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Myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury leads to the development of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Death due to these diseases is increasing at a high rate. Tissue damage due to ischemia and reperfusion results in the development of the above-mentioned diseases in heart. During prolonged ischemia, various physiological changes such as a decrease in ATP levels and intracellular pH occur due to dysfunction of ATP ase, and accumulation of lactate in myocardial tissue. The consequences of these reactions include increased accumulation of mitochondrial calcium, followed by cell swelling and death. Due to NF-kappa-B signal pathway activation and severe Cx43 degradation, a serious myocardial infarction occurs after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Knowledge related to the mechanism of ischemia-reperfusion injury and its related treatments is important. This review explains the prevalence, risk factors, mechanism, modern medicine and traditional medicine for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Numerous medicinal plants have been scientifically evaluated for cardioprotective activity. Herbs that have been reported to exhibit therapeutic potency against Ischemic reperfusion injury are discussed in detail. There are a lot of diseases that are caused due to ischemic perfusion injury and end up in a significant rise in the rate of mortality. The details about ongoing research related to new drug development against myocardial ischemic perfusion injury are discussed here.
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