Main Article Content
The insulin discovery during the past century is considered as the major breakout in the health sector. It is considered as lifesaving medication for T1DM and T2DM. In the advancement of peptide chemistry, pharmacology, cell signalling and structural biology insulin has played a central role. Natural human insulin secreted from pancreatic cells maintains the glucose levels in blood. Later on, for the treatment of diabetes mellitus external insulin was developed by various means. However, imitating same actions by natural insulin by external insulin was difficult. Various insulin analogues developed (rapid acting, short acting, long acting, intermediate acting) different blood glucose lowering action profiles. The physiological post-prandial insulin response is not adequately reproduced by the pharmacokinetic profile of rapid-acting insulin. Before the meals, lyspro and aspart, fast acting analogues can be injected which produce faster and substantial insulin peak. As it is difficult to produce a basal insulin concentration for controlling preprandial blood glucose Level with available long acting analogues, insulin detemir and insulin glargine was synthesized. This article covers the detailed study of human insulin and various insulin analogues developed.
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