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Trigonella foenum, Trachyspermum copticum and Nigella sativa have been traditionally used for anti-diabetic activity and reported as having excellent anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. The combination of extracts of these herbs has been potential of being developed as a therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus along with secondary complications due to its antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity. The objective was to evaluate antidiabetic activity of combination of methanolic extracts of T. foenum, T. copticum, & N. sativa in 1:1:1 proportion and elucidate its possible mechanism of action in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes model using Sprague Dawley rats. Methanolic extracts of three herbs at two dose levels (100 and 200 mg/kg), were administered orally to both male and female rats. The parameters studied included effect on the normal blood glucose level (normoglycemic model), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, serum lipid profile, atherogenic index, and extrapancreatic effects like glucose uptake, liver glycogenolysis and liver glycogen content. Histopathological studies were carried out to determine the amount of pancreatic damage in each group. Normoglycemic and OGTT studies, demonstrated that both the doses showed significant hypoglycemic activity in treated rats. After 15 days of treatment with the combination of extracts, both the doses lowered the FBG by 64.1 mg % and 65.9 mg% respectively. A significant increase in serum insulin level was observed in the treated rats at both the doses. Elevated serum lipid levels were reversed to normal. The extract treatment also showed a significant increase in glucose uptake, elevated liver glycogen content and a significant decrease in glycogenolysis. The results demonstrated that the combination of extract possess significant antidiabetic activity in diabetic rats. Moreover, the combination reduced the hyperlipidemia; a complication of the metabolic disorder justifying its traditional claim and endorsing its potential as a promising therapy.
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