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Out of hospital cardiac arrest is a major cause of death worldwide. The outcome from out of hospital cardiac arrest remains poor, thus requiring immediate emergency medical intervention and high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ambulance drivers are part of the prehospital care team and therefore play a critical role in providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation to cardiac arrest patient. As present, there is no study that has been developed to assess the knowledge, attitude and confidence regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation among ambulance drivers. Thus, this study has developed a reliable and validated a questionnaire called AmKAC to evaluate their knowledge, attitude and confidence. The questionnaires are available in two languages, English and Bahasa Malaysia, in view of different educational background. The content validity was then assessed by content experts. Subsequently, the questionnaires underwent face validity which were pretested among 10 ambulance drivers to check for the understanding, language and readability. Afterwards, the refined questionnaires were administered to 108 ambulance drivers from the emergency trauma department of six different hospitals. The process was repeated one week after for the retest. This study reviewed reliable questionnaires in measuring knowledge, attitude and confidence among ambulance driver with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.685, 0.703 and 0.905, respectively. In addition, the questionnaire also showed good test-retest reliability and correlation between the items, by using Spearman’s rho and intraclass coefficient, respectively. In conclusion, the developed, validated AmKAC can be used in future to provide better insights of the ambulance drivers knowledge, attitude and confidence level regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation permitting organization of courses and training.  


Attitude Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Confidence Knowledge

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How to Cite
Jamie Foong Siew Wei, Mohd Azmani bin Sahar, & Ahmad Zulkarnain Ahmad Zahedi. (2019). Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitude and confidence regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation among ambulance drivers in Malaysia. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(4), 2973-2982.