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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), to date, is still the most frequent cause of infantile and childhood cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness on a global scale, and at the same time, causing significant impact in the elderly. Presently, there is no licensed vaccine or safe and specific antiviral agent that could be used against the virus. Medicinal plants are known to be a promising source for the discovery of utilizable anti-RSV treatments. In this present study, we screened the anti-RSV and cell cytotoxicity activities of methanol extract of A. Africana by virus plaque reduction and corresponding cell viability methods in Hep-2 and Vero cells of human and mammalian origin respectively. The corresponding set up for analyses of A. Africana extract on cell viability were performed by the reduction of thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) in the Hep-2 cells following the established method. The results of an evaluation of the extract of A. africana showed anti-RSV activities with inhibition of RSV at IC50, 42.5 ± 8.89, while the cell cytotoxic effect in Hep2 cells recorded was TC50, 121.4. ± 7.21. Therefore, our results show that the methanol extract of AA exhibited anti-RSV activities and has a moderate effect on the cell viability of the recipient host cell, indicating that target molecular substances against RSV can be developed from the extract.
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