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To determine the changes in Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in addition to measuring the changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) which considered as antioxidant enzymes in autistic children receiving melatonin supplementation to evaluate its antioxidant role in autism. A follow-up study was performed in therapeutics and clinical pharmacy Department, Baghdad College of Medical Sciences, Baghdad - Iraq. The study was performed on 55 autistic children who had recruited from several private institutions specialized in autistic children care, Baghdad, Iraq between June 2018 and November 2018. The levels of melatonin, MDA, SOD and CAT were measured in the serum of 55 patients before and after receiving melatonin supplementation for three months. The results revealed statistically significant differences in the levels of melatonin, MDA, SOD and CAT between patients before and after receiving melatonin supplement. Furthermore, melatonin levels showed significant positive correlations with both SOD and CAT in addition to a significant positive correlation between SOD and CAT while MDA levels showed significant negative correlations with melatonin, SOD and CAT in autistic patients before and after receiving the supplement. Melatonin levels, CAT and SOD activity, showed to be improved significantly by melatonin supplementation with a concomitant reduction in the levels of MDA as an indicator of a decrease in oxidative stress in autistic children.
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