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The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) against ﬁrst-line drugs and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) due to misuse of second-line anti tubercular drugs (ATDs) is a further concern. Recommended treatment involves long term and multiple drug therapy with severe side effects. Due to this concern nanoparticle-based systems have significant potential for treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB) to overcome the need to administer ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and circumvent hepatotoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent ﬁrst-line chemotherapy. Nanostructured delivery systems constitute a wide range of systems varying from liposomes, micelles, micro- and nanoemulsions, to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Pulmonary administration of inhaled nanoparticles in the form of dry powder inhalers offer particular advantages for pulmonary administration of anti tubercular drugs (ATDs). Present review comprehensively about different approaches of nanobased drug delivery, devises and techniques for pulmonary delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated ATD.
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