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The use of zebrafish vertebrate model in vivo analysis of the drug toxicity and efficacy, chemical toxicity, and safety is increasing in recent researches. Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) has been traditionally claimed for its many protective roles. However, the development of toxicity effect may cause morphological abnormalities by using an embryo of zebrafish (Danio Rerio) is unknown. Hence, this study was designed to determine the toxicity and teratogenic effect of hydroethanolic extract of M. charantia fruit using Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) embryos. The crude extract was prepared from the fruit of M. charantia using 80% hydroethanolic solvent. The zebrafish embryos were exposed to serial dilution of crude extract. The active constituent was analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) has been widely commercialized based on traditional usage as an antidiabetic product. The current study has shown the toxic effects of the M. charantia fruit extract on the developing zebrafish embryos, and the median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated to be 725.90 mg/L at 48 hpt. The observed effects are dependent on the time of exposure and concentrations of the extract. At higher concentration, the extract causes some morphological defects such as less pigmentation, dented tail, spinal curvature, oedema, reduced hatchability, and growth retardation, that indicates the presence of toxicant(s). Based on the GC-MS profiling, some of the compounds identified in the hydroethanolic extract, such as propanedioic acid and glutamine, may have caused the teratogenic effects to the embryos. Further research on the M. charantia fruit's metabolites should be carried out prior to any nutraceutical or pharmaceutical application.
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