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Obstruction is one of the most common problems in biliary tree pathology, combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) regarded as accurate imaging modalities in diagnosis the cause of obstruction and treatment planning due to information obtain from MRCP about biliary and pancreatic ducts, information obtains from MRI cross sections about surrounding parenchyma. This study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of combined MRCP and MRI in differentiation between benign and malignant causes of biliary dilatation and their sensitivity in detection specific cause of biliary dilatation. This study involved 72 patients and conducted in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Iraq during a period from February 2013 to June 2017, the diagnosis of biliary dilatation was done by abdominal ultrasound to all patients followed by MRCP/MRI, the results of MRCP/MRI was compared with final diagnoses done by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), surgical, histopathological and laboratory results. The results revealed that a strong correlation between MRCP/MRI and other gold standard tools in differentiation between benign and malignant causes of obstruction. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRCP in differentiation between malignant and benign causes of biliary dilatation were 98.4%, 100% & 99.7% respectively. There was a strong correlation (0.990) between MRCP/MRI & final diagnosis to determine the specific cause of obstruction, correct diagnosis the cause of obstruction in 68 patients out of 72 with a sensitivity of 94%. This study concluded that combined MRCP/MRI plays an important role in differentiation benign & malignant causes of biliary obstruction and in differentiation the specific cause of obstruction.
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