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A number of phytochemicals or secondary metabolites were produced by herbs and spices. These were used as food preservatives and also as traditional medicines from long back. These were having various pharmacological benefits which included antioxidant, analgesic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties. In the present study two different plant species (Zingiber officinale, Myristica fragrans) were used for studying their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. The phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was done by using standard methodology. FTIR analysis of the ginger and nutmeg extracts were carried out to study the functional groups present in the respective plant extracts. The extracts were also subjected to NMR spectroscopy. Two different bacteria were used for the studies which are good biofilm producers, Pseudomonas and E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic and choloroform extracts of ginger and nutmeg were studied using air liquid interphase coverslip assay and biofilm assay. The results suggest that the ginger and nutmeg extracts have biofilm inhibition activity. The reduction in biofilm was observed in all the 3 concentrations of the nutmeg chloroform extract with maximum biofilm reduction in 100% and was compared with the control. Both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, biofilm inhibition was observed in all 3 concentrations of ginger and nutmeg.


Biofilm phytochemicals Plant extracts Ginger Nutmeg

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Challaraj Emmanuel E S, Vinni Biji, & Gayathri N. Krishna. (2020). A Characteristic Study on the Effect of Ginger and Nutmeg Extracts on Pseudomonas and E.coli biofilms. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(1), 386-396.