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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in the working-age population across the globe. The objective of the present study was to assess the drug utilization pattern, risk factors and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a south Indian tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 745 subjects (386 with diabetic retinopathy and 359 without diabetic retinopathy). Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was measured and risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy were determined by calculating odds ratios using graph-pad prism statistical software and drug utilization pattern was assessed. Retinopathy was significantly higher in the subjects who are married, uneducated, housewives, urban residents, no income group and risk factors were comorbidities (other diseases, hypertension, endocrine diseases, history of cardiovascular diseases, HbA1c, high serum creatinine, duration of diabetes (5-10 years and >10 years, physical inactivity, junk foods (weekly once and weekly twice), soft drinks occasionally and tea/ coffee (daily twice). Metformin (38.21%), combination of Insulin Isophane and Insulin Regular (16.75%), Insulin Regular (15.18%), combination of Glimepiride and Metformin (11.51%), Glimepiride (7.85%), combination of Metformin and Vildagliptin (7.85%) were most commonly prescribed anti-diabetic drugs to the T2DM patients with retinopathy. The present study revealed that risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy were multiple


Type 2 diabetes Prevalence Risk factors Diabetic Retinopathy Metformin

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Mannam, M., Nalluri, L., Pingili, R., Sudagani, J., & Kilaru, N. (2020). Assessment of Drug Utilization Pattern, Prevalence and Risk Factors for the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in A South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital: A cross-sectional observational study. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(2), 2383-2398.