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Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disorder and the most common types of dementia that develops in the elderly, characterised by gradual memory loss and cognitive skills of an individual. The neurodegenerative disease is characterised by intracellular settling of hyperphosphorylated tau protein like neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the neuronal cytoplasm and extracellular settling of beta-amyloid peptide(Aβ). These changes lead to cognitive decline due to the loss of synapses and neurons involved in learning, memory and cognitive function. Amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, presenilin 2 and TREM2 are some of the genes involved in the development of the disease. The current treatment for AD is the cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and N-methyl D- aspartate antagonist memantine. Other recommended adjuvant therapy was vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acid, Mediterranean diet, and aerobic exercise. Diagnosis is based upon clinical presentation and imaging biomarkers. This review summarises AD biomarkers such as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, circulatory biomarkers, inflammatory markers and oxidative biomarkers which are under study and the future targets of drug intervention. The amyloid-beta peptide, tau protein, and β-secretase may be the possible sites of drug action in the future.
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