful in the evaluation of neuroprotective properties on cell line and animal models of PD. Drugs with anti-oxidant potential helped to control the cellular stress, free radical formation, neurotransmitter level in PD animal models. Nutmeg, an aromatic spice exhibited memory enhancing, anti-oxidant, anticonvulsant properties. It is an excellent body detoxifier and stimulator of the brain due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds such as eugenol, isoelemicin, isoeugenol, methoxyeugenol, myristic acid, myristicin, saponins and lignin. Macelignan (a compound present in nutmeg) having the low molecular weight and hydrophobic nature could pass beyond the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we explored the cognitive profile of rotenone-induced model of PD treated with MFSE extract (MFSE) by behavioural tests (Morris water maze test, T-maze test and Elevated plus maze Test). Rotenone was injected to male Wistar albino rats by intra-peritoneal route (2.5mg/kg daily) for 30days. MFSE treated rats showed significant improvement in cognition in rotenone-induced PD model. It might be due to its neuroprotective and anti-cholinesterase properties.


Anti- cholinesterase Memory Myristica fragrans seeds extract (MFSE) Neuroprotection Nutmeg Parkinson’s disease (PD) Rotenone Dopamine (DA)

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Muthuvel vijayan K, Prabhu K, & Rajasankar S. (2020). Aromatic spice Nutmeg attenuates memory deficits in Rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(4), 5441-5447.