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Plant essential oil is found to possess many beneficial effects in the field of medicine. Especially essential oil derived from different species of plants is reported to have specific activity against cancer. Artemesiaannua is an annual herb belonging to Asteraceae family has been traditionally used for treating several ailments. It is a conventional medicinal plant used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant and cerebral malaria. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of this plant against cancer cell line. Hydro distilled volatile oil obtained from aerial parts of A.annua was analysed by GCMS. The majority of the compounds derived from essential oil of Artemesiaannua are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Artemisinin, the active component of Artemesiaannua is a sesquiterpenoid lactone containing unusual endoperoxide bridge that shows remarkable activity against numerous tumour growth and metastases. The pleiotropic nature of artemisinin induces oxidative stress, anti-angiogenetic effect and apoptosis triggering on cancer cells. The anti-proliferative effect of essential oil derived from Artemesiaannua on human cancer cell lines like MCF-7, HT29 and AGS was done by MTT assay. Results shows the essential oil of artemisia annua have cytotoxic potential by inhibiting cell growth in a dose dependent manner. However, further investigations in isolating active cytotoxic components and understanding its molecular mechanisms will help in therapeutic management of cancer.
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