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Curcumin, the primary bioactive component isolated from turmeric, has been shown to possess variety of biologic functions including anti-cancer activity. However, meticulous mechanism of the curcumin in gall bladder cancer has not been explored yet. Therefore, in our study, we elucidated the mechanism of the anticancer action of curcumin against human gall bladder cancer cells. It was found that the curcumin treated GBC cells decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner. Nuclear condensation, Annexin V-FITC/PI positive cells, and caspase-3 activation confirmed the apoptotic induction due to anti-proliferative action of curcumin. Furthermore, curcumin induced disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased reactive oxygen species generation which has not yet been reported in earlier studies of curcumin with gall bladder cancer. Moreover, curcumin-induced apoptosis of gall bladder cancer cells was also accompanied by significant amount of growth arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle which has also not been documented previously. To the best part of my knowledge, this study has established curcumin as one of the promising chemotherapeutic agent against gall bladder carcinoma. Thus the present study explored a novel mechanism explaining the anti cancerous effects of curcumin, and may provide an alternative therapeutic approach which can overcome the side effects of chemotherapy.
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