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Drug-induced kidney disorder/disease (DKID) is an origin of kidney disease followed by acute renal failure. Drug-induced renal toxicity is more common in infants and young children in certain clinical circumstances where underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. Sometimes, administered drugs may cause acute renal injury, intra-renal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders in patients. Certain drugs may cause alterations in intra-glomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), interstitial tubule disease, and renal scarring. Common risk factors include; pre-existing renal dysfunction, volume-depleted state, old age, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. Therefore, the prevention from the disease includes the knowledge about the nephrotoxicity, assessing considering the patient-related, kidney-related, and drug-related factors while prescribing medicines, using of alternative drugs, which are non-nephrotoxic, assessing the baseline of renal function before starting the treatment, monitor the renal function during the treatment and avoid the nephrotoxic drug combinations and withdrawing the offending drugs due to toxicity. The ADRs of the prescribed/ administered are identified at the earliest to prevent the development of the last-stage renal disorder. This review discusses the risk factors associated with drug-induced renal disease, estimation of renal function, mechanism of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, and certain drugs that cause nephrotoxicity.
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