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Nerium indicum (Linn Apocyanaceae family) is wild plant and commonly known as “Kaner”. It is used against various health problems in India and China as ethno medicine. India and China is among the oldest civilizations on earth. Ethno medicines are developed in ancient time by experiences sharing with nature. Aim of the present study is to explore the ancient knowledge of phytomedicine in context of modern science. Vedic period is the oldest cultural representation of human civilization. Ayurvedic system of medicine was developed in ‘Susruta Samhita’ and ‘Charak Samhita’. Nerium indicum (Linn.) is one of the thousands of plants mentioned in Ayurvedic system of India as important medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The flowers and leaves of N. indicum have been used to stimulate cardiac muscle, relieve pain and eliminate blood stasis. Present review mainly deals with the phytomedicinal properties such as analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, insecticidal/molluscicidal, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-cancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-feedent activity of N. indicum. Its role as bioindicator in predicting the environmental condition is also discussed. N. indicum contains glycoside, oleandrin, tannin, volatile oil 0.25%. Glucoside, neriin and oleandrin are found in leaves of this plant. Nerium indicum is one of the wild plants, which is commonly used in various cultures as ethnic medicine. Although recent researches on its medicinal properties had established its therapeutic value in treatment of ailments, yet lot of studies are still required to explain its potentials as safe phytomedicine.
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