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Altered serum lipid levels are linked with varying degrees of cognitive impairment due to various mechanisms. In addition, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment varies substantially from one region to another. The prevalence of cognitive impairment in relation to altered serum lipid levels on cognitive impairment in the pre-elderly and elderly population is of great importance. Therefore, it is important to characterize the features of mild cognitive impairment with respect to altered lipid profile. This study investigated the association between altered serum lipid levels on cognitive impairment in the pre-elderly and elderly population. The present cross-sectional study was done in 406 pre-elderly and elderly patients. The participants were subjected to demographic data collection followed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Participants were classified into two groups: cognitively-normal (n=289) and mild cognitive impairment (117). Fasting serum lipids of the participants was estimated using venous blood samples by standard biochemical techniques. Differences in the lipid concentrations between the two groups were then compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Significant differences were found in MMSE scores between the cognitively-normal and MCI groups (p<0.05). MCI patients had a significantly lower level of high-density lipoprotein when compared to cognitively-normal participants (p<0.05). In addition, the two groups showed differences in education levels attained. The cognitively-normal group had a greater number of educational years when compared to the MCI group. The study found significant differences in serum lipid concentrations between the cognitively-normal individuals and the mild cognitive impairment group. Future investigations may be needed to explore the effects exerted by lipids on cognitive functions.
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