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Plants are one of the large sources of herbal medicines. Many plants have the capability to produce some bioactive constituents which give defense against microorganisms like bacteria and fungi and also from insects. Xanthium strumarium L. is a wild plant that grows like a weed. Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. were subjected for extraction in 4 different solvents viz. methanol, chloroform, aqueous, and ethanol. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of methanol, chloroform, aqueous, and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. The antibacterial activity was assessed by using the agar well diffusion assay against tested bacterial strain, Escherichia coli (CGSC 4312) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 9634). Phytochemical analysis has revealed that Xanthium strumarium L. has most of the significant phytoconstituents like Saponins, Terpenoids, Flavanoids, Phenol, steroids, Anthraquinones, Tannins, Alkaloids, Glycosides, and Carbohydrate. The zone of inhibition was measured and compared by standard antibiotic streptomycin. The outcome of the present work showed that chloroform extract (400µg/ml) showed maximum inhibition against E. Coli (23mm), and Ethanol extract(400µg/ml) showed maximum inhibition against Bacillus subtilis (24mm). The result divulged the presence of antibacterial activity of different extracts of Xanthium strumarium L.against human pathogenic bacteria. Thus, this plant has many active compounds that can be used for the development of various potent drugs.
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