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The crude extract of Tribal Medicine Formulation (TMF), an herbal drug was taken to appraise the pharmacognostic status through antioxidant activity and anti-snake venom properties. The antioxidant activity has been evaluated by ABTS, TBARS and Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay methods, respectively. Since, ethno-medicinal plants and their formulation contain generally diverse class of active metabolites and phenolic compounds which possess wide-ranging amount of antioxidant activities; the anti-venom activity was evaluated for the enzymes like PLA2 and protease which are present in the snake venom by interaction of proteins between Naja naja and protein of TMF drug. The Anti-PLA2 activity was done to facilitate neutralizing effect of PLA2 in association with the different fractions of TMF drug. Accordingly, the efficacy of TMF drug was employed to neutralize snake venom and the significant neutralization effect was noticed, which may be due to presence of certain active class of chemical compounds in TMF drug that acquired anti-lethal effects. Among them, presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, total sugars and ascorbic acid have contributed significantly as anti-venom potential. Therefore, multi-functionality of TMF drug has clearly indicated the competence of such active chemical constituents that make possible of binding between two proteins. Consequently, the obstruction in the functions of many macromolecules could be accomplished due to interaction of these two proteins. Later, the hemorrhage activity was conducted to assess the anti-snake venom activity through myonecrosis-lung hemorrhage activity. In the study, the mouse lung tissue and also the muscle tissue layer was collected and added with saline buffer to one layer in which, the cell death did not occur. Then, the other layer added with snake venom was found to be the cells started dying by forming tumors; whereas, the third layer which was added with both snake venom along with the extracts of TMF drug diminishes the activity of inflammatory enzyme. This confirms the better activity of TMF drug over venom which further influences neutralization of snake venom. However, it can be suggested that, the active metabolites present in the TMF drug extract are most responsible in inhibiting the PLA2 activity and the fortification in the efficiency of drug was justified. This will facilitate the rationale factor pharmacologically which admits the traditional evidences for these Ethno-medicinal plants in the form of TMF drug as antidote for snake victims. Therefore, the TMF drug was found to have high potential active constituents which make possible of neutralization competence in treating snake bite. Further, the TMF drug can be explored for its therapeutic authentication through analyzing probable mechanism of action by lead molecules present in the formulations via clinical studies which can be recommended further as counteractive doctrine in case of snakebite envenomation


Tribal Medicine Formulation (TMF) Antioxidant activity Naja naja Anti Snake venom activity Neutralization of Snake Venom Anti-PLA2 activity

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Panduranga Murthy G, Harsha R, Leelaja B.C, Chandrasekhar K.B, & Lokesh S. (2016). Snake venom neutralizing effect of validated Herbal Medicine Formula Practiced in Tribal Medicine System (TMS) at B. R. Hills region of Karnataka, India . International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7(3), 226-245. Retrieved from