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Carcinoma of uterine cervix is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. In India, it is the most common cancer among women and the incidence accounts for one fifth of the global burden. Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) especially, high-risk HPVs (HR-HPVs) are the major etiology of both pre invasive and invasive cancer of the uterine cervix. The products of two early genes E6 and E7 are essential in the HPV induced processes of cellular transformation and immortalization. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of p53 in HR-HPV positive pre cancerous lesions and various stages of SCC (Squamous cell carcinoma) and explored its role as biomarker in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The immunohistochemical expression of p53 was not detected in any of the normal cervix. The expression increased significantly from LSIL to HSIL and the highest expression was found in SCC with no difference among the stages. It suggests that the immunohistochemical detection of p53 in cervical tissue can be used as biomarker in the early diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. The expression of p53 may be combined with cervical cytology and HPV testing to reduce the mortality from cervical cancer.
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