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Type 2 diabetes is delineated by impaired metabolic flexibility, and intramyocellular lipid accumulation, causing insulin resistance, particularly in skeletal muscle by reducing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. High-fat diet and high fructose (HFD and HF) administration in rodents bestows a model for hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and Type 2 diabetes. The current study is focused on elucidating the role of Gymnemic acid in combating hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress and apoptotic events in the skeletal muscle of HFD and HF induced Type 2 diabetes in Wistar albino rats by boosting antioxidant defense system. Gymnemic acid, a saponin of triterpene glycoside contained in leaves of Gymnema Sylvestre, has potent anti-diabetic properties. Treatment with Gymnemic acid restored the antioxidant status (Gpx, SOD, CAT, GR, Vit C & Vit E) with significant (p<0.05) decrease in free radical levels and reinvigorated the expression of apoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins in Type 2 diabetic rats. Histopathological data demonstrate that oral administration of Gymnemic acid protects skeletal muscle fibers from an oxidative niche in HFD and HF in Type 2 diabetic rats. In accordance with this, Gymnemic acid might be regarded as a promising therapeutic agent against Type 2 diabetes, thereby restoring skeletal muscle integrity and function.
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