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Mucoadhesion is defined as the ability of material adheres to biological tissue for an extended period of time. Over the last few decades' pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal routes as an alternative to injections. Among the various transmucosal sites available, mucosa of the buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms. Buccal delivery of the desired drug using mucoadhesive polymers has been the subject of interest since the early 1980s. Advantages associated with buccal drug delivery have rendered this route of administration useful for a variety of drugs. The mucoadhesive interaction is explained in relation to the structural characteristics of mucosal tissues and the theories & properties of the polymers. The success and degree of mucoadhesion bonding is influenced by various polymer-based properties. Evolution of such mucoadhesive formulations has transgressed from first-generation charged hydrophilic polymer networks to more specific second-generation systems based on lectin, Thiol and various other adhesive functional groups. This paper aims to review the mucoadhesive polymeric platforms, properties & characteristics to provide basics to the young scientists, which will be useful to circumvent the difficulties associated with the formulation design.
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