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The purpose of the current study was to find out the reasons that lead to a continuous Increase in the injury of children (0-14 years) with leukemia. There is no information to support the mother s exposure to prenatal accidents or the extent 0f their impact on the fetus. Therefore, the study suggested the effect of some environmental factors such as pollution in Baghdad and them are genetic. The study was conducted on 30 children with acute leukemia divided into two subgroups 15 male and 15 females, the control group also consisted of 30 children and divided into two subgroups 15 male and 15 females. The results showed a large numbers of acute lymphoblast leukemia B-cells (ALL)in the peripheral blood smear of infected children with leukemia. The level of erythropoietin showed significant variation in the groups that were included in the study where the EPO level in the infected children was (82.476±7.435mIU/ml), while the EPO level in the uninfected children was (12.321±1.315mIU/ml). the study also Show that there were significant differences in the levels of EPO in children from males with an infection (85.672±1.127 mIU/ml) compared to children of uninfected males (12.869±1.623mIU/ml). This also applies to children of infected females (72.351±9.216mIU/ml) compared to Children of uninfected females (11.672±0.632 mIU/ml).
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