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Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis is a non-inflammatory disease characterised by calcification of soft tissues, mainly ligaments and enthuses, as well as by ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. To assess the relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis among a sample of middle and old age Iraqis.A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2018 to May 2019 at the Rheumatology Unit of Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Iraq and Basra Teaching Hospital, Iraq. A total of 282 patients were included in the study. Data were gathered using a pre-constructed data collection sheet for patients that evaluate: age, gender, occupation, education, smoking, weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated. Clinical data about back pain, limitation in movement or any neurological symptoms were identified, serum lipid profiles (serum triglycerides, serum high-density lipoprotein), fasting blood sugar, haemoglobin A1c and serum uric acid were obtained. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis was reported in 18 (6.4%) patients. High waist circumference was reported in 175 patients, high triglycerides found in 208 patients, while low HDL found in 162 patients. We reported 147 patients who had elevated blood pressure and 106 patients with elevated blood glucose. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis was significantly more frequent in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those with no metabolic syndrome, (9.2%) vs (3.1%). There is a significant association between diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and metabolic syndrome among a sample of middle and old age Iraqi people.
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